The history and antiquities of the county palatine, of Durham: by William Hutchinson ... [pt.2]


THE History and Antiquities OF THE COUNTY PALATINE, of DURHAM; By William Hutchinſon F.A.S.


A View of Durham from Castle Chair.

NEWCASTLE Printed for S. Hodgson; & Meſsrs Robinsons▪ Paternoster Row▪ London.


DURHAM ABBEY from Admeaſurement by G. Nicholſon Arch. 1780
A View on Durham Banks.



DURHAM is a maritime county, and takes its name from the city of Durham; commonly called the biſhopric, and ſometimes the county palatine.

The deſcription given by Camden is to the following effect *: ‘It lies north of Yorkſhire, and is ſhaped like a triangle , the apex or top whereof lies to the weſt, being formed there by the meeting of the north boundary and the head of the river Tees: The ſouthern ſide is wholly bounded by the courſe of the Tees: The northern ſide, from about the point of the angle, forms a line to the river Derwent, and then is bounded by that river’ (till it receives the rivulet called Chopwell or Milkburn), ‘and ſo full north to the river Tyne: The baſis of this triangle, to the eaſt, is formed by the ſhore of the German ocean.’

Modern geographers have laid down the abuttals ſo variouſly, that in regard to the north-weſt point, we can in general only ſay, the river Tees totally ſeparates the county of Durham from Weſtmorland and Yorkſhire, and a very narrow point of Cumberland intervenes between that river and the confines of Northumberland, a ſpace in which the proprietors are not well aſcertained of their real boundaries. On the other ſides, Camden's deſcription is accurate.

The parts of this county, extended into the upper point or apex of the triangle, Camden deſcribes ‘to conſiſt of naked lands, the woods few, the hills bald, but not deſtitute of veins of iron ore, whilſt the vallies produce plenty of graſs, the Engliſh Appenines interſecting the country at this angle.’ At the diſtance of two hundred years, we cannot wonder at this picture of our county, or the ignorance of naturaliſts in regard to its produce and riches: The contraſt we ſhall draw, it is hoped, will prove intereſting. Our author then proceeds to deſcribe the eaſtern ſide or baſis of the triangle, where he obſerves, ‘as well as to the ſouth, the ſoil by tillage is rendered fertile, and the country enamelled with meadows, corn-fields, and paſtures, and graced with many towns, the bowels of the earth abounding in coal.’ Such is the imperfect account given by this great writer.

The Magna Britannia deſcribes this county to be thirty-five miles in length, thirty in breadth, and about one hundred and ſeven in circumference: Another account ſays, it is thirty-nine miles long, and thirty-five broad; containing nine hundred and fifty-eight ſquare miles, and ſix hundred and ten thouſand acres of land; and comprehending one city, eleven other market towns, fifty-two pariſhes, [Page ii] and twenty-one chapels; two hundred and twenty-three villages, nineteen thouſand nine hundred and eighty-five houſes, and ninety-ſeven thouſand inhabitants; ſixteen rivers, twenty-one parks, and ſeveral caſtles *. Theſe are the only modern accounts of the county worth attention, except the geographical table given in the notes .

The county is divided into four wards, called Eaſington ward, Stockton ward, Darlington ward, and Cheſter ward. We know no reaſon why the ſeveral diſtricts took thoſe denominations, or derived their names from places of inferior conſequence and diſtinction.

The air of the county is generally healthy, though cold on the hills; and according to ſome authors, that of the weſtern parts ſharper than that of the eaſt. It is well watered by rivers and brooks, the chief of which are the Tees and Were , both abounding with fiſh, and particularly with trout and ſalmon.

[Page iii] The dioceſe contains the whole county, and all Northumberland, except eight churches and chapels, being Hexham peculiar, which belongs to York: It has alſo one pariſh, viz. Alſton-Moor in Cumberland, and claims Craike in the county of York to be under its juriſdiction.

It is divided into two archdeaconries, viz. DURHAM, which has the deanries of Cheſter, Darlington, Eaſington, and Stockton; and NORTHUMBERLAND, which compriſeth Alnwick, Bamborough, Corbridge, Morpeth, and Newcaſtle deanries .

Figure 1. A VIEW of the CATHEDRAL and CITY of DURHAM from ELVETT MOOR.


THE city of Durham claims our firſt attention. It is in Eaſington ward, and lies near the centre of the county, in latitude 54° 50′, and 1° 27′ weſt longitude from London. From whatever quarter the traveller approaches this place, he is ſtruck with its elegant ſituation, and the grandeur of ſome of its public buildings. A few paces from the ſouth road, this Engliſh Zion makes a noble appearance. In the centre, the caſtle and cathedral crown a very lofty eminence, girt by the two ſtreets called the Baileys, encloſed with the remains of the ancient city walls, and ſkirted with hanging gardens and plantations which deſcend to the river Were, in this point of view exhibiting the figure of a horſe-ſhoe *. To form the right wing of this pictureſque proſpect, the banks on the oppoſite ſide of the river are high, rocky, ſteep, and ſcattered over with trees; along the brink of which the [Page 2] ſtreet of New-Elvet is extended, and terminated by the handſome church of St Oſwald: At the bottom runs Old-Elvet. Acroſs the bridge are the ſtreets of Claypeth and St Giles, which climb the more diſtant eminence, the church terminating the line of buildings. The ſlopes of the hills are beautified with hanging gardens and rich meadows. Newton-Hall, one of the ſeats of Sir Henry Liddell, bart. with its adjacent plantations, fills the nearer back-ground; behind which a fine cultivated country is diſcovered, lengthening the proſpect to the diſtance of ten miles, on which Penſhar-Hill, with its peaked brow, is a beautiful object. To form the left wing, the banks oppoſite to the caſtle and cathedral are cloathed with wood and fruit-trees; and South-ſtreet ſtretches along the ſummit. The long canal which the river exhibits to the eye in this part, is croſſed by Framwelgate bridge, of two eliptic arches. Crook-Hall, a ſeat of one of the family of Hopper, is ſeen on the river's banks, with the woodlands of Newton-Hall on the more diſtant ground; to the left of which the ſweet villa of Francis Johnſon, eſq at Aykley-Heads, is ſeen, ſurrounded with irregular mounts * and riſing plantations.

Approaching the city from the north, it has the moſt romantic and uncommon appearance: It ſeems to be ſcattered over a multitude of irregular hills, (for the ground by which it is approached is thrown up into round mounts), and we diſcover various parts of the town, the caſtle, and churches, through ſeveral vallies in one point of view, ſo that they appear like ſo many diſtinct places. The weſt front of the caſtle is ſeen on the ſummit of a ragged and ſteep rock, with ſome parts of the cathedral; and the ſtreet of St Giles, as if totally unconnected with the reſt of the town, is ſpread over the brow of a diſtant eminence. The hollow paſſes amongſt the hills on the north-weſt of the city, afford beautiful and pictureſque proſpects. At Caſtle-Chair, where the view is much confined, the caſtle and cathedral have a noble appearance; the octagon tower of the former, with the mound on which it is placed, have a grand effect. On the eminence oppoſite to Shaw-Wood, the view juſt mentioned is enlarged; yet, the diſtant branches of the town being intercepted by riſing grounds, leave the principal objects in the moſt diſtinct and pictureſque arrangement. Approaching from the eaſt down the ſtreet of St Giles, we command the ſecond nobleſt view of the city: In front, the river Were forms a fine canal through a rich vale, croſſed by Elvet bridge, of ſeven wet arches, and many other land arches; the town crowds the ſwift riſings of the hill, pile upon pile; the caſtle and cathedral church crowning the ſummit of the eminence. To the left are ſeen the banks of Elvet and the church, flanked by a diſtant foreſt of oaks, and the groves which hang on the margin of the river: On the right is a view of Newton-Hall, and the adjacent grounds.—To this general deſcription, more minute particulars will be added as we paſs through the city.

A ſhort view of hiſtorical facts relative to this place, as each circumſtance aroſe in the reſpective aeras of our prelates, is given in due order in the preceding volume of this work. It is to be obſerved, that the firſt mention as to time, made by old writers of the name of Durham (or Dureſme according to the language of thoſe days) is by Hollinſhed, in the reign of Athelſtan, when, ſpeaking of Sithric's [Page]
Figure 2. The Charter granted by Hugh Pudſey Bishop of Durham to the Burgeſses of the City of Durham.
Figure 3. The Confirmation of Bishop Pudsey's Charter to the Burgeſses of the City of Durham by Pope Alexander 3d. 〈…〉
[Page 3] ſons, Anlaf and Godred, he ſays, ‘Godred with a power of men entering into Northumberland, beſieged the city of Dureſme, ſoliciting the citizens to receive him, which they would gladly have done, if they had not perceived how he was not of power able to reſiſt the puiſſance of king Athelſtan*.’ It is evident, from circumſtances, that this author adopted a wrong name for the capital of Deira; for the moſt approved hiſtorians concur in relating, that Godred arrived at York, where ſome of his partiſans held the caſtle, but on Athelſtan's approaching, Malmſbury ſays, it was ſurrendered and demoliſhed even to the ground, and Godred, in deſpair, took to piratical courſes and a roving life at ſea .

We have not the leaſt evidence of any town where Durham now ſtands, before the monks reſted with the remains of St Cuthbert, after the Daniſh invaſion. It was alſo remarked in the courſe of this work, that there is a place adjacent to the preſent city called Old Durham; but we have neither traces in hiſtory nor records to ſhew that any town exiſted there previous to St Cuthbert's arrival. The legendary tale, alone ſupported by the effigies on the north-weſt tower of the tranſept of the cathedral church, (which will be deſcribed when that edifice is treated of) relates, that after the revelation or viſion at Wedelau, according to Symeon's text, but Werdele by others, and deſcribed to lie eaſt of Durham, the monks were much at a loſs to find the place pointed out by the oracle, where they ſhould reſt from their labour: The name of Dunholme, then ſaid to be given them, was not known to any. If they then lay at Warden Law, (which from much ſimilarity of name ſome have conceived was the place of the viſion) it was within eight miles; if on the banks of the Were, (where we ſhall by ſome obſervations attempt to ground a ſuppoſition that the monks halted) it was to the eaſt of the city, at a very little diſtance; for that river from its ſource flows almoſt due eaſt to Biſhop-Auckland, and from thence almoſt due north to Old Durham. It would have been ſtrange if Deiraham, Dureſme, or Dunholme, a place named from the kingdom of Deira in which it was ſituated, or ſome ſuch memorable diſtinction, had then ſtood on the ſcite of Old Durham, and was not known to the inhabitants within ſo ſmall a diſtance as Cheſter, the laſt reſidence of the monks. The diſcovery of the place of their deſtination occurred to the wanderers accidentally, as the legend relates; for whilſt they travelled through the country with uncertain ſteps, a woman, ſeeking her cow, was informed by a perſon ſhe met that ſhe would find it in Dunholme: The aſtoniſhed monks rejoiced at the propitious voice, and followed their fortunate guide, where indeed they found a country flowing with milk and honey. So much for the legend; which we would not have troubled the reader with, but it leads to an argument, that the effigies on the church were placed there in commemoration of the happy poſſeſſion of the rich meads and vallies on the Were, which could not be more aptly expreſſed in emblem than by the figure of the bountiful cow diſtending her udder to diſpenſe charitable gifts to mankind: It was emblematical of the rich country they had obtained, of the gracious gifts of Providence decreed to them, and the holy benevolence of the church. In purſuance of this idea, it is probable the monks, on diſcovering their deſtined reſidence with the pious hoſt which accompanied them, ſat down on the plains [Page 4] ſouth-eaſt of the preſent city, by the brink of the river; and there erected themſelves habitations, till they could build a church wherein to depoſite the ſaint's remains: This conjecture has a ſtrict correſpondence, not only with the name of Old Durham, but of the Burgus vetus, (which we ſhall point out from ſeveral records) afterwards granted to the convent. On the one ſide of this plain was a fortreſs, perhaps of no leſs antiquity than the times we are ſpeaking of, called the Maiden Caſtle, * the remains of which are deſcribed in the ſequel; and on the other ſide, a peel or caſtle, as is preſumed from the name of the eminence called the Peel-Law or Caſtle-Hill, though no traces of any ſuch erection are at this time to be ſeen or found in the foreſt of oak that grows on the hill. The river runs between the eminences, and almoſt fills the whole intervening ſpace. The remains of extenſive breaſtworks and trenches are to be ſeen a little farther up the vale, ſuch as the people of that age uſed to caſt up for the defence of their habitations; and not far diſtant is an eminence called Mont-Joye, from whence the wanderers obtained a view of the Hill of Zion, whereon St Cuthbert was to reſt for ever. Warden-Law lies ſeveral points to the north-eaſt of the city of Durham, and on the wrong ſide of the river for the monks to approach Cheſter from Ripon. The fords are dangerous and uncertain, and even impaſſable at certain ſeaſons by travellers on foot: Warden-Law is alſo at a greater diſtance from Ripon by eight miles than Durham. Such circumſtances counterpoiſe the apparent ſimilarity of names, and induce a belief, that as the religious troop would croſs the river Tees either at Neſeham, Croft, or Piercebridge, they would ſeek the fordable paſſes of the river Were near Durham; and that Wedelau, Werdale, and ſuch other names as we find in ancient authors, expreſs the Dale of Were. Though names grow corrupt, yet points of the compaſs muſt remain; and if the pious hoſt ſat down eaſt of Durham, on the banks of the Were, there was no other ground ſo ſituated but in the vicinity of Old Durham. This argument ſhall not be preſſed further till we come to deſcribe the ground, in our progreſs through the county.

Dunholme, or the eminence on which St Cuthbert was to reſt, is deſcribed to us as being inſufficient for the reception of the multitude that attended the ſaint, till they had cut down the thickets and foreſts which grew upon the ſkirts of the hill. The firſt work the pious labourers engaged in, was to erect an ark or tabernacle with timber and boughs of trees, where they depoſited the ſaint's body; after which they built a compleat edifice, ſimilar to the churches of that age, which was called the White Church. This tranſaction all the monkiſh writers fix to the [Page 5] year 995 *. It doth not appear that any habitations were erected for the people on the mount where the church was built, for a conſiderable time after their coming to Dunholme; for we are told, in the courſe of three years from the date of the firſt tabernacle, that a church of ſtone-work was begun and dedicated by biſhop Aldun, wherein the ſaint's remains were depoſited. According to the courſe of events exhibited by the ancient writers, it was not till after the foundation of Aldun's church was laid; that the foreſt which grew round the eminence was cut down, and the ſkirts of the hill were rendered ſit for human habitation. Much labour was expended; and all the inhabitants between Coquet and Tees rivers, at the command of the earl of Northumberland, are ſaid to have been employed therein; workmen drawn from a tract of country not leſs than fifty miles in length: Such was the mighty concourſe which on that occaſion crowded the banks of the Were . From the above circumſtances we are led to date the riſe of the town of Durham in the opening of the eleventh century. Biſhop Aldun did not live to ſee his deſign compleated, but left the weſtern part of the edifice, after eighteen years pious care, for his ſucceſſors to finiſh.

We hear nothing further of the town of Durham till the year 1040, when, ſome authors ſay, it was attacked by Duncan of Scotland; and it ſeems there were then fortifications, for the townſmen, as reported, ſuſtained the invaders aſſaults for a long time, and at length made a victorious ſally, whereby the enemy were totally routed. The heads of ſuch Scots leaders as fell or were taken priſoners, were ſixed on poles round the market-place. The eminence choſen for the firſt buildings was ſo ſteep on every ſide but one, that it was eaſily defended againſt the attacks of an enemy: The weakeſt part was on the north-eaſt, where Claypeth, or Clayport-gate, now ſtands, being on the neck of land between the ſtreams of the river: This neck, from brink to brink of the Were, is not much above 200 paces in width in its preſent ſtate; and there are ſufficient appearances on the adjacent ground to encourage a conjecture, that a ſluice or moat croſſed this narrow part, whereby the whole city could on occaſion be compleatly inſulated. The name of Clayport, as it is ſtiled in all the ancient writers, appears to be a corruption of Cluerport, or the gate of the ſluice; cleur being a north-country word, in acceptation for a ſluice-gate or ſluice-board, by which a dam-head is ſtopped. Leland, who viſited this country, in his Itinerary ſays , ‘The towne ſelf of Dureſme ſtondith on a [Page 6] rocky hille: and ſtondith as men cum from the ſouth cuntre on the ripe of Were, the which water ſo with his courſe naturall in a botom windith about, that from Elvet a greate ſtone bridge of 14 arches, it crepith about the towne to Framagate bridge of 3 arches alſo on Were, that betwixt thes 2 bridges, or a little lower at St Nicholas, the towne, except the lenght of an arrowſhot, is brought in inſulam; and ſome hold opinion, that of auncient tyme, Were ran from the place wher now Elvet bridge is, ſtraite down by St Nicholas, now ſtonding on a hille; and that the other courſe, part for pollicy, and part by digging of ſtones for building of the towne and minſtre, was made a valley, and ſo the water courſe was conveyid that way, but I approve not full this conjecture.’ Leland, doubting the truth of the report, does not expreſs his opinion concerning the neck of land which he mentions. Symeon, who gives us the account of the before-mentioned attack on Durham, takes no notice of any fort or ſtrong-hold which contributed to the gallant defence of the inhabitants; but it is probable the mound on which the octagonal tower of the caſtle ſtands, was cotemporary with the church, and perhaps formed of the ſoil, which was neceſſarily moved when the foundations of that ſtructure were laid. At Warwick there is a mound of the ſame form, with terraces ſimilar to thoſe at Durham; and Dugdale * tells us, ‘If it was preſumption to carry its antiquity higher, to refer the foundation thereof to the renowned lady Ethelſtede, daughter of king Alfred, and lady of the Mercians, I am ſure will not, in regard it appears, that ſhe in 915 (ſcil. in the 16th year of king Edward the Elder) cauſed the dungeon to be made, which is a ſtrong tower or platform, upon a large and high mount of earth, artificially raiſed (ſuch being uſually placed towards the ſide of a caſtle or fort, which is leaſt defenſible) the ſubſtance whereof is yet to be ſeen.’ This paſſage is quoted, to ſhew the reader there was an example for the people to follow, and that ſuch mounts were of that antiquity. It is ſaid to be the opinion of the ingenious Mr Wright, of Byers-green, that this was a Daniſh mount or fort; but we have no traces in hiſtory of that people having a reſidence here; and indeed the former arguments hold againſt it, as ſuch a work would have rendered the place notorious to the monks of Cheſter, at the diſtance of ſix miles.

The next event noted in hiſtory, wherein Durham is diſtinguiſhed, was in the year 1069, after the coming in of William the Norman, when he ſent down Cumin as governor of Northumberland with a guard of 700 veteran Norman ſoldiers. Deſpiſing biſhop Egelwin's caution and advice, Cumin entered the city with marks of cruelty and tyranny, and through the inſolence of his own ſelf-ſufficiency, permitted his troops to give themſelves up to rioting and wantonneſs; they forcibly took poſſeſſion of the houſes, were diſperſed through every quarter of the city, and committed various enormities againſt the inhabitants. The Normans, overcome with drunkenneſs and revelling, were totally off their guard; whilſt the people of the adjacent country, arming themſelves, aſſembled in the night, and at the dawn of day forced the gates of the city, fell upon the Normans when they ſuſpected no violence, and put them to the ſword; ſo that the ſtreets were filled with blood and carcaſes, the houſe where the earl lodged was ſet on fire, and thoſe within endeavouring to fly were immediately ſlain, only one wounded perſon [Page 7] of the whole band eſcaping death. When the ruthleſs tyrant William, greedy of revenge, marched his army northward, the affrighted inhabitants of Durham fled the city *; and the monks forſook their convent, leaving the Normans a melancholy ſolitude, on which to wreak their vengeance by fire and deſtruction. As ſoon as the troops retired, the inhabitants came from their hiding places, and the religious hoſt brought back their holy charge after an abſence of four months.

The king having appointed Walcher to the biſhopric, on his return from an expedition againſt Malcolm of Scotland in 1072, ordered a caſtle or fortreſs to be built at Durham, at once to protect the biſhop and his convent, to keep the people in ſubjection, and to awe the northern territories, this place being eſteemed a fit ſituation for a barrier. It is certain ſuch an edifice was begun about that period of time; but we have no information of what form it was, though the octagonal figure is not unuſual in the Norman buildings. It ſeems, Camden apprehended the caſtle directed to be built by William was not founded on the ſcite of any ancient fortreſs, his words being in eminentiori collis parte extruxit; but that a more elevated ſituation was choſen for the new bulwark than the ſtronghold alluded to by Gulielmus Gemiticencis, whoſe words he quotes, deſcribing the fortreſs: ‘From whence (he ſays) the Engliſh, diſſatisfied with the Norman yoke, made frequent ſallies, and kept themſelves cloſe there, waiting for the expected approach of the Danes; that it was in a part of the country inacceſſible by reaſon of woods and waters; that it had a ſtrong rampier round it, which they called Dunholme.’ This account ſeems to ſtrengthen the former arguments. William de Malmſbury, whom Camden quotes, and who lived about that time, gives us this deſcription of the city: ‘Durham is a hill riſing gradually from out the valley to its ſummit; and notwithſtanding, by its rugged ſituation and broken rocks, all acceſs for an enemy is cut off, yet lately they have built a caſtle upon a hill, at whoſe foot runs an excellent river.’ Dugdale, further ſpeaking of the caſtle of Warwick, ſays, ‘In thoſe days (in the Saxons time I mean) were very few ſuch defenſible places as we now call caſtles, that being a French name; ſo that though the Engliſh were a bold and warlike people, yet, for want of the like ſtrongholds, were they much leſs able to reſiſt their enemies, which defect gave great advantage to the Norman conqueror after his victory at Haſtings; whereof he was ſo ſenſible, that he neglected not to raiſe ſtore of ſuch forts through the whole realm, as I have elſewhere obſerved, amongſt which this at Warwick was not the leaſt.’

Biſhop Walcher's aſſumption of the civil juriſdiction, in the character of palatine, it is apprehended brought on the tragical cataſtrophe before related , in the month of May, 1080; and the city of Durham, after his death, ſuſtained the aſſault of the rioters for four days, who, not able to make any impreſſion, diſperſed themſelves.

William de Carilepho, who ſucceeded in the biſhopric, was among the malecontents on the acceſſion of William Rufus: After the king had quelled the ſouthern [Page 8] inſurrections, he ſent an army into the north, which laid ſiege to Durham, and ſoon reduced the place; the biſhop flying into Normandy: On this occaſion, the temporalties of the See were ſeized into the hands of the crown, John de Tailbois and Erneſius de Burone were made governors of the caſtle and palatinate, and it was not till the year 1091 that the biſhop was reſtored: Soon after that event, he granted, or (if the ancient authorities are not confuſed on this ſubject) rather regranted to the convent, Elvet in the order of a borough, where the monks ſhould have forty merchants houſes or tradeſmen's ſhops, diſtinct and ſeparate from the biſhop's borough of Durham, that they might trade there, freed from duties payable to the biſhop and his ſucceſſors *. Though we have no previous account of the borough of Durham, yet by inference we may determine that ſuch borough exiſted, with excluſive privileges, even till the inſtitution of the borough of Elvet held an entire trade: How this diminution was reliſhed, we are not informed; nor how the new borough ſupported its authority.

In the time of biſhop Flambard , whilſt the temporalties were in the hands of the crown, it appears by the guardians accounts, the borough of Durham ſuſtained conſiderable damage by fire §. After the biſhop's reſtoration to the See, he improved the fortifications of the city, by extending the walls between the church and the caſtle: He removed all the houſes on the area between thoſe two edifices, and levelled the ground: He fortified the caſtle with a moat, ſtrengthened the banks of the river, and built the beautiful bridge called Framwellgate-bridge.

In April 1139, this city entertained the members of congreſs, when articles of peace were agreed upon; Maud queen of England, with a great number of barons, on the part of that crown, and prince Henry, with many Scotch nobles, on the other part, being preſent.

King Henry II. during his diſpleaſure with biſhop Pudſey, took poſſeſſion of the caſtle and city of Durham, and on various pretexts repeatedly deprived him of the cuſtody of this ſtrong place. It was a cuſtom for the burgeſſes, on the demiſe of a prelate, to depoſite the keys of the city gates at the ſhrine of St Cuthbert: On the death of biſhop Pudſey, the officers of the crown, who had ſeized the temporalties, took violent poſſeſſion of the keys contrary to the ancient uſage. As the election of a prelate was ſtudiouſly delayed, and much oppreſſion happened during the vacancy of the See, under the influence of the crown officers, and as a creature of the king ſucceeded, it is not to be wondered that we hear no further than the mere mention of this infringement of the privilege of the convent.

[Page 9] King Henry III. on his northern excurſion, honoured this city with his reſidence for ſome ſhort time, during the epiſcopacy of biſhop Farnham.

After the victory of Falkirk, Edward I. halted at Durham, to which place intelligence was brought that the Scots again appeared in force, which obliged the king to march nothward, and he celebrated the feſtival of Chriſtmas at Tynemouth. In the year 1300, the king was again at Durham, as a mediator between the biſhop and his convent, touching their then bitter diſſentions.

On Brus's incurſion in the time of Edward II. a party of the Scotch, whilſt the inhabitants were in their beds, ſurpriſed the ſuburbs of Durham, which they reduced to aſhes.

Edward III. with a great army, was at Durham for ſome time, before the Scotch were diſcovered to lie in Stanhope-park: In 1333 he was again at Durham, on his march northward, previous to the victory of Hallidown-hill.

The walls of the city of Durham having been neglected, and becoming ruinous, were reſtored and put into a ſtate of defence by biſhop Beaumont, who in 1323 received a ſevere cenſure from Edward II. for his negligence in matters ſo important to his palatinate. On the 23d of December, 1356, Edward III. was at Durham, and iſſued ſummonſes for the military tenants to attend him on a northern expedition, in which Berwick was beſieged and reduced.

In 1424 this city was crowded with the nobility of England and Scotland, on the liberation of the Scotch king, and his marriage with the lady Jane Seymour; the hoſtages were received here; a truce for ſeven years was alſo then ſettled between the two nations; and certain laws eſtabliſhed for the government of the borders: The king and queen of Scotland remained at Durham a conſiderable time, not departing thence until the laſt day of March or firſt of April.

A dreadful viſitation of the plague happened here in the time of biſhop Langley, which occaſioned an * adjournment of the aſſizes, and a total ſuſpenſion of all public aſſemblies in the year 1416: It continued to rage for five ſucceſſive years.

In the time of biſhop Nevill, this city was the place of many conventions of the delegates of England and Scotland. In 1448, Henry VI. came here on a Pilgrimage to the ſhrine of St Cuthbert. In 1463, lord Montague was at Durham with his army, previous to the battle of Hedgley-Moor.

Biſhop Fox, on the anniverſary of his inſtallation, the 23d of July 1503, entertained, in the great hall of his palace at Durham, the princeſs Margaret, daughter of Henry VII, in her progreſs into Scotland, on her eſpouſal with James king of Scotland . July, 1503, ‘on the 18th day of the monneth, the quene departed fro Newbrough to Allerton; and at the intrygne of the ſaid place, ſche was receyved by the vicayr and the folks of the church with the freres Carmelits in proceſſyon. From that place ſche was conveyd, as cuſtome was, to the manayr of the ſaid byſſchop of Durham.’

[Page 10]

The xixth day of the ſaid monneth, the quene departed from Allerton, in fayr aray and noble companyd, and Syr James Straungwyſch knight, ſheryffe for the ſaid lordſchyp, for the ſaid biſchop mett hyr welle accompanyd.

After ſche drew to Darneton to hyr bed, and three mylle from the ſaid place cam to hyr the lord Lomley and hys ſon, accompanyd of many gentylmen and others welle apoynted, ther folks arayd with their liveray and well monted, to the nombre of xxiiij horſys.

At the village of Neſham ſhe was mett by Syr Rawf Bowes and Syr William Aylton, welle apoynted, with a fayr cumpany arayd in their liverays, to the nombre of xl horſys, well apoynted and well horſt.

In the ſaide place of Neſham was the ſaide quene receyved with the abbaſſe and religyouſes, with the croſſe without the gatt, and the byſchop of Durham gaffe hyr the ſayd croſſe for to kiſſe. At two mylle ny to the ſaid towne of Darneton, mett the qwene, Syr William Boummer, ſheriff of the lordſhip of Durham. In company with hym was Syr William Ewers, and many other folks of honor of that contre, in fayr ordre, well appoynted of liverays and horſt; to the nombre of ſix ſcore horſys.

By the ſaid company was ſche conveyed to Darnton. And at the gatt of the church of the ſaid place, war reveſted the vicayr and folks of the church, wer doing as ſche had done on the dayes before, ſche was led to the manayer of the ſaid byſchop of Durham for that nyght.

The xxth day of the ſaid monneth the quene departed from Darnton in fayr aray, and with the precedente company went to the town of Durham. A mylle out of the ſaid towne, cam before hyr Syr Richard Stanley and my lady his wyffe, accompanyd of gentlemen and gentlewomen varey well appoynted, hys folks arayd in hys liveray, to the nombre of l. horſys, well mounted.

Then the quene prepared herſelfe to enter into the ſaid towne, and every ychon in lyk wys, in fayr aray, and rychely, after the manere acoſtomed. In ſpecyall the erle of Northumberlaund ware on a goodly gowne of tynſill fourred with hermynes. He was mounted upon a fayr courſer, hys harnays of goldſmyth warke, and thorough that ſam was ſawen ſmall bells that maid a mellodyous noyſe, without ſparing gambads. Hys gentylmen of honor and hys company wer well appoynted.

At the intryng of the ſaid towne, and within, in the ſtreytts and in the wyndowes was ſo innumerable people, that it was a fayr thing for to ſe. And in fayr ordre ſhe was conveyd to the church, the officers of armes, ſergeants of armes, trompetts, and mynſtrells going before hyr.

At the gatt of the church was my lord the byſchop of the ſayd place, and my lord the prior, reveſted in pontificalls, with the convent all reveſted of ryches copps, in proceſſyon, with the croſſys. And ther was apoynted a place for to kiſſe them.

Then the ſayd proceſſyon departed in ordre, and all the nobleſſe in lyke wys, to the church, in whiche ny to the fount was a ryche awter, adorned of ryches [Page 11] jwells and precyowſes relikes, the wich the ſaid biſchop delivered to the ſaid qwene to kiſs. And by the erle of Surrey was gyffyn hyr offrynge. After this ſche was noble conveyd to the caſtell, wher hyr lodging was prepared and dreſt honneſtly. And every ychon retourned agayn to hys repayre.

The XXIſt, XXIId, and XXIIId days of the ſaid monneth ſche ſejourned in the ſaid place of Durham, wher ſche was well cheryſcht, and hyr coſts borne by the ſaid byſchop; who on the XXIIId day held holle hall, and dowble dynner, and dowble ſoupper to all commers worthy for to be ther. And in the ſaid hall was ſett all the nobleſſe, as well ſpiritualls as temporalls, grett and ſmall, the wich was welcome; for this was hys day of inſtallacyon.

The XXIIIIth day of the ſaid monneth the qwene departed from Durham, accompayned of hyr noble company, as ſhe had beene in the dayes paſt, in fayr manere and good ordre, for to com to the towne of the New Caſtell.

All the nobility and people of diſtinction of the adjacent counties, together with the eccleſiaſtics of the neighbouring monaſteries, were entertained on this occaſion.

Durham was the ſcene of a bloody execution on the ſuppreſſion of Nevill's rebellion, no leſs than ſixty-ſix perſons ſuffering death there. In the year 1589 the plague again broke out and raged in Durham for a conſiderable time: After abating for ſome months, which gave hopes that the tremendous viſitation was about to ceaſe, it appeared again in 1597 with redoubled violence, ſo as to oblige the poorer people to be removed into huts and ſheds on the adjacent commons, particularly Elvet-Moor, where the marks of arrangement of melancholy cells were diſtinctly to be obſerved, before the late incloſures, on the ſouth ſide of the hill, below the wood. An idea may be formed of the miſerable ſituation of theſe unhappy people from the account (in the Annals * of biſhop Morton) of the wretched ſufferers on Hob-Moor near York: His benevolence, it is to be hoped, was not unrivalled by the eccleſiaſtics of our city. In 1633, Charles I. was reſident at Durham a conſiderable time with biſhop Morton, who entertained him and his whole retinue, at the expence of 1500l. a day.

Having recapitulated the moſt memorable events in which Durham was particularly concerned, attention will be paid in the next place to the government of the borough or city . The ancient government of the borough was, like others of the [Page 12] ſame antiquity and dignity, by a bailiff, who was nominated by the biſhop. In royal franchiſes the title of bailiff is retained to this day, as (inter alias) the chief bailiff of the liberty and franchiſe of Richmond and Richmondſhire; and the biſhop having jura regalia, his bailiff held juriſdiction of the franchiſe of the borough of Durham *. In the ſtatute of Marlebridge the words are, Ubi balivam habeat vel juriſdictionem; and counties are called the ſheriffs bailiwics. Many conſiderable towns are governed by bailiffs to this day, as Ipſwich, Yarmouth, Colcheſter, and ſundry others. In the time of biſhop Nevill, this officer of the borough began to be ſtiled bailiff of the city of Durham; but no cauſe is aſſigned for avoiding the name of borough, and ſubſtituting that of city. The name of city, even by the ancient ſtatutes and law authorities, is indefinite and uncertain in application, being adopted in many inſtances, and in this caſe appears to have been uſed as a name of modern acceptation, without meaning to expreſs any ſuperior dignities; for Durham was the capital of the palatinate, as well whilſt called a borough as a city .

[Page 13] We are totally ignorant what privileges this place anciently enjoyed as a borough. The munificent prelate, Hugh Pudſey, after the diſputes with his ſovereign ſubſided, granted a written charter to the burgeſſes of Durham, which was the firſt charter the borough received: The people of Durham are therein ſtiled burgeſſes, we preſume, from their inhabiting within the gates of a walled town, and under the protection of a fortreſs, where they carried on a ſecure trade, and perhaps held certain cuſtoms eſtabliſhed by ſucceſſive prelates. By this charter, of which the plate is a fac-ſimile, the people were for ever thereafter diſcharged from the cuſtoms of in-toll and out-toll for all their merchandizes; they were alſo exempted from heriots, a duty or tribute eſtabliſhed in very diſtant antiquity, and in the Saxon times given to the lord for his better maintenance in war. Moſt of the ancient writers have diſtinguiſhed heriots in two branches, heriot cuſtom and heriot ſervice: Law definitions have little right to a place here; it muſt ſuffice to ſay, that both denominate an eſtate of inheritance, and the heriot ſervice a fee-ſimple. But the fourth exemption by this charter is moſt ſingular; it is a diſcharge from the cuſtom of marchet: This was the old borough cuſtom *, and brings ludicrous ideas, when one conſiders it had relation to a prelate's borough. When the barbarous cuſtoms of our anceſtors began to be corrected through the medium of more poliſhed manners, and learning had diffuſed a liberality of ſentiment, this brutal and [Page 14] abſurd mark of the vileſt vaſſalage was commuted for a money payment. In various parts of this iſland the cuſtom bore different names; in ſome places the marchet, in others maiden-rents, and in Wales gwabr-marched; all diſtinguiſhing a mulct paid to the lord for the marriage of a vaſſal's daughter, and originally commuted for his right with the virgin bride. The additional bounty to the borough, which has reference to the free cuſtoms of Newcaſtle, may not be ſo eaſily explained, no hiſtorian having hitherto informed us what were the original privileges of Newcaſtle, or by whom they were granted. If in the laborious reſearches of the reverend Mr Brand this may be diſcovered, it will add new light to the hiſtory of our city, whoſe burgeſſes, by this grant, were entitled to hold all ſuch free cuſtoms as the burgeſſes of Newcaſtle enjoyed *. This prelate improved the city greatly by building Elvet bridge, and continuing the city wall from the North-gate, now called the Gaol-gate to the South-gate, or Water-gate.

The city continued under the government of its bailiff from the time of biſhop Pudſey till after the Reformation. Indeed we find a ſuperintendent appointed to regulate the merchandiſe, who took the title of marſhal, or clerk of the markets, and he had the cuſtody of the alnage-ſeal, not only for the city of Durham, but the province at large. He was an officer appointed by virtue of the jura regalia, in purſuance of the ſtatute of the 25th of Edw. III. and ſubſequent laws, and collected the duties payable on cloths, and by his ſeal diſtinguiſhed their quality. In 1448, biſhop Nevill granted to Robert Kelſey, eſq the office of marſhal, or clerk of all the markets within the biſhopric of Durham, and alſo keeper of his alnage-ſeal, to be exerciſed by himſelf or his ſufficient deputies, under the yearly rent of 13s. 4d. to be paid into the biſhop's exchequer . Though this is the firſt record met with, yet from various evidence we are led to determine, it was not an office then originally inſtituted in this city, but had taken place in conſequence of the before-mentioned ſtatute. Antecedent to the creation of aldermen, mayors, and other chief officers of incorporated towns, the marſhal of the markets was an appointment abſolutely neceſſary to the ſubject at large, for the prevention of fraud, and encouragement of fair trading. This was one of the badges of regality; for the [Page 15] marſhal or clerk of the markets was an officer of the king's houſe *, of whom Britton, rehearſing the law, ſays, ‘We will that none have meaſures in the realm but we ourſelves, but that every man take his meaſures and weights from our ſtandards.’

The burgeſſes by the foregoing charter were exempted from in-toll and out-toll, but foreign merchants bringing in their merchandiſe, were ſubject to certain duties impoſed by and payable to the biſhop. The biſhop for the time being impoſed thoſe duties on various ſpecial occaſions, particularly as a tallage or aid, for the inhabitants of the city, towards repairing and maintaining the city walls . In biſhop Bury's time, we have a record of the revocation of a grant of this nature, dated the 13th of April 1345 . In the year 1377, biſhop Hatfield granted to the inhabitants of Durham, by the title of Burgenſibus & aliis probis hominibus in civitate n'ra Dun. certain duties for divers wares coming into the city, as an aid for ſupporting the walls and pavements of the place ; and in biſhop Fordham's time an inquiſition was taken of the receipt and application of ſuch duties, dated the 14th of January 1385 §; and of the ſame date a demiſe was granted for ſix years of the revenues of the city . Before any charter was granted for the government of the burgeſſes, the ſeveral crafts, who exerciſed their trades within the city, were under ſpecial reſtrictions and bye-laws, framed by themſelves, and confirmed by the prelates in whoſe times they were reſpectively inſtituted, thus obtaining the force of a charter **.

[Page 16] The city continued under the before-mentioned government till biſhop Pilkington granted the burgeſſes a charter of incorporation, dated the 30th day of January 1565 *, whereby he directed, that all perſons then inhabiting, or who ſhould thereafter [Page 17] after from time to time become inhabitants within the city of Durham, and Framwelgate in the county of Durham, ſhould become one ſociety and one body for [Page 18] ever, and have a perpetual ſucceſſion; and he appointed Chriſtopher Sewerties, one of the citizens, to be alderman within the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, [Page 19] to govern the ſaid city and Framwelgate until the 4th day of October then next; and alſo appointed William Walton, William Wright, Robert Anderſon, Chriſtopher Mayor, Thomas Knighton, Hugh Whitfield, Edward Hudſpeth, Peter Pattenſon, William Harper, Gilbert Nixon, Edward Renelley, and John Anderſon, twelve burgeſſes, inhabiting within the ſaid city, to be aſſiſtants to the ſaid alderman and his ſucceſſors during their ſeveral lives, if they ſo long demeaned themſelves well and honeſtly, and the biſhop of Durham for the time being ſhould ſee nothing to the contrary: And the ſaid alderman, twelve burgeſſes, and all others the inhabitants within the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, ſhould be for ever thereafter incorporated by the name of alderman and burgeſſes within the city of Durham and Framwelgate; with a power for the alderman and twelve burgeſſes, on the 3d day of October yearly, to nominate twelve other diſcreet men, inhabitants within the ſaid city and Framwelgate; which twenty-four burgeſſes, on the 4th of October yearly, ſhould name one of the ſame ſociety to be alderman for the year enſuing, and alſo twelve aſſiſtant burgeſſes, which alderman ſhould take the oath therein preſcribed before the biſhop for the time being, or before his chancellor, if the biſhop ſhould not be within his dioceſe: And as often as it ſhould happen that the alderman and burgeſſes could not agree in the choice of a ſucceeding alderman, before ſunſet on the ſaid 4th of October, then the biſhop and his ſucceſſors, if within the palatine juriſdiction*, or the chancellor, if the biſhop was not within the palatinate, ſhould appoint an alderman for that time: And in caſe an alderman ſhould die in the time of his office, or be removed, then the four-and-twenty ſhould in fourteen days nominate another fit perſon in his room, he taking the oath preſcribed: And if any perſon elected alderman ſhould refuſe to accept the office or take the oath, he ſhould pay a fine of 5l. to the biſhop, and to the burgeſſes the like ſum of 5l.; with like powers for ſupplying the number of aſſiſtant burgeſſes. And the ſaid charter did alſo ordain and give power to the ſaid alderman and burgeſſes, by the name of alderman and burgeſſes within the city of Durham and Framwelgate, to plead and be impleaded in all matters whatſoever, and to have a common ſeal; and to take, receive, and purchaſe manors, lordſhips, meſſuages, lands, tenements, hereditaments, § [Page 20] goods and chattels as well real as perſonal, ſo as the ſame ſhould not exceed the annual value of one hundred marks; with power to alienate, demiſe, grant, and aſſign the ſame. And the ſaid alderman and twenty-four aſſiſtant burgeſſes, or the major part of them, were thereby authoriſed from time to time to make, order, and publiſh, laws, ſtatutes, and ordinances, for the public benefit of the ſaid ſociety, and better government thereof, in caſe the biſhop of Durham ſhould not prohibit the ſame; and to alter and change the ſame at their diſcretion, and puniſh offenders therein by fine and amercement, to be levied to the uſe of the ſaid ſociety. And that the ſaid alderman and burgeſſes ſhould for ever thereafter hold a weekly market within the ſaid city of Durham on the day before the Sabbath, and alſo three ſeveral fairs in the year, for two days together at each time, viz. on the feaſt of St Cuthbert in September, the feaſt of St Cuthbert in March, and on Whitſun-Monday, together with a court of pyepowder during the ſaid fairs: And all profits thereof, and all liberties and free cuſtoms, profits and emoluments to markets and fairs belonging: And the conſtables of the ſaid city and Framwelgate were commanded to be aiding and obedient to the alderman for the time being, for the better exerciſe and execution of his office: And laſtly it was ordained, that neither the alderman nor any of the twelve aſſiſtant burgeſſes, whilſt in office, ſhould ſerve any nobleman or gentleman, uſe the arms, or bear the badge, of any ſuch perſon, unleſs he pleaſed, or ſhould happen to be retained in the ſervice of the queen or king of England, or the biſhop of Durham for the time being.

Neither the city records nor thoſe of the biſhops furniſh us with the names, in ſucceſſion, of the chief magiſtrates or aldermen under biſhop Pilkington's charter; and, from the time of Chriſtopher Sewerties, we have an entire blank to the year 1598 *. The city continued to be governed under the above charter till the year 1602, when biſhop Matthews granted a new charter.

Preceding this ſecond charter, ſeveral of the crafts and artificers entered into ſeparate aſſociations, for the better government of their reſpective trades; which being [Page 21] confirmed by the alderman and twelve aſſiſtant burgeſſes, they held as ordinances conſtituted under the powers of the incorporation charter, and thereby made obligatory: To ſuch, the companies who framed and received them gave the denomination of charters; and they had their power of operation from ſuch ordinance or confirmation. Some of theſe charters or by-laws are not now to be found; one in the moſt uſual form will ſatisfy the curioſity of the reader, as the tenors in general are not intereſting to the public, and relate only to the private government of the reſpective companies.

[Page 23] Biſhop Matthew's charter * was much more ample than the preceding one: It opens with this preamble: ‘Tobias, by the grace of God, biſhop of Durham. [Page 24] Whereas the city of Durham in the county palatine of Durham is, and time out of mind hath been, an ancient city, of good fame. And the burgeſſes, men [Page 25] and inhabitants of the ſaid city, together with thoſe of Framwelgate, have had and enjoyed divers rights, juriſdictions, liberties, and privileges, as well by preſcription [Page 26] as by virtue of divers charters, grants, and confirmations, as well from us, as ſeveral of our predeceſſors, biſhops of Durham. And the burgeſſes, [Page 27] men and inhabitants in time paſt, have ſuffered great damage, by reaſon of the defect of ſome of the ſaid charters; and fearing leſt in time to come they [Page 28] ſhould be moleſted in the enjoyment of ſuch their liberties and free cuſtoms, for want of publication, and other cauſes; they have therefore humbly entreated us to expreſs, in ſpecial words, what the ſaid liberties and free cuſtoms are, and to grant the ſame to the ſaid burgeſſes and inhabitants and their ſucceſſors, and to incorporate them,’ &c. By this charter he conſtituted and granted, that the burgeſſes and inhabitants ſhould be one body politic and corporate, conſiſting of a mayor, twelve aldermen, and commonalty, to continue for ever, by the name of [Page 29] mayor, aldermen, and commonalty of the city of Durham and Framwelgate, and by that title to plead and be impleaded in all courts of law within the county, with power to purchaſe lands not exceeding the yearly value of 100 marks, and to have a common ſeal. Hugh Wright was therein appointed the firſt mayor, to continue in office till the 4th day of October then next following, and then to be an alderman for life, to ſupply the number of twelve without any new election. Robt Sureties, Rich. Hutchinſon, Edw. Wanles, Wm Hall, Ja. Farales, Tho. Pearſon, John Wall, Edw. Taylor, Hugh Hutchinſon, John Heighington, John Pattinſon, and Richard Wright, were appointed aldermen for life. They were directed to chuſe yearly twenty-four diſcreet men out of their ſeveral twelve arts, myſteries, or trades, that is to ſay, two out of the mercers, grocers, haberdaſhers, ironmongers, and ſalters; two of the drapers and taylors, two of the ſkinners and glovers, two of the tanners, two of the weavers, two of the dyers and fullers, two of the cordwainers, two of the ſaddlers, two of the butchers, two of the ſmiths, two of the carpenters and joiners, two of the free maſons and rough maſons, inhabitants of the city and Framwelgate, which, with the mayor and aldermen, ſhould form a common council for the ſaid city, and, on the 4th day of October yearly, to chuſe a mayor out of the body of the ſaid aldermen, it being requiſite to have ſeven aldermen in the majority of votes on that occaſion, with a power for a like majority to deprive or ſuſpend the mayor for any offence committed in his office; and on ſuch occaſion, or on the death of the mayor, another chief magiſtrate ſhould be in like manner elected, within eleven days from the time of ſuch deprivation, to ſupply that year; and within three days after ſuch election, to be ſworn before the biſhop for the time being, or, on the See being vacant, or the biſhop being in diſtant parts, then before the chancellor of the county palatine, or, on his abſence out of the juriſdiction, before the aldermen and the twenty-four common-councilmen, or the major part of them. On the fifth day of October, yearly, the ſaid mayor, aldermen, and common council are directed to chuſe two ſerjeants. On the death of a common councilman, the mayor and aldermen, within twenty days, are to nominate one in his ſtead, out of the ſame trade; and on the vacancy of an alderman within the ſame time, to nominate another out of the burgeſſes and inhabitants of the ſaid city and Framwelgate. Any perſon elected mayor or alderman, and refuſing to take upon him the office, is made ſubject to a fine not exceeding twenty pounds, to be levied on the deſaulter's goods and chattles, or committed to the gaol at Durham till the ſame is paid; and ſuch [...]ines to be applied to the public uſe of the city. They were alſo authorized to make laws, ſtatutes, and ordinances, for the better government of the city, and the markets and fairs therein, and all officers, myſteries, artificers and inhabitants, and for regulating their ſeveral trades and myſteries; and the due preſervation and management of the lands and poſſeſſions of the ſaid body corporate. And for the better maintenance, ſtate, and dignity of the ſaid mayor, aldermen, and commonalty, the ſame charter grants them all courts, fairs, markets, tolls, perquiſites, ſtallages, pontages, paſſages, cuſtoms, and all and ſingular liberties, franchiſes, profits, commodities, emoluments, and free cuſtoms, which at any time before the date thereof the burgeſſes had enjoyed, or the bailiffs or aldermen [Page 30] of the city had held and uſed, by virtue of any preceding charter, or by means of any cuſtom or preſcriptive right whatſoever; and that the ſaid mayor, aldermen, and commonalty, and their ſucceſſors, ſhould hold their court within the city, from fifteen days to fifteen days for ever, and therein, before their ſteward, to hear and determine all actions, ſuits, quarrels, and demands, which might ariſe within the ſaid city and Framwelgate; the ſerjeants having power to ſerve proceſs, and enter into the lands, poſſeſſions, or ſhops of the parties, to ſatisfy the executions or judgments of the ſaid court, or to attach their bodies and commit them to priſon: They were alſo empowered to take cognizance of all pleas, as well real as perſonal or mixed in the ſaid court, and have equal authority within their precincts as any other courts of the county palatine of Durham had. The ſteward was alſo authoriſed to puniſh the officers and miniſters of the court by fine or impriſonment; and all ſuch fines and profits were granted to the ſaid mayor, aldermen, and commonalty; with view of frank-pledge, to be holden by their ſteward within the precincts of the city twice a year, within a month after Michaelmas and Eaſter; with power of ſettling the aſſize of bread and corn unground, and all other things for ſale; and, in their leet, to puniſh offences; and the profits of ſuch courts were alſo thereby granted to them. Alſo a market weekly * on Saturday, and three yearly fairs on the days appointed by biſhop Pilkington's charter , with the profits and perquiſites thereof; and every mayor for the time being was made clerk of the market, to enjoy the profits thereof.

This charter received royal confirmation by letters patent dated at Weſtminſter the 14th day of February 1605, though it is apprehended, the biſhop was competent to make his charter without the aid of the crown, and therefore this badge of honour, after the gilding of its dignity was removed, was no better than a ſcab on the conſtitution and privileges of the palatinate.

Notwithſtanding the preceding charters, the biſhops and their officers or leſſees continued to take the tolls and dues of goods coming into the markets within the borough, and to appoint a bailliff of the borough, and clerk of the market. The record given in the notes, was of ſo recent a date as the year 1627, after the time of granting biſhop Matthew's charter; and the decree there ſtated was made in the year 1637.

[Page 31] The charter of biſhop Matthew was kept in force until an order was made, on the 25th day of Auguſt 1684, to the following purport: ‘Then ordered by us [Page 32] the major, aldermen, and common councill in the common council aſſembled, or the majoritie of us, That the charter of incorporation of this city be forthwith ſurrendered under the common ſeal into the hands of the right honourable and right reverend father in God, Nathaniel, lord biſhop of Durham, to be diſpoſed of as his lordſhip pleaſeth. In teſtimony whereof we have ſet our hands, the day and year firſt above written. (Signed) Joſ. Hutchinſon major, Jo. Morland, Jo. Duck, Mar. Allenſon, Tho. Maſcall, Jo. Hall, Cuthb. Hutchinſon, Geo. Morland, aldermen; Wheatley, Dobſon, and twenty-three others, common-councilmen *.’ In purſuance of this order, the charter above-mentioned was ſurrendered to biſhop Crewe, who granted a new charter to the city, bearing date the 7th of March 1684; but on account of ſome want of form in the ſurrender of Matthew's charter, it was deemed illegal and ineffectual, and the body corporate continued to act under the former until the year 1761, not enforcing any of the powers contained in Crewe's charter, and for that reaſon unneceſſary to be ſet forth.

It appears, that in late years ſeveral innovations were practiſed in the city, by perſons not free exerciſing their trades within the liberties, and apprentices gaining their freedom by illicit practices of the ſeveral companies. To prevent ſuch abuſes in future, the body corporate, at a public meeting, made bye-laws or ordinances, dated the 8th of November 1728, whereby they impoſed a fine on all intruders, who ſhould exerciſe their trades within the liberties, of twenty ſhillings a week, ſo [Page 33] long as they continued ſo to do ; and ordained, that the mayor ſhould hold four guild days in the year, at three of which, every perſon claiming title to his freedom [Page 34] ſhould be called before he ſhould be admitted, under a penalty againſt the warden of the trade in which any breach of the rule was committed of 30l. And alſo to prevent taking apprentices who ſhould not manually ſerve ſeven years to his maſter, under a penalty of 30l. againſt the maſter, and a like penalty of 30l. againſt the mayor for ſwearing in any illegal perſon.

Notwithſtanding ſuch prudent regulations, ſeveral efforts were made to evade the ordinances, and in the year 1756 an experimental freedom was created to try the legality of the bye-laws or rules laſt mentioned, which brought on a legal diſcuſſion, in the reſult, confirming them as conſiſtent with law and the conſtitution of the incorporation *.

[Page 35] The hydra of innovation gained ſtrength by the loſs of the above project; for, upon the arguments in the King's Bench, diſcovery was obtained how to overſet the [Page 34] [...] [Page 35] [...] [Page 36] whole of the above prudential rule, and let in a ſhoal of freemen, who might, at the election of members of parliament, exerciſe the freedom of voting, and thereby depreciate the privileges of the burgeſſes who had acquired their franchiſe under the powers of the chartered incorporation. This project was played off in the year 1761, and threw the whole city into confuſion, creating, in the event, ſuch a diviſion in the body, that they refuſed to join in the exerciſe of the powers of their charter; ſo that, in the year 1768, the number of members preſcribed for carrying into execution the ſeveral powers of the charter, was loſt, and the charter itſelf became diſolved and obſolete. In Mr Mann's MSS.* is the following account of the tranſactions in 1761: ‘The bye-law of 1728 was found to be a good and wholeſome law, and anſwered the end for which it was made, by preventing perſons being made free who had no right to their freedom; and other orders and bye-laws were afterwards made, tending to the ſame purpoſe, which were conſtantly obſerved until the 13th of October 1761, ſome ſhort time after the death of Henry Lambton, eſq one of the members in parliament for the city, when the mayor, with ſome of the aldermen and common council, made an order or bye-law to repeal or make void the former, thereby altering the manner of admitting freemen preſcribed in ſuch former orders or bye-laws.’

‘On the 2d of November 1761, at a meeting of ſome of the aldermen and common council at the toll-booth, under this new order or bye-law, the town-clerk , by their order, in an arbitrary and haſty manner, did call over the names of ſeveral perſons to the number of 264, or thereabouts, living in different counties, in order to be admitted freemen of the ſaid city, though no way entitled thereunto, ſeveral wardens of different companies and freemen then [Page 37] and there objecting and proteſting againſt the ſame; but no notice was taken of ſuch objections and proteſts; and at the election of a member for the city, in the place of Mr Lambton, which began on the 7th of December 1761, 215 perſons ſo called on the 2d of November, were admitted to poll as freemen of the city.’

The candidates in this election were, Ralph Gowland eſq of Durham, then major of the Durham regiment of militia, and major-general John Lambton, eſq of Harraton, in the county of Durham. The poll continued ſix days: At the concluſion the numbers ſtood, for Mr Gowland (including the 215 occaſional freemen) 775, for Mr Lambton 752; ſo that Mr Gowland was returned elected with a majority of 23 votes: But upon a petition by Mr Lambton, the houſe of commons, on Tueſday the 11th of May 1762, reſolved, that the 215 made or pretended to be made free, had no right to vote, and that general Lambton was duly elected; on a diviſion of the houſe, 88 againſt 72.

The members of the incorporated body being thrown into diſtraction by this ſtrange tranſaction, as was obſerved before, ſuffered their charter to be vacated *. Under this predicament the city remained until the 2d of October 1780, when the preſent biſhop of Durham was graciouſly pleaſed to grant a new charter as follows.

[Page 38]


"John by the grace of God, biſhop of Durham. Whereas the city of Durham in the county palatine of Durham is, and for time whereof the memory of man is not to the contrary, hath been, an ancient city, and the burgeſſes, men and inhabitants of the ſaid city, together with the men and inhabitants of Framwelgate near the ſaid city in the county aforeſaid, have had and enjoyed divers rights, liberties, juriſdictions, franchiſes and privileges, as well by preſcription as by reaſon of divers charters, grants and confirmations, by divers of our predeceſſors biſhops of Durham: And whereas our predeceſſor TOBIAS, by the grace of God (formerly biſhop of Durham) by his letters patent under the ſeal of the ſaid county palatine, bearing date the twenty-firſt day of September, in the forty-fourth year of the reign of the lady Elizabeth, late queen of England, and in the year of our Lord one thouſand ſix hundred and two, did will, ordain, conſtitute and grant for him and his ſucceſſors, as much as in him laid, that the burgeſſes, men and inhabitants of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, ſhould be one body politic and incorporate, of a mayor, twelve aldermen and commonalty, to endure for ever: And further, that the ſaid burgeſſes, men and inhabitants, for ever, ſhould be one body politic and corporate, in deed, fact and name, by the name of the mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the city of Durham and Framwelgate; and did for himſelf and his ſucceſſors, really and fully, as much as in him lay, thereby erect, make, ordain, conſtitute and create them one body corporate and politic, by the name of the mayor, aldermen, and commonalty of the city of Durham and Framwelgate, and did decree and declare [Page 39] them and their ſucceſſors for ever to be incorporated, united and eſtabliſhed one body corporate and politic, by the name of the mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the city of Durham and Framwelgate, and did decree and declare them and their ſucceſſors for ever to be incorporated, united and eſtabliſhed one body, and that they ſhould be for ever named and called the mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the city of Durham and Framwelgate, and by that name have perpetual ſucceſſion, and ſhould be for all future times perſons able and capable in law, and that by the ſame name they might plead and be impleaded, and under the aforeſaid name might proſecute, defend or anſwer in and for all and all manner of cauſes, complaints, actions and ſuits, real, perſonal and mixed, of what nature or kind ſoever, before whatſoever judges, as well ſpiritual as temporal, in all courts of him and his ſucceſſors within the county palatine of Durham and Sadberge, and as much as in him laid elſewhere in all other courts and places whatſoever: And that the ſaid mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the city of Durham and Framwelgate, and the ſucceſſors of them, ſhould be able and capable in law to purchaſe and receive lands, tenements, annuities, rents, ſervices, advowſons, patronage of churches, emoluments, poſſeſſions and hereditaments; and alſo all goods and chattels whatſoever, as well ſpiritual as temporal, of any perſon or perſons whomſoever, who would give, grant, leave, ſell or aſſign the ſame unto them, ſo that the ſaid lands, tenements, hereditaments and premiſſes by them to be taken and purchaſed, ſhould not exceed the yearly value of one hundred marks; to hold to them and their ſucceſſors according to the ſtates and forms of the ſame gifts, grants, bequeſts, ſales, and purchaſes, without the moleſtation or diſturbance of him or his ſucceſſors, or of his or their officers or miniſters whatſoever, ſaving always to the ſaid late biſhop and his ſucceſſors, all fines, forfeitures, and royal rights, by or by reaſon of the ſame gifts, bequeſts, ſales, or purchaſes, howſoever ariſing and happening to him and his ſucceſſors, due and of right accuſtomed.

And that the ſaid mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the city of Durham and Framwelgate, ſhould have one common ſeal to ſeal all and ſingular writings, charters, and inſtruments, any way touching or concerning them the mayor, aldermen and commonalty and their ſucceſſors, or their lands, tenements, hereditaments, goods, chattels, or public affairs.

And for the better execution of the premiſſes, he did thereby aſſign, make, conſtitute and name Hugh Wright, one of the burgeſſes and inhabitants within the aforeſaid city of Durham, to be the firſt and modern mayor of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, and afterwards to be one of the aldermen of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate; and did alſo thereby aſſign, name and conſtitute, for him and his ſucceſſors, twelve other burgeſſes and inhabitants within the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, in the ſaid charter or letters patent named, to be aldermen of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate.

And did thereby alſo will and grant, that the mayor and aldermen of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, and their ſucceſſors for the time being for ever, ſhould yearly chuſe and name twenty-four other diſcreet men out of the twelve ſeveral arts, myſteries, or faculties, and in the manner therein mentioned, who ſhould be reſident, commorant, and inhabitant within the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate: [Page 40] And that the mayor, aldermen, and twenty-four other diſcreet men of the ſaid city, ſhould be the common council of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate: And by the ſaid letters patent, did give and grant powers to chuſe future mayors, aldermen and common council, together with divers other powers, liberties, privileges, franchiſes, immunities, and juriſdictions.

And whereas it appears to us, that by ſeveral diſputes, events and accidents, no mayor, aldermen, or twenty-four, ſo to be elected as aforeſaid, can in future be elected, under or by virtue of the powers and authorities given and granted by the ſaid letters patent or otherwiſe; and the ſaid corporation of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate is incapable of doing any corporate act, and is diſſolved, or in great danger of being diſſolved.

And whereas divers of the burgeſſes of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, as well on the behalf of themſelves, as all other the burgeſſes thereof, have moſt humbly beſought us to ſhew and extend our grace and favour to the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, and that it would pleaſe us to revive the ſaid corporation, and to reſtore to them their ancient franchiſes, privileges and immunities, by granting them a new charter of incorporation, with ſuch powers and authorities as we ſhould think proper, and with proviſions to prevent, as far as may be, divers inconveniences and dangers, which the ſaid corporation, from the form of the ſaid charter or letters patent of the ſaid late biſhop of Durham, were expoſed to; and we being willing to give relief in the premiſſes, as far as in us lieth, KNOW YE THEREFORE * that we of our ſpecial grace, certain knowledge, and mere motion, have willed, granted, ordained, conſtituted, confirmed and declared, and by theſe preſents [Page 41] do, for us and our ſucceſſors, as far as in us lieth, will, grant, ordain, conſtitute, confirm and declare,

That the burgeſſes, men and inhabitants of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, by whatſoever name or names of incorporation they have heretofore been incorporated, may, and ſhall for ever be, one body corporate and politic, of a mayor, twelve aldermen and commonalty: And the ſaid burgeſſes for ever hereafter may and ſhall be one body corporate and politic, in deed, fact and name, by the name of the mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the city of Durham and Framwelgate.

And we alſo by theſe preſents for us and our ſucceſſors, as much as in us lieth, really and fully erect, make, ordain, create, conſtitute, confirm and declare them to be one body corporate and politic, in deed, fact and name, by the name of mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the city of Durham and Framwelgate, and that by the ſame name they ſhall have perpetual ſucceſſion; and that they, by the name of mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the city of Durham and Framwelgate, may and ſhall be at all times hereafter perſons able and capable in law to have, purchaſe, receive, and poſſeſs lands, tenements, annuities, rents, ſervices, advowſons, patronage of churches, emoluments, poſſeſſions and hereditaments, and alſo goods and chattels, as well ſpiritual as temporal, from whatever perſon or perſons who will give, grant, bequeath, ſell or aſſign unto them, ſo that the ſaid lands, tenements, hereditaments and premiſſes by them to be taken or acquired, do not exceed the annual value of one hundred marks: To hold to them and their ſucceſſors, according to the condition and form of ſuch gift, bequeſt, ſale, or acquiſitions, without the moleſtation or interruption of us or our ſucceſſors, or any of our officers or miniſters whatſoever; ſaving always to us and our ſucceſſors, all fines, forfeitures, royalties and rights, which by reaſon of ſuch gifts, bequeſts, ſales or acquiſitions, ſhall be iſſuing or happening to us and our ſucceſſors, due and of right accuſtomed: And alſo to [Page 42] give, grant, releaſe, aſſign and diſpoſe of lands, tenements, and hereditaments, goods and chattels, and to do and execute all other acts and things by the name aforeſaid.

And that they by the ſame name of the mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the city of Durham and Framwelgate, may, and ſhall be able to plead and be impleaded, and to proſecute, defend or anſwer, as well in the ſeveral courts within the county palatine of Durham and Sadberge, as in all other courts and places, and before whatever judges, juſtices, and other officers, as well ſpiritual as temporal, in all cauſes, complaints, actions and ſuits, real, perſonal and mixed, of whatſoever nature, kind or ſort.

And that they the ſaid mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, and their ſucceſſors, may and ſhall for ever hereafter have a common ſeal, wherewith ſhall be ſealed all and ſingular writings, charters and inſtruments, in any manner touching or concerning them the ſaid mayor, aldermen and commonalty and their ſucceſſors, or their lands, tenements, hereditaments, goods, chattels, or public affairs: And that it ſhall and may be lawful for the ſaid mayor, aldermen and commonalty and their ſucceſſors, from time to time, at their pleaſure, to break, alter and renew * the ſaid ſeal, as to them ſhall ſeem meet and expedient.

And we do further will, and by theſe preſents for us and our ſucceſſors grant, that for ever hereafter, one of the moſt honeſt and diſcreet aldermen of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, to be nominated and elected in the manner hereafter in theſe preſents mentioned, ſhall be, and ſhall be called the mayor of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, and that in like manner there ſhall and may be twelve other honeſt and diſcreet burgeſſes, to be elected in the manner hereafter in theſe preſents mentioned, beſides the mayor of the city aforeſaid for the time being, who ſhall be, and ſhall be called aldermen of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate; and that there ſhall and may be hereafter a common council of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, to conſiſt of the mayor and aldermen of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, for the time being, and twenty-four other perſons, to be elected in the manner hereinafter in theſe preſents mentioned; and for the better execution of our will and grant in this behalf, we have appointed, named, created, conſtituted and made, and by theſe preſents for us and our ſucceſſors, do appoint, name, create, conſtitute and make, our truſty and well-beloved John Drake Bainbridge to be the firſt and modern mayor of the ſaid city of Durham [Page 43] and Framwelgate, willing, that the ſaid John Drake Bainbridge may and ſhall be, and ſhall continue in the office of mayor of the ſaid city from the date of theſe preſents, [Page 44] until Monday next after the feaſt of St Michael the archangel now next enſuing, and from thence until one other of the aldermen of the ſaid city ſhall be in due manner elected and ſworn into that office, if the ſaid John Drake Bainbridge ſhall ſo long live.

We have alſo appointed, named, elected, conſtituted and made, and by theſe preſents for us and our ſucceſſors, do appoint, name, create, conſtitute and make the ſaid John Drake Bainbridge, and our truſty and well-beloved Thomas Bainbridge, Ralph Bowſer, Joſeph Airey, Richard Shuttleworth, John Hall, John Lowther, [Page 45] William Kirton, John Starforth, Thomas Dunn, Chriſtopher Hopper, John Potts, and William Archer, to be the firſt and modern aldermen of the city of Durham and Framwelgate, to continue in the ſame office during their natural lives, unleſs in the mean time they or any or either of them for miſgovernment or miſbehaviour therein, or for any other reaſonable cauſe, ſhall be amoved from their ſaid offices.

[Page 46] WE ALSO will, ordain and conſtitute, and for us and our ſucceſſors by theſe preſents grant to the ſaid mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, and their ſucceſſors, as far as in us lieth, that the mayor and aldermen of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, or the major part of them (of whom the mayor for the time being ſhall be one) ſhall and may, as ſoon as conveniently may be after the date of theſe preſents, meet and aſſemble together in the Guildhall or Tollbooth of the ſaid city, or in any other convenient place within the ſaid city; and being ſo aſſembled, ſhall and do then nominate and elect twenty-four [Page 47] other perſons of the moſt diſcreet and honeſt men reſiding and inhabiting within the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, that is to ſay, two of each of the ſeparate arts, myſteries, and faculties following, to wit, two out of the mercers, grocers, haberdaſhers, ironmongers, and ſalters—two out of the drapers and taylors—two out of the ſkinners and glovers—two out of the tanners—two out of the weavers—two out of the fullers and dyers—two out of the cordwainers—two out of the ſadlers—two out of the butchers—two out of the ſmiths—two out of the carpenters and joiners— and two out of the free maſons and rough maſons, reſiding and inhabiting within the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, or within the ſeveral pariſhes of St Nicholas, St Mary-le-bow, and St Mary the Leſs, or the extra parochial places of or belonging to the caſtle of Durham, and the college or cathedral church of Durham, or the parochial chapelry of St Margaret, the borough of Framwelgate, or the ſeveral pariſhes of St Oſwald and St Giles *, near the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, in the ſaid county palatine of Durham; which ſaid mayor, aldermen, and twenty-four diſcreet and honeſt men of the trades, arts or myſteries aforeſaid, ſhall be the common council of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate; and the ſaid twenty-four ſo named and elected ſhall continue in the ſame offices until the ſecond Monday next after the feaſt of St Michael the archangel then next enſuing, if they ſhall ſo long live, unleſs they or any of them in the mean time, for miſgovernment or miſbehaviour therein, or other reaſonable cauſes, ſhall be removed from their ſaid offices.

AND we further will, and do by theſe preſents for us and our ſucceſſors grant, to the ſaid mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, and their ſucceſſors, that the mayor, aldermen and twenty-four other perſons to be elected in the manner herein mentioned, to be of the common council of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate for the time being, or the major part of them, (of whom the mayor for the time being we will ſhall be one) from time to time and at all times hereafter, yearly and every year, on the Monday next after the feaſt of St Michael the archangel, ſhall and may meet and aſſemble in the Guildhall or Tollbooth of the ſaid city, or in any other convenient place within the ſaid city; and being ſo aſſembled, ſhall and may nominate and elect one of the aldermen of the city of Durham and Framwelgate aforeſaid, reſiding and inhabiting within the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, or within the ſaid ſeveral pariſhes of St Nicholas, St Mary-le-Bow, and St Mary the Leſs, or the extra parochial places of or belonging to the caſtle of Durham, and the college or cathedral church of Durham, or the parochial chapelry of St Margaret, the borough of Framwelgate, or the ſeveral pariſhes of St Oſwald and St Giles near the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, in the ſaid county palatine of Durham, to be mayor of the ſaid city of Durham and Fram. for one whole year then next following, that is to ſay, until Monday next after the feaſt-day of St Michael the archangel then next enſuing; and that he in manner aforeſaid elected and named to be mayor of the ſaid city, before he be admitted to the execution of that office, ſhall take his corporal oath before us or our ſucceſſors biſhops of Durham for the time being, but if we or our ſucceſſors ſhall be abſent [Page 48] from the ſaid county palatine, then before the chancellor of the ſaid county palatine for the time being, and in caſe of his abſence from the ſaid county palatine, or in caſe the epiſcopal See of Durham ſhall be vacant, then before his laſt predeceſſor in the office of mayor of the ſaid city, for the due execution of his office, according to the tenor following, that is to ſay, I ſhall truth and faith bear to our ſovereign lord the king's majeſty, his heirs and ſucceſſors kings and queens of England, and to the lord biſhop of Durham and his ſucceſſors biſhops of Durham, and all ſuch acts and orders as I ſhall conſent and agree unto to be made, ſhall be for the common-wealth of the city of Durham and Framwelgate; and ſhall at no time or times hereafter go about to make any private orders againſt the privileges of the biſhop of Durham, nor for the only profit of myſelf, nor of any other private perſon or perſons; or conſent or agree unto the ſame: And alſo, I ſhall at all and every time and times hereafter, go about by word, will and conſent, well and truly to execute every point, article and agreement contained in this corporation, to the mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate granted, to my power, and I ſhall keep my lords council, my fellows and my own, ſo help me God, and by the contents of this book. And after he ſhall have ſo taken the ſaid oath, he ſhall hold the ſaid office of mayor of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, until Monday next after the feaſt of St Michael the archangel then next following, and from thence until another of the aldermen of the ſaid city ſhall in due manner and form aforeſaid be elected and ſworn into the office of mayor of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, unleſs he ſhall in the mean time be removed from that office for miſgovernment or miſbehaviour therein, or of or for any other reaſonable cauſe.

And further we will, and do by theſe preſents for us and our ſucceſſors grant to the ſaid mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate and their ſucceſſors, that if it ſhall happen that the ſaid John Drake Bainbridge or any future mayor of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, ſhall die or be removed from the office of mayor of the ſaid city, at any time before Monday next after the feaſt of St Michael the archangel, next after he ſhall be elected and ſworn into the office of mayor of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, (and which ſaid John Drake Bainbridge and every future mayor of the ſaid city, we will ſhall be removeable from his ſaid office for miſgovernment or miſbehaviour therein, or any other reaſonable cauſe, by the aldermen and twenty-four ſo elected of the common council of the ſaid city, or the major part of them, of whom we will that ſeven of the aldermen of the ſaid city ſhall be ſeven) that then and ſo often it ſhall and may be lawful for the aldermen and twenty-four elected of the common council of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate for the time being, or the major part of them, (of whom we will that three of the aldermen of the ſaid city be three) within twenty days after ſuch death or removal, to aſſemble in the Guildhall or Tollbooth of the ſaid city, or in any other convenient place within the ſaid city, and that they, or the major part of them then and there aſſembled, ſhall nominate and elect one other of the aldermen of the ſaid city (reſiding and inhabiting within the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, or within the ſeveral pariſhes of St Nicholas, St Mary-le-bow, and St Mary the Leſs, or the extra parochial places of or belonging [Page 49] to the caſtle of Durham and the college and cathedral church of Durham, the parochial chapelry of St Margaret, the borough of Framwelgate, or the ſeveral pariſhes of St Oſwald and St Giles, near the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, for the time being) to be mayor of the ſaid city, for the remainder of the year; and that the perſon ſo elected to the office of mayor of the ſaid city, before he be admitted to execute the ſaid office, ſhall take his corporal oath to the purport or effect herein before mentioned, before us and our ſucceſſors biſhops of Durham; or in caſe of our abſence, before the chancellor of the ſaid county, or in caſe of his abſence, or the vacancy of the ſaid See, then before two of the aldermen of the ſaid city; and having taken the ſaid oath, he ſhall hold the ſaid office until Monday next after the feaſt of St Michael the archangel then next following, and from thence until another alderman of the ſaid city ſhall be elected and ſworn into the ſaid office, if he ſhall ſo long live; unleſs in the mean time he ſhall be removed from his office, for miſgovernment or miſbehaviour therein, or other reaſonable cauſe.

And we further will, and by theſe preſents for us and our ſucceſſors grant, to the ſaid mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the city of Durham and Framwelgate and their ſucceſſors, that the mayor and aldermen of the ſaid city for the time being, or the major part of them, (of whom the mayor for the time being we will ſhall be one) ſhall and may from time to time, and at all times hereafter, yearly and every year, on the ſecond Monday next after the feaſt of St Michael the archangel, (that is to ſay) on the Monday next after the day by theſe preſents appointed for the election of a mayor of the ſaid city, to nominate and elect twenty-four of the moſt diſcreet and honeſt men, inhabiting and reſiding within the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, (that is to ſay) two out of each of the twelve ſeveral arts, myſteries or faculties following, (to wit) two out of the mercers, grocers, haberdaſhers, ironmongers and ſalters; two out of the drapers and taylors, two out of the ſkinners and glovers, two out of the tanners, two out of the weavers, two out of the dyers and fullers, two out of the cordwainers, two out of the ſadlers, two out of the butchers, two out of the ſmiths, two out of the carpenters and joiners, and two out of the free-maſons and rough-maſons, reſiding and inhabiting within the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, or within the ſeveral pariſhes of St Nicholas, St Mary-le-Bow and St Mary the Leſs, or the extra parochial places of or belonging to the caſtle of Durham, and the college or cathedral church of Durham, or the parochial chapelry of St Margaret, the borough of Framwelgate, or the ſaid ſeveral pariſhes of St Oſwald and St Giles, near the city of Durham and Framwelgate, for one whole year, (that is to ſay) until the ſecond Monday after the feaſt of St Michael the archangel then next following; and that every perſon elected and named to be of the common council of the ſaid city, before he be admitted to the execution of that office, ſhall take his corporal oath upon the holy evangeliſts, before the mayor, or in his abſence before four of the aldermen of the ſaid city for the time being, well and faithfully to execute their office in all things relating thereto; and that after having taken ſuch oath, he ſhall and may execute the ſaid office for one year, (that is to ſay) until the ſecond Monday after the ſaid feaſt of St Michael the archangel then next following, unleſs he ſhall in the mean [Page 50] time be removed from his ſaid office, for miſgovernment or miſbehaviour, or other reaſonable cauſe.

Provided always, and our will is, that in caſe there ſhall not be a ſufficient number of arts, myſteries, or faculties aforeſaid, reſiding and inhabiting as aforeſaid, out of which two can be elected according to the directions aforeſaid, that then and ſo often as the caſe ſhall happen, the ſaid mayor and aldermen, or the major part of them, ſhall and may nominate and elect ſo many out of the other arts, myſteries, or faculties, or any of them, reſiding and inhabiting as aforeſaid, as will make up the number 24; and may ſupply the ſame, in caſe of the death or removal of any of the twenty-four, in the ſame manner; which ſaid mayor, aldermen and twenty-four, elected to be of the common council of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, ſhall in all time to come be the common council of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate.

And whenever it ſhall happen, that any of the aldermen of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate for the time being, ſhall die or be removed from his or their office or offices, for miſgovernment or miſbehaviour therein, or any other reaſonable cauſe, by the mayor, aldermen and twenty-four ſo elected of the common council as aforeſaid, or the major part of them, (of whom we will the mayor ſhall be one) that then and ſo often, it ſhall and may be lawful for the mayor and reſt of the aldermen and twenty-four ſo elected of the common council of the ſaid city for the time being, or the major part of them, (of whom the mayor for the time being ſhall be one) within twenty days next after ſuch death or amotion, to nominate or elect one or more burgeſs or burgeſſes of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, dwelling and inhabiting within the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, or within the ſeveral pariſhes of St Nicholas, St Mary-le-Bow and St Mary the Leſs, or the extra-parochial places of or belonging to the caſtle of Durham, and the college or cathedral church of Durham, or the parochial chapelry of St Margaret, the borough of Framwelgate, or the ſeveral pariſhes of St Oſwald and St Giles, near the city of Durham and Framwelgate, to be an alderman or aldermen of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, in the place or places of him or them ſo dying or happening to be removed; and that he or they ſo nominated and elected to be alderman or aldermen, before he or they ſhall be admitted to execute the ſaid office or offices, ſhall take his or their corporal oath or oaths, before the mayor of the ſaid city for the time being, or before four or more of the aldermen of the ſaid city for the time being, well and truly to execute his or their office or offices, in all things thereunto belonging; and the perſon or perſons ſo elected and ſworn, ſhall hold the ſaid office and offices during the term of his and their natural life and lives, unleſs he or they ſhall in the mean time be removed from the ſaid office or offices, for miſgovernment or miſbehaviour therein, or for any other reaſonable cauſe.

And alſo whenever it ſhall happen, that any of the twenty-four, to be elected of the common council of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate as aforeſaid for the time being, ſhall die or be removed from his or their office or offices, (and which ſaid twenty-four we will ſhall be removeable from their ſaid offices for miſgovernment [Page 51] or miſbehaviour therein, or other reaſonable cauſe, by the mayor, aldermen and twenty-four, or the major part of them, of whom we will that the mayor for the time being ſhall be one) that then and ſo often, it ſhall and may be lawful for the mayor and aldermen of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate for the time being, or the major part of them, (of whom the mayor we will ſhall be one) within twenty days after ſuch death or removal, to elect and prefer one or more of the burgeſſes of the ſaid city, of the ſame trade, art or myſtery, or trades, arts or myſteries of him or them ſo dying or being removed, and reſiding or dwelling within the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, or within the ſaid ſeveral pariſhes of St Nicholas, St Mary-le-Bow and St Mary the Leſs, or the extra-parochial places of or belonging to the caſtle of Durham, and the college or cathedral church of Durham, or the parochial chapelry of St Margaret, the borough of Framwelgate, or the ſaid ſeveral pariſhes of St Oſwald and St Giles, near the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, to be of the common council of the ſaid city, in the place or places of him or them ſo dying or happening to be removed; and that he or they ſo elected into the ſaid office or offices, ſhall take his and their corporal oath and oaths, before the mayor of the ſaid city for the time being, or before four or more of the aldermen of the ſaid city for the time being, well and truly to execute his and their office or offices in all things thereunto belonging; and the perſon or perſons ſo elected and ſworn into the ſaid office and offices ſhall hold the ſame until the ſaid ſecond Monday next after the feaſt of St Michael the archangel then next enſuing, if he and they ſhall ſo long live; unleſs he or they ſhall in the mean time be removed from the ſaid office or offices, for miſmanagement or miſbehaviour therein, or for any other reaſonable cauſe.

And moreover, for us and our ſucceſſors, we grant to the ſaid mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, and their ſucceſſors, that if any one or more of the aldermen and burgeſſes of the ſaid city for the time being, who hereafter ſhall be elected to the office or offices of mayor, aldermen, or of the common council of the ſaid city, and having due notice given to him or them of ſuch election, ſhall refuſe to accept or take upon himſelf or themſelves, and to execute that office, to which he or they ſhall have been ſo elected and nominated, then and ſo often, it ſhall and may be lawful for the mayor, aldermen and twenty-four, ſo elected as aforeſaid, for the time being, or the major part of them preſent at any meeting for that purpoſe (of whom the mayor to be one) to aſſeſs and impoſe ſuch fines and amerciaments, not exceeding the ſum of one hundred pounds, upon ſuch perſon or perſons ſo refuſing, as to the ſaid mayor, aldermen and common council for the time being, or ſuch major part of them as aforeſaid, ſhall ſeem reaſonable; which ſine or ſines ſhall be recovered, received and applied to the public uſe of the ſaid mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate.

And further, we will and do by theſe preſents for us and our ſucceſſors grant, to the ſaid mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the ſaid city, and their ſucceſſors, that there ſhall for ever hereafter be, in the city of Durham and Framwelgate, one honeſt and diſcreet man, ſkilled in the laws of England, who ſhall and may be, and ſhall be called the recorder of the city of Durham and Framwelgate; which ſaid recorder, [Page 52] before he ſhall be admitted to execute that office, ſhall take his corporal oath, before the mayor of the ſaid city for the time being, well and faithfully to execute the ſaid office of recorder of the city aforeſaid, according to the beſt of his judgment, in all things touching or concerning that office: And that after ſuch oath ſo taken, he may exerciſe and uſe the office of recorder of and for the ſaid city, for ſo long time as he ſhall behave himſelf well in the ſaid office. And we have aſſigned, created, conſtituted and made, and by theſe preſents for us and our ſucceſſors do aſſign, nominate, create, conſtitute and make, our truſty and well-beloved William Ambler, eſquire, ſkilled in the laws of England, to be the firſt and modern recorder of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, to execute that office ſo long as he ſhall behave himſelf well in the ſame; the ſaid William Ambler firſt taking his corporal oath before the ſaid John Drake Bainbridge, or the mayor of the ſaid city for the time being, well and truly to execute the office of recorder of the city aforeſaid, according to the beſt of his judgment, in all things touching and concerning that office. And we will, that the recorder of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, from time to time, be aiding and aſſiſting to the common council of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, for the time being, in all things and cauſes, which in the court of record in the ſaid city, or any other court to be held in the ſaid city, from time to time, ſhall be cognizable and determinable in the ſaid city; and that he may do and execute all things which to the office of recorder belong and appertain, in as ample manner and form as any other recorder in any other city or town incorporate within the kingdom of Great-Britain, by virtue of his office of recorder, may or can do: And that from time to time and at all times, upon every vacancy of the office of recorder of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, it ſhall and may be lawful for the mayor, aldermen, and twenty-four ſo elected as aforeſaid, for the time being, or the major part of them, preſent at any meeting for that purpoſe, (of whom we will the mayor ſhall be one) to elect, nominate and prefer one other diſcreet man, ſkilled in the laws of England, from time to time, to be recorder of the ſaid city; and that he ſo elected and preferred into the office of recorder of the ſaid city, from time to time, after the death or amoval of the ſaid William Ambler, ſhall and may have, enjoy and exerciſe the office of recorder, as long as he ſhall behave himſelf well in the ſame; firſt taking his corporal oath in manner aforeſaid *.

And further we do will, and by theſe preſents for us and our ſucceſſors grant, to the ſaid mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the ſaid city, and their ſucceſſors, that they and their ſucceſſors hereafter for ever, may and ſhall have in the ſaid city one honeſt and diſcreet man, who may and ſhall be called the town-clerk of the ſaid [Page 53] city, which ſaid town-clerk, before he be admitted to execute that office, ſhall take his corporal oath, before the mayor of the ſaid city for the time being, well and truly to perform that office, to the beſt of his knowledge, in all things touching or concerning the ſaid office; and that after taking ſuch oath, he ſhall uſe and exerciſe the office of town-clerk of the city aforeſaid, ſo long as he ſhall behave himſelf well in the ſaid office; and we have aſſigned, created, conſtituted and made, and do by theſe preſents, for us and our ſucceſſors, aſſign, nominate, create, conſtitute and make, Martin Wilkinſon to be the firſt and modern town-clerk of the ſaid city, to exerciſe that office, as long as he ſhall behave himſelf well, firſt taking his corporal oath, before the ſaid John Drake Bainbridge, or the mayor of the ſaid city for the time being, truly to perform that office, to the beſt of his knowledge, in all things touching or concerning the ſaid office: And that from time to time and at all times, whenever hereafter the ſaid office ſhall be vacant, it ſhall and may be lawful for the ſaid mayor, aldermen, and twenty-four of the common council of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, for the time being, or the major part of them, of whom the mayor of the ſaid city for the time being we will ſhall be one, to elect, nominate and prefer, one other honeſt and diſcreet man to be town-clerk of the ſaid city, to exerciſe that office as long as he ſhall behave himſelf well in the ſame, who ſhall take his oath before the mayor of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate for the time being, for the due execution of the ſaid office *.

And moreover we will, and by theſe preſents for us and our ſucceſſors do grant, to the ſaid mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, and their ſucceſſors, that the mayor, aldermen and twenty-four, the common council of the ſaid city, or the major part of them, (of whom the mayor for the time being ſhall be one) ſhall and may, within a convenient time from the date of theſe preſents, name and elect two men, being burgeſſes or inhabitants of the ſaid city, who ſhall be, and ſhall be called, ſerjeants at mace, to ſerve in the court of the ſaid city, and for making proclamations, arreſts, and executions of all proceſſes, mandates, and other affairs belonging to the office of ſerjeant at mace, to be done and executed from time to time in the city of Durham and Framwelgate aforeſaid; and in like manner name and elect all ſuch and ſo many conſtables, and other inferior officers and ſervants, as have been uſual and accuſtomed within the city aforeſaid; and the ſaid ſerjeants at mace, and other inferior officer and officers, ſo to be elected and nominated, ſhall and may be in due manner ſworn, before the mayor of the ſaid city for the time being, for the due and faithful execution of the office and offices, to which they ſhall be reſpectively elected and appointed; and the ſaid ſerjeants at mace, and other the officer and officers ſo to be elected, ſhall be and continue in their reſpective offices, until Monday next after the feaſt of St Michael [Page 54] the archangel now next enſuing, and until ſome other perſon or perſons ſhall in due manner be elected and preferred into his or their office or offices reſpectively; and that the ſaid ſerjeants at mace, conſtables, and other inferior officer and officers of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, ſhall from time to time be annually elective, by the mayor, aldermen and twenty-four, the common council aforeſaid, or the major part of them, (of whom the mayor we will ſhall be one) on Monday next after the ſaid feaſt of St Michael the archangel then next following, if they ſhall reſpectively behave themſelves well in the ſame: And as often as, and whenever it ſhall happen, that ſuch ſerjeants, conſtables, and other inferior officers of the ſaid city, ſhall die or be removed from their offices, within one year after they have been elected, preferred, and ſworn into their ſaid office or offices reſpectively, that then and ſo often, it ſhall and may be lawful for the mayor, aldermen and twenty-four, the common council of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate for the time being, or the major part of them, (of whom we will the mayor of the ſaid city for the time being ſhall be one) within twenty days next enſuing ſuch death or amotion, or any other convenient time, to elect and prefer other and others in the place or places of him and them ſo dying or being amoved; and that he or they ſo elected and preferred, ſhall hold and exerciſe the office or offices to which they ſhall be elected, named and preferred, if they ſhall reſpectively behave themſelves well in the ſame, until Monday next after the feaſt of St Michael then next enſuing, and from thenceforth until another or others ſhall be elected and ſworn into the ſaid office or offices reſpectively, firſt taking his or their corporal oath or oaths in form aforeſaid.

We alſo will and ordain, and by theſe preſents for us and our ſucceſſors do grant and confirm, to the aforeſaid mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the city of Durham and Framwelgate aforeſaid, and their ſucceſſors, as much as in us lies, that the aforeſaid mayor, aldermen and twenty-four, ſo elected of the common council of the city of Durham and Framwelgate aforeſaid, for the time being, or the major part of them, (of whom the mayor for the time being ſhall be one) ſhall have full authority, power and licence, in the place of, for and in the name of the whole corporate body of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate aforeſaid, to compoſe, conſtitute, ordain, make and eſtabliſh, from time to time, ſuch laws, ſtatutes, ordinances and conſtitutions, as to them in their diſcretions ſhall ſeem good, ſalutary, uſeful, fit, profitable, and neceſſary, for the good rule and government of the mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, and all trades, officers, miniſters, artificers, and reſidents whomſoever, within the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, for the time being; and for the rule and government of the markets, fairs, and marts, within the city of Durham and Framwelgate aforeſaid, and the limits and liberties of the ſame, and of other perſons coming and reſorting to the ſaid fairs and markets; and for declaring after what manner and order the mayor, aldermen and commonalty, and all and ſingular other the miniſters, officers and artificers, inhabitants and reſidents within the city of Durham and Framwelgate aforeſaid, with their ſervants and apprentices, in their ſeveral offices, functions, myſteries, arts and buſineſſes, within the city of Durham and Framwelgate aforeſaid, and the liberties of the ſame, for the time being, ſhall conduct and [Page 55] employ themſelves, and otherwiſe, for the more public good and good rule of the city of Durham and Framwelgate aforeſaid; and alſo for the better preſervation, government, and letting of the lands, tenements, reverſions and hereditaments of the aforeſaid mayor, aldermen and commonalty, and their ſucceſſors, to them given, granted or aſſigned, or hereafter to be given, granted or aſſigned, and all other things and cauſes whatſoever, relating to the city of Durham and Framwelgate aforeſaid, or concerning the ſtate, right and intereſt of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate; and that the mayor, aldermen and twenty-four, ſo elected of the common council of the city of Durham and Framwelgate aforeſaid, for the time being, or the major part of them, (of whom the mayor for the time being ſhall be one) as often as ſuch laws, inſtitutions, ordinances and conſtitutions ſhall be declared and eſtabliſhed in manner aforeſaid, do make, ordain, limit and provide ſuch puniſhments, penalties and impriſonments of the body, or by fines and amerciaments, or by both, upon all offenders againſt ſuch laws, ſtatutes and ordinances, or any of them, which to the ſaid mayor, aldermen and common council for the time being, or the major part of them, (of whom the mayor for the time being ſhall be one) ſhall ſeem neceſſary, requiſite and proper for the obſervance of ſuch laws, ordinances and conſtitutions; and the ſame fines and amerciaments, by diſtreſs or any other manner, to levy and have and retain, to them and their ſucceſſors, to the uſe of the ſaid city of Durham and Framwelgate, without queſtion or impediment of us or our ſucceſſors, or any of the officers of us or our ſucceſſors; all and ſingular which laws, ordinances, conſtitutions and inſtitutions, ſo to be made, we will ſhall be obſerved under the penalties therein mentioned, ſo as ſuch laws, ordinances and inſtitutions, puniſhments, penalties and impriſonments, are not repugnant or contrary to the laws, ſtatutes, rights and cuſtoms of England.

We will moreover, and by theſe preſents, for us and our ſucceſſors, as far as in us lieth, do grant, ratify and confirm, unto the ſaid mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the city of Durham and Framwelgate aforeſaid, and their ſucceſſors, that the ſaid mayor, aldermen, commonalty, and their ſucceſſors, ſhall have, hold, enjoy and uſe, from henceforth for ever, all and ſingular ſuch rights, liberties, powers, authorities, franchiſes, immunities, free cuſtoms, lands, tenements and hereditaments, as the mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the city of Durham and Framwelgate, under, by virtue or reaſon of the ſaid letters patent of Tobias late biſhop of Durham, or by, under, or by virtue of any charter or letters patent by any of our predeceſſors heretofore biſhops of Durham, or otherwiſe by any lawful means, right or title whatſoever, could or were lawfully entitled to have, uſe or enjoy; except in ſuch caſes, and ſo far only as the ſame are varied or altered by theſe preſents.

And further we will, by theſe preſents, for us and our ſucceſſors, of our ſpecial grace, certain knowledge, and mere motion, do grant unto the ſaid mayor, aldermen and commonalty, and their ſucceſſors, that theſe our letters patent, and all and ſingular things in the ſame contained, ſhall be and remain, from time to time, good, firm, valid, ſufficient and effectual in the law, according to the true meaning of theſe preſents; notwithſtanding the not naming, or the not right and certain naming the premiſſes aforeſaid, or any parcel thereof, in their or in either of their [Page 56] proper names, kinds, ſorts, quantities or qualities; and notwithſtanding the not reciting, or not truly reciting the ſaid letters patent before mentioned, or any thing in the ſame contained, or any act, ordinance, proviſion or reſtriction, or any defect, uncertainty or imperfection in theſe our letters patent, or any other matter, cauſe or thing whatſoever, to the contrary thereof in any wiſe notwithſtanding: In witneſs whereof we have cauſed theſe our letters to be made patent. Witneſs the honourable Edward Willes, our chancellor of Durham. Given at our caſtle of Durham this ſecond day of October, in the twentieth year of the reign of our ſovereign lord George the Third, by the Grace of God, of Great-Britain, France, and Ireland, king, defender of the faith and ſo forth; and in the year of our Lord one thouſand ſeven hundred and eighty, of our conſecration the twenty-fifth, and of our tranſlation to the See of Durham the tenth."


"There is a charitable fund belonging to the city of Durham, for which the mayor and aldermen are truſtees *. Mr Henry Smith, the great benefactor of the city of Durham whilſt it ſtood incorporated by the name of aldermen and burgeſſes, by will dated the 20th of July 1598, gave all his coal-mines, then of the clear yearly value of 100l. beſides a perſonal eſtate in money, debts, and goods, beyond debts and legacies, worth 600l. unto the city of Durham, in theſe words: ‘And as touching my colemynes, and that the increaſe thereof may be employed for the benefit of many, I freely give them all to this city of Durham, and the cauſe why I doe ſoe, and further as followeth is, that ſome good trade may be deviſed for ſetting of the youth and other idle perſons to work, as ſhall be thought moſt convenient, whereby ſome profit may ariſe to the benefit of the ſaid city, and reliefe of thoſe that are paſt work.’—Then he gives away ſeveral legacies, and adds, ‘All the reſt that remaineth I fully give and bequeath to this city of Durham, as fully and amply as I have done my colemynes, and to the uſes before expreſſed.’—And then appoints one alderman pro tempore, Edward Wanles, dyer, and William Hall, draper, his executors, to ſee the ſaid will performed; and died on the 17th of November 1598. Mr Tho. Pierſon was alderman at Mr Smith's death, and, together with Wanles and Hall, entered upon his eſtate, and continued the receipt and management thereof, until Tobias Matthew biſhop of Durham, in the year 1602, incorporated the city by the name of mayor and aldermen, and then the ſucceeding mayors joined with the two executors, in the receipt and management thereof, and ſo it continued until the eighth year of K. James I. when a commiſſion of pious uſes was awarded to William biſhop of Durham, and ſeveral others, upon which an inqueſt was taken, and this charity found and decreed againſt the executors, in whoſe hands it was, and ſeveral perſons were appointed to be the governors thereof, particularly the then biſhop, Richard Hutton, eſq his temporal chancellor, H. Dethick, H. Ewbanke, Rob. Cooper, and ſeveral others. Thoſe governors (14th Aug. 1612) called the executors to an account, and found in their hands in ready caſh 577l. 10s. 2d. which they received and lodged in the cheſt in the town chamber, which they had bought for the purpoſe, [Page 57] under four locks, and there alſo placed the bonds and other ſecurities and writings relating to this charity; and then ordered the New-Place to be bought, for a trade of cloth-working to be ſet up in, which was accordingly done, and 150l. paid for the purchaſe thereof.

In May 1614, Henry Doughty and Wm Baſtoe, clothworkers, were employed to begin the work, and were ſettled in the New-Place; and one Richard Thomlinſon had by copy of court-roll an aſſignment made him of ſome ground upon Braſsſide Moor, de novo incremento, and incloſed it for the benefit of the works, and 200l. was paid them to provide materials, for which ſum Wm Hall the executor, who had recommended theſe three men, was bound.

In September 1614 a new commiſſion of pious uſes iſſued, to the ſaid biſhop, chancellor Hutton, and ſeveral other commiſſioners, who approved of what the governors had done, and ordered 250l. more to be advanced to the clothiers, upon the ſtatute-merchant of them and two other ſureties, relations of Doughty and Baſtoe, and upon ſurrender of Tomlinſon's Intack; and ſo the works went forward for about two years, and then Doughty and his partners broke, and the governors took in one William Atkinſon, then maſter of the houſe of correction, to ſpin and employ children that way, and gave him 60l. to buy wool: And alſo in the year 1616 the governor employed Thomas Browne and George Beecrofte, two new clothworkers, and bought them in wool, and gave them it to work, and employed William Hall the executor to be their inſpector; and the work went on but ſlowly and to no great purpoſe, till Jan. 1619, and then was diſcontinued; and inſtead thereof, 20l. per annum was ordered to be paid by 5l. per quarter to the ſeveral ſtreets in Durham, and apprentices were ordered to be bound out, ten or more per annum, as the ſtock ſhould anſwer.

Thus it hath continued ever ſince, with the addition only of two half yearly pays more to the poor of the ſeveral ſtreets; and in the year 1622, Wydop Leezes and Redmyers Houſe were purchaſed for 660l. at the yearly rent of 50l. per annum, 3l. 6s. 8d. being diſcounted for a copyhold rent payable thereout annually to the biſhop.

After this the governors put their ſtatute-merchant in ſuit againſt Doughty and Baſtoe's relations, and recovered moſt of the 250l. laſt lent; but all that Hall the executor was bound for, and more which he had got into his hands, amounting to 598l. odd money, was loſt.

The mayors of Durham, from the diſcontinuing of the laſt clothworking in the year 1619 or 20, again received the money ariſing of the ſtock, and yearly accounted for it to the governors till the year 1659, and then a treaſurer received it; and ſo it continued during the troubles, and till after the reſtoration, to wit, in December 1669, when a commiſſion of pious uſes was awarded to biſhop Coſin, Dr Sudbury then dean of Durham, and others, and thereupon an inqueſt was taken, whereby one John Heighington, who had been mayor of Durham, was found debtor for Smith's charity 414l. and for charities given by others almoſt as much more; but all that was got in ſatisfaction thereof was only the houſe and ſhop in the market-place, [Page 58] in Mrs Fulthorpe and alderman Paxton's poſſeſſion, valued at 18l. per ann. called Heighington's Burgage.

In the year 1659 the receipt of the mayors of Durham was diſcontinued, and a treaſurer appointed to receive and pay out the ſtock as the governors ordered. All the collieries are now failed, and have ſo been for many years paſt, ſo that all the ſtock conſiſts of
The New-Place, let for about per annum 40 0 0
Wydop Leezes, p. ann. 50 0 0
Dye-Houſes, p. ann. 16 0 0
Hager Leezes, p. ann. 3 0 0
Heighington's Burgage, p. ann. 18 0 0
Newby's Houſe, p. ann. 2 0 0

All this was purchaſed by the governors out of Smith's charity, and yields annually 129l.

As to caſh unaltered or newly given for a manufactory,
Old charities in the ſtock. There is beſides this due upon bonds from perſons having donation money given by ſeveral 90 0 0
In ready money 100 0 0
New charities to be brought in. Biſhop Wood's charity given to the poor of the city *100 0 0
New charities to be brought in. Mr Cradock's money, intereſt and principal 220 0 0
New charities to be brought in. Mr Baker's money 500 0 0

[Page 59] By all this it appears, that the charitable ſtock of the city of Durham hath chiefly ariſen from Mr Smith's charity, which was originally given for a manufactory; but by reaſon of the diſappointments met with, by truſting the clothworkers' (who proved knaves) with the money, the governors in 1619 deviſed a different diſpoſition of the charity money as before-mentioned, for which end the bulk of the ſtock was laid out in land."—Such is the account given of the riſe of this charitable ſtock.

A full illuſtration of the foregoing hiſtory of the charitable ſtock will appear in the inquiſitions taken by virtue of the ſeveral commiſſions for charitable uſes mentioned hereafter.

The firſt commiſſion bears date the 12th of March, 1609, directed to William lord biſhop of Durham and others, ‘for the due execution of a certain ſtatute made in the high court of parliament, holden the 27th of October, in the 43d year of the reign of queen Elizabeth, entitled, An act to redreſs the miſemployments of lands, goods, and ſtocks of money given to charitable uſes; to enquire by the oaths of twelve lawful men, &c.’ A new commiſſion in like form iſſued, dated the 22d of Feb. 1610.

To theſe commiſſions, or the one of them, an inquiſition was taken and returned at the city of Durham the 28th day of March, 1611, ſetting forth, that ‘ Hen. Smith, of Durham, gentleman, deceaſed, by his laſt will and teſtament, written in his life-time, ſubſcribed and ſealed, &c. the 20th of July, 1598, did bequeath all his leaſes of the colemines of Hargyll, Grewburne, and Softley, in the county of Durham, and all the eſtate, tithe, and intereſt that he had therein for divers yeares then unexpired, by virtue of ſundry leaſes made to him by the queen (Elizabeth) and biſhops of Durham, xx lb. yearly rent yſſuing out of the colepitts called Carter-thorne Colliery-pitts, in the ſaid county; the intereſt in which myne of coales he in his ſaid will deviſed to Toby lord archbiſhop of York, his grace then biſhop of Durham, to all his terme therein yet for ſundry yeares by courſe of tyme contynuing, to the cittie of Durham, with all his coales above the ground, with all implements whatſoever, and all books of reckonnings, with all leaſes and writings touching the ſaid colepitts, with all the coales provided for thoſe uſes, and two great chiſts wherein they were*; that the increaſe thereof might be employed to the benefit of manie, &c. And they alſo ſay, that he did by his laſt will give ſundry legacies to ſundry his friends, amounting in all to the ſum of 305l. and for the payment of the ſaid legacies only, did nominate Tho. Pearſon then alderman of the ſaid city of Durham, Edw. Wanleſs of the ſaid city, dyer, and Wm Hall of the ſame, draper, his executors; [Page 60] and upon payment of the ſaid legacies did ordaine, that his ſaid executors ſhould be no further troubled; and all the reſt of his goods he did bequeath to the city, of Durham for the uſes above expreſſed.’ And then ſets forth the receipt of the profits of the colemines from the year 1598 to 1607, but no amount is mentioned. The inquiſition alſo further ſets forth, that ‘ John Franklyn, then late of Coken, in the county of Durham, gentleman, did, by his laſt will, dated the 19th of Nov. 1572, bequeath 100 l. to the mayor, aldermen and others of Newcaſtle, upon condition that they ſhould ſee paid for the ſame xl. yearly for the increaſe thereof (part of which) 3 l. 6 s. 8 d. to the priſoners and other poor people of Durham.’

Several ſubſequent commiſſions iſſued, one in 1617, another 1622, a third 1629, and a fourth during the uſurpation in 1659, directed to Sir Tho. Widdrington, knt. Sir Arthur Hazelrigg, bart. Sir Geo. Vane, knt. Francis Wren, &c. &c. and a fifth, dated the 10th of Dec. 1669, to which latter an inquiſition was taken and returned, dated the 4th of Nov. 1670, which ſets forth, that ‘it appears by an inquiſition, taken at Durham on the 22d day of June, 1650, before, &c. that one Mr John Heighington, late of Durham, alderman, being mayor of the ſaid city in 1637, got then into his hands ſeveral large ſums of money, belonging to the charity ſtock of the ſaid city of Durham, as follows;—of the donation of Mr Hen. Smith, 131 l. 1 s. 4 d.—of the donation of Mr Hugh Hutchinſon, 170 l.—of, &c. of Mr Francis Buney, 20 l.—of, &c. of Mr John Walton, ſome time alderman of Derby, 5 l.—of, &c. of Dr Auguſtine Linſells, 196 l.—in all 542 l. 1 s. 4 d. That the ſaid John Heighington did afterwards, &c. clear himſelf of 20 l. of Mr Buney's money, and 196 l. of Dr Linſell's donation; but in 1663 was in arrear to the ſaid charitable ſtock, part of Mr Smith's donation, 414 l. 13 s. 10 d.—of Mr Hutchinſon's, 208 l.—of Mr Walton's, 10 l.—in all, 632 l. 13 s. 10 d. which he was decreed to pay within three months; but that no part either for principal or intereſt had been paid: So that with intereſt from the 12th of Nov. 1663, at 6 l. per cent. the whole amount is 898 l. 8 s.’

There is a charity or blue-coat ſchool maintained in the city by ſubſcriptions and other charitable benefactions. It was begun in 1718, for ſix boys; in 1736, ſix girls were added; ſince that time, as the fund increaſed, the numbers alſo increaſed; ſo that now 30 boys and 30 girls are cloathed and educated; and ſeven boys in 1750 were ſuperadded, in purſuance of the will of Mrs Ann Carr, who leſt 500 l. to be placed out at intereſt for that purpoſe.



HAVING ſhewn the government of the city, and privileges of the incorporated body, we beg leave to call the reader's attention to the hiſtory and deſcription of the cathedral church.

In the preceding volume, under the annals of the biſhops, are ſhewn the origin and foundation of this rich church, which renders it unneceſſary now to revert to many of the facts there ſtated.

The reader will recollect, that in the firſt inſtitution this church was ſerved by ſecular clergy, who are ſaid to have been governed by a provoſt. Biſhop Walcher firſt projected a change, intending to introduce regular canons, but did not live to effect his purpoſe. His ſucceſſor, William de Carilepho, in the year 1083 accompliſhed that matter, aided by the power of the crown, under the influence of the See of Rome. He applied to pope Gregory the Seventh for his precept or licence, on which he grounded his charter*, thereby declaring he granted the ſame by the command and council of the holy See, and that the king was preſent at the time of making thereof; and ordained, that all future priors of the church at Durham ſhould poſſeſs the liberties, dignities, and honours of abbots, with the abbot's ſeat in the choir of the church; and to hold all their lands, churches, and poſſeſſions in their own hands and free diſpoſition, ſo as the revenues thereof might thereby be increaſed as much as poſſible, exempted from royal cuſtoms. He obtained the king's diploma to maintain and ſupport his charter, dated in the year 1084, eſtabliſhing the removal of the ſecular clergy from his epiſcopal church, and tranſlating thither monks from Jarrow and Weremouth monaſteries, who were of the order of St Auguſtine; by which inſtrument the king ordained, that all priors of that monaſtery ſhould poſſeſs the ſame liberties, cuſtoms, dignities, and honours, as abbots ; to hold the left-hand ſeat in the choir; have full power of appointing and removing the officers of the church; ſimilar to the authority of a dean, have the firſt place and voice after the biſhop; when in chapter, the firſt voice in all elections to the See; and, whatever dignities and honours the dean of York held, inferior to the archbiſhop, but ſuperior to the archdeacon, the prior of Durham ſhould equally hold in inferiority to his prelate, but in ſuperiority of the archdeacon. By this inſtrument, the king alſo confirmed whatever the biſhop had granted to his convent; and declared his protection of the monaſtery and its poſſeſſions, as well thoſe then enjoyed, as whatever ſhould thereafter be acquired by the money of St Cuthbert or otherwiſe, with ſac. and ſocne, tol and team, and infangeontheof, [Page 62] privilege of courts, and wreck of the ſea: And he alſo thereby ordained, that the convent and their people ſhould be for ever thereafter exempt from all outgoings, exactions, rents, tolls, and all other royal cuſtoms appertaining to the crown. This diploma was ſigned in the preſence of the biſhops and peers of the realm, who ſubſcribed and atteſted the ſame *. The biſhop alſo gave to the monaſtery full juriſdiction over all their churches, and acquitted them of the authority of their prelate and archdeacon, ſave only touching the cure of ſouls; and in the year 1094 he decreed, that the priors ſhould for ever thereafter be archdeacons of the whole dioceſe of Durham, vicars-general, and officials .

The ſeculars, though removed from the ſeat of dignity, were not ſent abroad unprovided for, ſeveral places being prepared for their reſidence, as will be ſhewn in the courſe of this work.

Not content with ſolely accompliſhing ſo great a reformation, this prelate gave to the monaſtery, Rennington, the two Pittingtons, Heſſelton, Dalton, Merrington, Shincliff, and Elvet; with Willington and Wall's-End north of Tyne, together with the churches of Lindisfarn, the adjacent villages of Fenham, Norham, and Skirworth, with divers churches in Yorkſhire; and other donations were added by the king, among which are lands in Keverſton and Gretham.

After the biſhop's return from exile, he furniſhed the altar with various veſſels and ornaments of gold and ſilver, and gave to the convent a large collection of valuable books . It would be an unprofitable labour in this place to note the ſeveral gifts of lands, as the whole poſſeſſions of the church appear in the endowment after the Reformation.

[Page 63] The biſhop, conceiving the church built by his predeceſſors was not of ſuitable magnificence to the dignity and increaſing power of the See, formed a plan for a new erection, ſimilar to the ſuperb ſtructures he had ſeen on the continent; and in the year 1093 he began to erect the ſtately edifice, now the ſubject of our attention. Though the art of making glaſs was introduced from France in the beginning of the ſeventh century, and Eddius, who wrote the life of Wilfrid, and lived about the year 720, aſſerts, that he glazed the windows of the church of York when he repaired that edifice, yet we have no proofs to maintain the aſſertion. It is probable that the uſe of glaſs prevailed greatly when our prelate began this work. The original form of the windows was of the circular arch, ſimilar to the galleries above the ailes, and they were conſtructed for glazing. Glaſs windows introduced great embelliſhments in public edifices, as the uſe of ſtucco and plaiſtering ſucceeded that improvement; before which the inſides of the walls were regularly chiſſelled and poliſhed; which circumſtance has contributed greatly to the permanency of ancient buildings, the inſide ſurface being as exactly compacted as the outſide. The large windows introduced in this building are apparently of a faſhion and fabrication more modern than the eleventh century, their pointed arches in nowiſe correſponding with the mode which is adopted through the greateſt part of the ancient edifice, that kind of arch being, as our beſt authors agree, introduced ſince the reign of Henry II. The annexed plate, taken from as accurate a drawing as perhaps was ever given to the public, will ſave much deſcription, and convey to the reader the moſt perfect idea of this fabric before the repairs and embelliſhments now carrying on were begun. In the plates given in the Monaſticon, the weſtern towers are ornamented with ſpires, which went to decay, and were removed many years ago. In Willis's Cathedrals is a beautiful plate of the north front, dedicated to biſhop Talbot, but the drawing is contracted and inaccurate.

The foundation of the church was laid on the 11th of Aug. 1093, with a ſolemnity ſuited to ſo great and pious a work, the biſhop being aſſiſted therein by Malcolm king of Scotland, and Turgot the prior: But the prelate departing this life in the year 1095*, ſaw but a ſmall part of his plan carried into execution. The work was zealouſly proceeded in by his ſucceſſor biſhop Flambard, who lived to ſee great part of the building up to the roof .

We are not informed in what ſtate the monaſtic buildings were at the time the new foundation of the church was laid. Whilſt biſhop William was in exile, the convent built their refectory or frater-houſe , a deſcription of which is given in the notes. The preſent library was built where it ſtood.

1.2.1. ALDWINE,

[Page 64]

who was the head of the monaſtic houſes of Jarrow and Weremouth, at the time their monks were tranſlated to Durham, was made the firſt prior of the [Page 65] convent. He was originally of Wincelcambe *, but having an irreſiſtible deſire to viſit the venerable monaſtic remains in the north, travelled into this province, accompanied by two monks from Eveſham. They arrived in this country in the year 1073, and firſt ſat down at Monkcheſter, now Newcaſtle; but on the invitation of biſhop Walcher, came to the ruined houſe of Girwa or Jarrow. That place ſoon becoming crowded by the number of devotees who reſorted thither, ſeveral colonies emigrated from thence: One body of monks ſettled at Streoneſchale or Whitby; another at York, from whom aroſe the noted monaſtery of St Mary; another went to Melros; and a fourth to Weremouth. Aldwine enjoyed his new dignity but a very ſhort time, he departing this life on the 12th of April, 1087 *. His ſucceſſor

1.2.2. TURGOT,

to whom the modern hiſtorian is ſo much indebted for information touching the ancient ſtate of this See, was ſaid to be of noble birth, and, in his youth, one of thoſe unhappy perſons who were confined in the caſtle of Lincoln, ſoon after the Norman conqueſt: Eſcaping from priſon, he fled to Norway, and was graciouſly received. Some years after, returning to England, he ſuffered ſhipwreck, and loſt all his effects. He reſorted to Durham, where he obtained protection of biſhop Walcher, who recommended a religious life to him, and placed him under the tuition of Aldwine at Jarrow. From that monaſtery he went to Melros; from thence to Weremouth, where he aſſumed the monaſtic habit; and, laſtly, returned to Durham. On Aldwine's death, Turgot, with the general aſſent of the prelate and monaſtery, was elected prior of Durham in the year 1087, the office of archdeacon being annexed to that dignity. The monaſtery profited greatly by his prudent government; the privileges were enlarged, and revenues conſiderably increaſed by his influence; and he promoted many improvements in the ſacred edifices. He contributed an everlaſting ornament to the monaſtery by the Eccleſiaſtical Hiſtory which he compiled, beginning with the foundation of the See, and proceeding to the year 1096. After filling the office of prior with great dignity and piety for near twenty years, he was elected biſhop of St Andrew's and primate of Scotland in 1107, and conſecrated by archbiſhop Thomas, at York, on the 1ſt of Auguſt, 1109. Diſſentions ariſing between biſhop Turgot and the king of Scotland, the prelate's anxiety and diſtreſs of mind brought on a decline of health, [Page 66] under which he obtained permiſſion to return to England; and came back to Durham in the year 1115, where he reſided little more than two months before his death. Stevens ſaith, that he returned to Durham after the death of king Malcolm and his queen *. He was buried in the chapter-houſe, between biſhops Walcher and William.

After Turgot's departure for the See of St Andrew's, unhappy diſſentions took place between the monaſtery and biſhop Flambard; no prior was appointed for a conſiderable time; and the duties of archdeacon, official, and vicar-general, were ſevered from the office of prior: The biſhop alſo poſſeſſed himſelf of ſeveral of the conventual eſtates, as lands beyond the bridge which he built, called Framwelgate or Durham bridge, Staindrop, Blakiſton, lands in Wolviſton and Burdon, and the church of Siggeſton.

Before we advance further in the hiſtory of this church, it is neceſſary to obſerve, that the monks tranſlated thither were of the Benedictine order. They followed the rules of St Benedict, who was born at Norſi, in the dukedom of Spoletto, in Italy, about the year 480, and died about 543. But his rule ſeems not to have been confirmed till 52 years after his death, when pope Gregory the Great gave a ſanction to it. The habit of theſe monks was a black looſe coat, or a gown of ſtuff reaching down to their heels, with a cowl or hood of the ſame, and a ſcapulary; [Page 67] and under that, a white habit, as large as the former, made of flannel, with boots on their legs; and from the colour of their outward habit, they were generally called Black monks. This rule was introduced into England in king Edgar's time, but never perfectly obſerved till after the Conqueſt. Of this order were all our cathedral priories, except Carliſle and moſt of the richeſt abbeys in England.

The Benedictines were obliged to perform their devotion ſeven times within four-and-twenty hours *. At cock-crowing, or the NOCTURNAL: This ſervice was performed at two o'clock in the morning: The reaſon for pitching upon this hour, is taken partly from David's ſaying, At midnight I will praiſe the Lord, and partly from a tradition of our Saviour's riſing from the dead about that time. MATINS: Theſe were ſaid at the firſt hour, or, according to our computation, at ſix o'clock: At this time the Jewiſh morning ſacrifice was offered: The angels likewiſe were ſuppoſed to have acquainted the women with our Saviour's reſurrection about this hour. The TIERCE; which was at nine in the morning, when our Saviour was condemned and ſcourged by Pilate. The SEXTE, or twelve at noon. The NONE, or three in the afternoon: At this hour it is ſaid our Saviour gave up the ghoſt; beſides which circumſtance, it was a time for public prayer in the temple at Jeruſalem. VESPERS, at ſix in the afternoon: The evening ſacrifice was then offered in the Jewiſh temple; and our Saviour is ſuppoſed to have been taken down from the croſs at this hour. The COMPLINE: This ſervice was performed after ſeven, when our Saviour's agony in the garden, it is believed, begun. The monks going to bed at eight, had ſix hours to ſleep before the Nocturnal began: If they went to bed after that ſervice, it was not, as we underſtand, reckoned a fault; but after mattins they were not allowed that liberty. At the tolling of the bell for prayers, the monks were immediately to leave off their buſineſs; and herein the canon was ſo ſtrict, that thoſe who copied books, or were clerks in any buſineſs, and had begun a text letter, were not allowed to finiſh it. Thoſe who were employed abroad about the buſineſs of the houſe, were preſumed to be preſent, and excuſed other duties; and that they might not ſuffer by being elſewhere, they were particularly recommended to the divine protection. The monks were obliged to go always two together; this was done to guard their conduct, to prompt them to good thoughts, and furniſh them with a witneſs to defend their behaviour. From Eaſter to Whitſuntide the primitive church obſerved no faſts; at other times the religious were bound to faſt till three o'clock on Wedneſdays and Fridays; but the twelve days in Chriſtmas were excepted in this canon. Every day in Lent they were enjoined to faſt till ſix in the evening: During this ſolemnity, they ſhortened their refreſhment, allowed fewer hours for ſleep, and ſpent more time in their devotions; but they were not permitted to go into voluntary auſterities, without leave from the abbot. They were not to talk in the refectory at meals, but hearken to the ſcriptures read to them at that time. The Septimarians, ſo called from their weekly offices of readers, waiters, cooks, &c. were to dine by themſelves, after the reſt. Thoſe who were abſent about buſineſs, had the ſame hours of prayer preſcribed, [Page 68] though not the ſame length of devotions. Thoſe ſent abroad, and expected to return at night, were forbidden to eat till they came home: But this canon was ſometimes diſpenſed with. The Compline was to be ſolemnly ſung about ſeven at night: The ſervice concluded with this verſe, Set a watch, O Lord, before my mouth, and keep the door of my lips. After this ſervice the monks were not allowed to talk, but went to bed immediately. They were all to ſleep in the ſame dormitory, but not two in a bed: They lay in their cloaths. For ſmall faults they were excluded the public table; but for greater, were debarred religious commerce, and the ſervice of the chapel: And thoſe converſing with a perſon under ſuch cenſure, were liable to the ſame puniſhment. Incorrigible criminals were expelled the monaſteries. When a brother was again received after expulſion, he loſt his ſeniority, and was placed the laſt in the convent. Every monk was to have two coats and two cowls; and when they had new cloaths, their old ones were given to the poor: Each had a table-book, a knife, a needle, and a handkerchief: The furniture of the bed was a mat, blanket, rug, and pillow. The ſuperior was never to dine alone; ſo, when there were no ſtrangers, he was to invite ſome of his brethren to his table.—Such were the regulations of this monaſtery.

In the year 1109 the biſhop conſented to nominate

1.2.3. ALGAR

to be prior*. He preſided over the monaſtery till the year 1137, (according to Stevens) when he departed this life. The biſhop was reconciled to the convent in this prior's time, and in the year 1128 reſtored ſeveral of the poſſeſſions which he had uſurped, and filled the vacant offices. In a ſolemn act of expiation, he confirmed the reſtitution, by offering a ring at the high altar, and granting two ſeveral written charters to that purpoſe. He alſo enlarged and ornamented the common hall of the monaſtery, and gave to the convent the hermitage, church, and poſſeſſions of Finchale. He opened out the north front of the cathedral church, and cleared away all the buildings which crowded the area or plain between the cathedral and caſtle, rendering it a level and beautiful ſquare, which then took the name of the Placea, or Green Place, of which we ſhall ſpeak in courſe. After this prelate's death, the monks proceeded in the building of the church, and during the vacancy of the See finiſhed that great work.

Galfrid, ſurnamed Rufus, who ſucceeded to the biſhopric, built the chapter-houſe for the convent. Soon after Algar's death,

1.2.4. ROGER

was made prior; a man of the moſt pious life, brought up from infancy in the diſcipline of the cloiſter. He held a controverſy with archdeacon Wazo, touching the place of honour on the right-hand of the biſhop; which was adjudged to be the prior's right, by biſhop William de Sancta Barbara, in the year 1147. He held his dignity during the whole time of Cumin's uſurpation, and departed this life in the year 1149 .


[Page 69]

was then made prior *; after whoſe coming in biſhop William ſurvived only three years, and was ſucceeded by biſhop Pudſey, in the year 1153. The prior is deſcribed as a man of approved diſcretion, of a heart ſuperior to evil, poſſeſſing a refined eloquence, and duly diſciplined in religious rules. Strenuous in the matter of Pudſey's election, he was included with the reſt of the religious body in the ſentence of excommunication pronounced by the archbiſhop of York, and underwent the diſcipline of the whip in Beverley church; after which he travelled to Rome with biſhop Pudſey, and died as he was returning in the year 1154. His remains were brought to Durham, and interred in the cemetery-yard . He was a man of ſingular prudence and learning, a great writer, and many of his works are ſpoken of with much applauſe. There are nine MSS. of his in the biſhop's library . He was ſucceeded by

1.2.6. ABSOLOM,

a perſon of whom little more is known than that he had a foreign education, and was but a ſhallow ſcholar. He was under the biſhop's diſpleaſure during the whole time he held this high office, and from weakneſs and want of reſolution ſuffered the angry prelate to infringe the privileges of the convent in various inſtances. He departed this life in the year 1162 .

1.2.7. THOMAS

was ſoon after elected prior. He could not brook the inſolence which biſhop Pudſey diſcovered on every occaſion, and was of too great rectitude of mind to ſuffer paſſively the infringements that prelate repeatedly made on the rights of his monaſtery. He entered into a conteſt with the biſhop concerning the church of Allerton. The monks not ſupporting their prior in this juſt ſuit, the biſhop depoſed him, or conſtrained him by his perſecutions to reſign. In diſguſt with the world, he retired to one of the Farne iſlands, in which St Cuthbert formerly had his reſidence, and, reſtoring ſome of the buildings, lived the life of a recluſe, and died there in 1163 §.

1.2.8. GERMAN

ſucceeded in the year 1163. He was a monk of this houſe, and deſcribed to be of a patient and forbearing diſpoſition, prudent and peaceful; that, from his predeceſſor's example, he thought it better to ſubmit to the troubles of the [Page 70] monaſtery, than encreaſe them by fruitleſs contention: He continued prior to the time of his death, which happened in the year 1186. In his time, reſtitution was made to the convent of ſeveral matters which biſhop Flambard had taken away, as well as others with-held by the then prelate *; but it was not till the time of his ſucceſſor,

1.2.9. BERTRAM,

that the abbot's ſeat in the choir and chapter-houſe was reaſſumed, the priors having been denied that place of honour for ſeveral years, whilſt under the prelate's diſpleaſure. It appears that the office of prior was vacant for two years, Bertram not being elected till the year 1188 or 1189. He ſurvived biſhop Pudſey, and for ſome years before his death had power to conciliate the mind of that prelate, and reconcile him to the convent .

Hugh Pudſey, after the example of his predeceſſors, was deſirous of contributing to the beauty and magnificence of the church at Durham, and projected a ſumptuous addition towards the eaſt. The only author who mentions this, is Geoffrey de Coldingham , who tells us, that he began to erect a new work at the eaſt end of the church, for which he imported from abroad marble columns and baſes; but having laid the foundations, and carried up the walls to ſome conſiderable height, employing the moſt ſkilful artiſts therein, the building repeatedly failed and ſhrunk, to the imminent peril of the workmen; which ſufficiently indicated to him, that the intended work was not acceptable to Heaven and St Cuthbert: So that he deſiſted therefrom, and built the Gallilee at the weſt end of the church, for the reception of women; where they might have the benefit of the holy offices, being otherwiſe debarred from the ſolemnities. It doth not appear the marble columns were placed in the Gallilee. It muſt be obſerved in this place, that the eaſtern tranſept of the church is rather a ſingularity, and was not built near the time of the other parts; the architecture throughout the whole being different. Great improvements in architecture were made, from the aera of the foundation by biſhop William, to the time of biſhop Pudſey's death: The more elegant Gothic order [Page 71] took place of the Saxon, and the pointed arches came in uſe: All the windows of this part of the edifice, in the lower arrangement to the eaſt, are pointed: The cluſtered pilaſters are chiefly of marble, though ſhamefully defaced and bedaubed with a waſh of lime and ochre: There are no marble pilaſters in any other part of the church, or any of the like order of maſonry. Although no hiſtorian tells us who finiſhed this work, yet that it was begun by biſhop Pudſey is certain, and left by him unfiniſhed for reaſons hid in ſuperſtitious allegory; probably it was compleated in the time of biſhop Farnham and prior Thomas Melſonby. The Gallilee, ſaid to be built by biſhop Pudſey, doth not appear to be wholly a new erection; it is probable he improved it, and appropriated the place to the pious purpoſe before aſcribed to it: It is formed with a triple range of pillars, ſo as to divide it into five ailes, nearly of equal width; the arches are circular, and ornamented with zigzag mouldings; the pillars are light, and cluſtered; above the arches is a dead facing or wall, which goes up to the roof, without any apparent utility, and far from being ornamental; the windows are pointed. It is noted to us, that a certain part of the moſt ancient churches had a place called the Gallilee, where the proceſſions ended *: Thoſe proceſſions were made on the Sabbath-day, to ſignify or commemorate the paſſage of the diſciples into Gallilee; ſo that in every church where thoſe proceſſions were practiſed, a certain ſtation therein had that name.

Biſhop Pudſey gave to the church many rich ornaments, and greatly enlarged the power of the monaſtery: The Yorkſhire churches, until the time of this prelate, appertained to the biſhops, as appears by a deed of compoſition made with the archbiſhop of York about the year 1174; but Pudſey granted them to the convent .

[Page 72] On biſhop Pudſey's death, Hugh Bardolph had cuſtody of the temporalties of the See, whoſe officers entered the church, and took by violence the keys of the city gates from St Cuthbert's ſhrine. Philip, who ſucceeded to the biſhopric, held violent contentions with the monaſtery, prior Bertram ſtrenuouſly maintaining the rights and privileges of his convent. The perſecution this prelate exerciſed againſt the religious body, was ſcandalous to religion; but how far the injuries and indignities he received might irritate, we know not *. Prior Bertram ſurvived him, but did not live to ſee his ſucceſſor in the See; for diſſentions aroſe concerning the election of a prelate, the convent not being willing to ſubmit to the papal injunctions, or the king's nomination; and during this ſtate of perplexity, the prior departed this life in the year 1209.

The diſagreement which ſubſiſted between the late prelate and his convent prevented improvements taking place in the ſacred edifices; and it is apprehended the eaſtern tranſept of the cathedral church was neglected during that biſhop's time.

[Page 73] In the annals of the biſhops it is obſerved, that a vacancy of the See took place after the death of Philip of Poicteu, for the ſpace of nine years and upwards, in which period, Wharton notes, much darkneſs and perplexity appear in the hiſtory of this church, occaſioned by the diſtraction of the religious body, who had neglected their records; ſo that, if during this vacancy the eaſtern tranſept was proceeded in, it is not mentioned by the ſcribes of the houſe in any of their chronicles.

1.2.10. WILLIAM,

a native of Durham, was elected ſucceſſor to Bertram during the vacancy of the See, the king having granted licence to the convent for that purpoſe. He departed this life in the year 1214, or, as ſome ſay, 1219. If we reſt upon the credit of Wharton, he died before Richard de Mariſco had the biſhopric. Geoff. de Coldingham tells us of an honourable diſtinction given to this prior of Durham by the legate archbiſhop of York, at a council held there, in which the prior, in the place of the biſhop of Durham, had the right-hand of the legate both in council and at dinner *.


ſucceeded to the office of prior, and governed the church for nineteen years. He departed this life in the year 1203. In the ſecond year of the epiſcopacy of Richard de Mariſco a reconciliation took place between the prelate and monaſtery, and the biſhop by his charter confirmed to the prior and convent all the liberties and privileges granted to them by biſhop William de Carilepho; and as an additional bounty, appropriated to them the church of Dalton, (alias Datton) for the better ſupport of their houſe, and alſo confirmed the appropriations of the churches of Aycliff and Pittington.

In the year 1228 Richard Poor was tranſlated to the See: He lived on terms of amity with the monaſtery, entering into a convention with the prior and convent, for preventing future diſputes with their biſhops, quieting their poſſeſſions, and aſcertaining their privileges .


[Page 74]

was elected prior in 1233; and on the deceaſe of biſhop Richard, in the year 1237, was nominated to ſucceed him, and with much reluctance ſubmitted to the choice. He was objected to by the king, who alledged many things againſt him of a political nature *, and others perſonal: ‘That he was an infringer of the liberties of the church, was diſeaſed in body, had broken his vow, and diſregarded religious injunctions, particularly the ordained faſts; that he was guilty of ſimony, was illiterate,’ and ſuch like charges, equally ſlanderous and untrue. After ſuch an oppoſition, unwilling the See ſhould longer continue vacant, he renounced his election, and biſhop Farnham ſucceeded. Fearful of the king's reſentment, he reſigned his office in the year 1244, and retired to Farne iſland, where in acts of piety and charity he ſpent the remainder of his life. His body was brought to Durham to be interred. In the year 1242 the prior, with the approbation and aſſiſtance of the biſhop, began to remove the whole of the old roof from the cathedral church, and gave this noble edifice the additional elegance of a vault of ſtone-work. Willis aſcribes this work to the biſhop in theſe words: ‘Biſhop Farnham, (temp. Hen. III.) vaulted over the roof of the church with ſtone.’ Whoever pays due attention to the mode of architecture in this part of the edifice, will eaſily diſcover that the roof of the choir and eaſtern tranſept are of ſimilar workmanſhip. Grayſtanes, who was a monk of Durham, and lived within a century of the time we are ſpeaking of, is moſt to be credited; and his words are, ‘Anno Domini 1242, incoepit Thomas prior novam fabricam eccleſiae circum feſtum S. Michaelis, juvante epiſcopo,’ &c. The prior alſo projected an additional work; for it is equally obſervable, that the tower of the ſteeple called in Davies's book the New Work and the Lanthern, are of the ſame order and workmanſhip, and expreſs the ſame date . The faciae under the windows of the eaſtern tranſept are ornamented with roſe-niches; the gallery of the lanthern is formed of open roſes. The gallery of the tower of Melros abbey is [Page 75] ſimilar to this, and that edifice was built in the twelfth century *. The windows of the lanthern are pointed and ornamented with tabernacle work in pinnacles, which kind of decoration appears no where but on the buttreſſes of the eaſt front. The pilaſters to the windows in the lanthern are ſimilar to thoſe in the eaſtern tranſept, and not like any other parts of the edifice. It is not eaſy to determine what kind of center tower this church firſt had; but, from the uniformity of the outſide plan, it may be conjectured it was ſimilar to the weſtern towers, and without much ornament. Three bells hung in the center tower, which were rung to give notice of the ſervices of the church; four bells for other occaſions, as rejoicings, &c. were being in the north-weſt tower adjoining the Gallilee. The new work or lanthern terminated at the gallery vulgarly called the bellringers walk. The upper tower was added ſome years after, in biſhop Stichill's time. It is impoſſible prior Thomas ſhould, in the two years preceding his reſignation, compleat ſo great and expenſive a work; but certain it is, he firſt brought it forward.


was elected prior on the 22d of September 1244, and reſigned that dignity on the 15th of Auguſt 1258. Biſhop Kirkham (on his acceſſion in this prior's time) confirmed to the monaſtery the grants of his predeceſſors, and gave them the church of Heighington for the better ſupport of hoſpitality, together with a large tract of land at Horſley-Hope. In this prior's time, the papal grant of the kingdom of Apulia and Sicily took place, for which the biſhop of Hereford engaged to the holy See, that the clergy of England ſhould pay 38,000 marks, to be borrowed for that purpoſe [Page 76] *. Againſt this contract our prior appealed, alledging, that he and his convent were at all times ready to obey the pope in things lawful and practicable; but to ſpoil their churches of their goods, to ſubvert their liberties, and ſtraiten their maintenance, would be ſuch an indignity to the church, ſcandal to the clergy, and reproach to religion itſelf, that they never could aſſent thereto. It cannot be doubted but this reply would prove offenſive, as well to the See of Rome as the crown of England; and in 1258 we ſee the prior reſigning his dignity, though the hiſtorians of that time do not immediately expreſs it to be in conſequence of ſuch diſpleaſure. On the 17th of the calends of Auguſt the prior petitioned the convent to admit of his reſignation, and that they would provide a maintenance for his retirement, alledging at once his want of conſtitutional abilities to execute the duties of his high office, and alſo the ſervices he had undergone in forty years monaſtic life, fourteen of which he had been prior; he aſſerted, he had obtained a bull for his diſmiſſion, but would not uſe its authority. Meſſengers were accordingly ſent to the biſhop with his requiſition, who in return commanded his commiſſioners to hear the allegations, and they by virtue of their authority admitted the ſame, and committed the care of the ſpiritualties of the monaſtery to the ſub-prior, and the temporalties to R. de Waltham, conſtable of the caſtle. The convent aſſigned to Bertram for his maintenance, the churches of Pittington, Heighington, &c. Notwithſtanding the great work he had carried on in the church for two years, he left to his ſucceſſor in the conventual treaſury 11,000 marks. He was not only a zealous churchman, giving up his life to acts of piety, but alſo a punctual maintainer of the rights of the monaſtery. He left to the monaſtic library many of his compoſitions and learned works. His name was held in pious veneration by the cloiſter. His frugality was manifeſted in his management of the revenue allotted him, for therewith he not only ſupplied the neceſſities of life, but was enabled to build at Beaurepaire a lodge or ſummer retreat, with a chapel, not inferior in elegance to other erections of the like nature in the dioceſe.


[Page 77]

ſuperior of the convent, in the ſame year Bertram reſigned, was elected prior *, and poſſeſſed that dignity until the 8th day of January, 1272, when he thought proper to abdicate the office, alledging his infirmities . During the wars of the barons, he conducted himſelf ſo prudently, as to ſave the poſſeſſions of the church from depredations by either party. He contributed greatly to the magnificence of his convent. He built the belfry on the ſummit of the great tower of the cathedral church, and enlarged the organ: He alſo emparked Muggleſwick and Beaurepaire. At Wardelau, as one author writes, he erected a lodge or camera, a hall and chapel, which were afterwards deſtroyed by the Scots in their incurſion: He built a lodge or camera at Muggleſwick; the remains of which, and alſo that at Beaurepaire, will be deſcribed in the progreſs of this work . In this prior's time, a bull was obtained from the pope for the appropriation of Hoveden church for an addition of ſixteen monks; but, at a conſiderable expence, he procured the appointment to be converted into prebends, apprehending they would prove as honourable and advantageous promotions, and as acceptable to the clergy whom he wiſhed to ſerve, as if the original inſtitution was maintained. This prior was diſtinguiſhed for his hoſpitality and charitable actions: Whenever he came to his houſe, the poor people, to whom his kitchen was ever open, danced before him: P [...] [...]im the ſcriptures were fulfilled, in cloathing the naked and feeding the hungry. It is ſaid of him, that the common coinage of a denarius or penny was reduced to five mites, that he might diſtribute handfuls of that ſmall money to a greater number of objects. When advanced in years, and obliged to travel in a chariot, he conſtantly threw money from thence to the poor. He was a perſon of approved wiſdom, as well as of a magnificent mind. Frequent applications were made to the biſhop to receive his reſignation, pleading his infirmities and age, which in the event produced an altercation between the convent and prelate concerning profeſſion of obedience by the monks , the convent alledging their prior was not of the ſame rank with others, he having the privileges of an abbot, and the monk's profeſſion was the right of an abbot. But at length the convent agreed, that the monks ſhould firſt make profeſſion to the prior and then to the prelate, and receive his ſolemn benediction: Whereupon they ſent meſſengers to the biſhop, that they were willing [Page 78] to make their profeſſion and receive his benediction; but the buſineſs was ſtill delayed, on account of ſome formalities which remained unſettled, until the 10th of January, when the biſhop in the chapter-houſe accepted the prior's reſignation, and the manors of Wardelau (according to our author's words) and Muggleſwick were aſſigned for his maintenance; the biſhop added Ryton thereto. Theſe affairs being ſettled, a converſation took place between one of the monks and the biſhop, in which the biſhop complained with warmth that "he had ſuffered greater indignity and diſreſpect than any of his predeceſſors;" but declared, "he would ſeek ſatisfaction in God's good time." He had ſcarce departed the gates before his ſeneſcal, with the conſtable of the caſtle and their officers, entered the convent, pronouncing, that they came at the prelate's command, in his place, to have cuſtody of the houſe during the vacancy of the office of prior. The next day the ſeneſcal, calling the ſub-prior and other officers of the houſhold into the hall, commanded the porters, the marſhal, and other ſecular ſervants of the monaſtery, to come forth, ſaying, the houſe was in the cuſtody of the lord biſhop, therefore he deſired to ſee who were proper to take care of it, that he might take their oaths of fidelity, remove thoſe he did not approve, and ſubſtitute others in their places. He was anſwered, ſuch proceedings were altogether unprecedented; and it was with difficulty he was perſuaded to wait till [...] next day, to give the convent time to conſult the biſhop thereon. Two of [...] [...]ethren were ſent without delay to the biſhop, with a petition for licence to elect a prior; on peruſing which, he rejected it, not being addreſſed to him as ſupreme lord and patron; alledging, if he was not patron, they were under no neceſſity to ſeek a licence. When the monks ſaid the inſtrument was in the uſual form, he contradicted them, aſſerting, that after the death of prior Thomas, his predeceſſor biſhop Farnham for the ſame cauſe rejected the conventual petition. On the return of the meſſengers, many of the convent recollected that the cauſe of ſuch precedented rejection was not as alledged by the biſhop; for in the inſtrument referred to, the biſhop was addreſſed as father and patron in ſpiritualties and temporalties, but the ſeal of the convent by accident had been ſeparated from the inſtrument before it came to the prelate's hands, which occaſioned it to be renewed before he granted his licence. It was accordingly ſet forth in the arguments on this ſubject, that as the biſhop was in fact patron of the church, no reaſon appeared why he ſhould not be addreſſed as ſuch in their proceſs; which was aſſented to. On the ſucceeding day letters were iſſued, in which he was ſtiled Reverend father and patron: Meſſengers being ſent therewith, they were graciouſly received, and licence for the election of a prior was immediately granted; in conſequence of which the biſhop's officers were withdrawn from the convent.

In prior Bertram's time a bull was obtained from the See of Rome for quieting the convent in their privileges, and confirming the ſame, of which Walter archbiſhop of York granted his teſtimonial and certificate of inſpection *. In prior Hugh's [Page] time, the ſame archbiſhop certified the penſions due from the churches belonging to the priory lying within the dioceſe of York; which was afterwards confirmed by archbiſhop Nevill . About the year 1254 the archbiſhop made an order, at a viſitation held at York, touching the holy veſtments and other church furniture and ornaments. As the various particulars of this conſtitution give a light to the cuſtoms of the church, and diſcover the manner and circumſtances of religious exerciſes, ſome of them merit notice in this place. ‘That the habits of the clergy ſhould be provided at the charge of each reſpective pariſh, and be rich in proportion to the wealth of the inhabitants: That they ſhould be provided with a croſs [Page 80] for proceſſions, and another leſſer one for the uſe of funerals: That they ſhould have a bier for the corpſe, a veſſel for holy water, an oſculatorium or a picture (probably of our Saviour or the holy Virgin) for the people to kiſs, a candleſtick for the paſchal taper, an incenſe pot, a lanthorn, with a ſmall bell, to uſe when the hoſt was carried to the ſick: A veil to ſkreen the altar from ſight during Lent; with two candleſticks pro ceroſerariis, that is, for thoſe that lighted up the tapers, and carried them from one part of the church to another, which was the buſineſs of the acolyte. Among the books for divine ſervice the following were to be provided: Legenda *, Antiphonare , Gradale , Pſalterium, Troparium , Ordinale §, Miſſale et Manuale.

‘The pariſh was to provide an altar-piece for the great altar, three ſurplices, a decent pix for the hoſt, a banner for Rogation-days, bells and ropes; a baptiſmal font, with a lock to it; a chryſmatory, or veſſel for keeping the holy oil uſed in baptiſm and confirmation. They were likewiſe to provide images, particularly a principal figure to the chancel, which was to repreſent the ſaint in honour of whoſe memory the church was conſecrated .’


prior of the cell of Holy Iſland, was elected prior of Durham on the 26th of Jan. 1273, and in the 12th of the pontificate of biſhop Stichill; on the ſecond day following he was confirmed at Darlington, was inſtalled by the archdeacon of Durham on the day of the purification of the Virgin Mary, and three days afterwards confirmed the proviſion made for his predeceſſor on his reſignation. Before the above inſtance, we are not told by any hiſtorian of the priors having the ſolemnities of confirmation and inſtallation, though it is probable it was an ancient uſage here. The prior abdicated his office on the 27th of December, 1285: No reaſon is aſſigned by our author for this act, who tells us, that the prior was not only a man of great piety and hoſpitality, but of ſtrict circumſpection and attention touching the rights of the monaſtery; and notwithſtanding the great proviſion made for prior Hugh, and the expenſive litigations proſecuted between the archbiſhop of York and his church, the convent abounded in wealth during his whole adminiſtration. He had aſſigned him for maintenance the cell of Weremouth, with the tithes of Southwick. In May, 1274, pope Gregory IV. held a council at Lyons, to which the prior was called, but did not attend, having only his proctors there: Biſhop Stichill dying in that year, the archbiſhop during the vacancy of the See appointed a viſitation to be held in the chapter-houſe at Durham the day before the vigil of All-Saints, which was ſubmitted to at that time; after which ceremony the archbiſhop repaired to the caſtle, where he was entertained, Henry de Horncaſtre, then ſacriſt of the cathedral church of Durham, bearing the [Page 81] crucifix before him *. Robert de Grayſtanes gives an inſtance of the authority of the prior, which ſhews one of the ancient cuſtoms of the monaſtery, viz. ‘That biſhop Stichill, whilſt he was reſident in the caſtle at Durham, made it his cuſtom to ſend wine to the convent: One day he ordered his butler to carry wine to the ſub-prior's table, which on being preſented gave offence to prior Hugh, who preſided at the upper table, and thereupon he ſtruck the table, and put an end to dinner in the middle of the meſs.’

Biſhop Robert de Inſula, who ſucceeded to the See, gave to the prior and convent the advowſon of the church of Meldon in his dioceſe, accepting in exchange the ſole preſentation to the church of Waldeneſtow, in the dioceſe of Lincoln, to which the prior and convent had an alternate right with him: He alſo granted them Freewarren in Billingham, with the woods there. On prior Claxton's reſignation,


was recalled to that dignity on the 11th of January, 1285; was confirmed by the biſhop on the 31ſt of the ſame month, and inſtalled on the 7th day of February following. He continued a ſhort time in office under this ſecond election, his laſt reſignation taking place on the 11th of March, 1290, or according to Grayſtanes 1289 §. That author tells us, the prior came to an agreement with the archbiſhop of York, aſſenting to his exerciſe of juriſdiction over the churches of the dioceſe during a vacancy of the See of Durham, as appears by an inſtrument in writing, dated in the year 1286, on which all preceding cenſures and judicial ſentences touching that matter were reſcinded. He ſays, the prior before his ſecond abdication was in a ſuperannuated ſtate of mind, yet ſo obſtinate and reſentful, that when application was made for his removal on account of his incapacity, he ſent meſſengers to the biſhop, with a promiſe of large bribes, to induce him to deny his ſuſpenſion, which did not prevail; whereupon he yielded with great reluctance to a ceſſion of his office.


, prior of the cell of Lynche or Latham, was elected on the 24th of March to ſucceed Hugh of Derlyngton; was confirmed by the biſhop on the 28th of the ſame month, and inſtalled on the 9th of April. This prior was of a bold and virtuous mind, and having to do with the overbearing and proud prelate Bek, was obliged to exert himſelf for the preſervation of the privileges of his church: A diſpute ſoon aroſe between them, which was fermented to a violent height, as has already been related in the annals of that prelate; the excommunication, ſuſpenſion, and interdiction of the prior being at length the conſequence of their conteſt. The biſhop thereupon commanded the convent to elect a prior; and they not obeying, he obtruded upon them Henry de Luceby, who then preſided in the cell of Holy Iſland: He was accordingly inſtalled, on prior Richard being dragged from his ſeat by the violent hands of a monk devoted to the biſhop. Grayſtanes tells us, that a ſavage [Page 82] from the wilds of Tyndale was brought into the church to do this act; but bei [...] ſtruck with awe, he retired from the preſence of the man, and declared no go [...] could tempt him to the outrage; yet what the barbarian abhorred, was perp [...] trated by one who had profeſſed his obedience to the ſuperior whom he aſſiſted depoſe. Thus prior Hotoun was put under confinement, and Luceby govern [...] the convent. In this ſituation affairs remained ſome time; the prior effected h [...] eſcape into Cleveland, where he remained until the parliament aſſembled at Li [...] coln, when he preſented a complaint againſt the prelate, and obtained recommendatory letters from the king for relief at the court of Rome. The prior bein [...] maſter of a perſuaſive eloquence, with much erudition, and a graceful perſon gained the ear of the pope, and a decree of reſtitution was pronounced in his favour, which was publiſhed in the church at Durham in the month of April, 130 [...] Luceby had poſſeſſion of the prior's apartments, where he retained ſuch friends a [...] had courage to remain with him; in that ſituation they meanly deſcended to th [...] act of ſpoiling the veſſels belonging the houſe, ſtripping off the ſilver ornaments and taking poſſeſſion of ſuch plate as fell under their hands; with theſe attempting to eſcape, and being oppoſed, they threw the valuables over the walls, and ſtole out by way of the hog-yard. Luceby, whilſt he uſurped the office, retained many of the principal men of the palatinate in his family, and lived in a ſplendid manner, that thereby he might win the approbation and eſteem of the people; but ſuch meaſures did not prevail, for many treated him with high contempt. He paid great attention to the ſacred edifices; the ſacriſtaria was his firſt work; he repaired the roof of the nave of the church, built the veſtry room, and at a great expence procured bells, veſſels, and ornaments. Grayſtanes ſays, he conducted himſelf in the office of prior, both at Holy Iſland and Durham, with ſuch decorum, that it was the opinion of many, had he come duly to the latter dignity, a better prior * had not been for a long time.

In the year 1303, on the day of St Peter ad Vincula, prior Hotoun returned to Durham, and was received moſt cordially by the convent, who held a feſtival on the occaſion: An inquiſition was afterwards taken by men of the county of Northumberland touching the damages ſuſtained by the convent under the biſhop's perſecution, by the ſeizure of their revenues and deſtruction of their parks, in which the biſhop employed the moſt able advocates the kingdom afforded, whilſt the prior's cauſe was managed by one only, whoſe name was William de Herle, and whom Grayſtanes perpetuates; when the biſhop was juſtly condemned in a large ſum of money. The pope dying ſoon after, the biſhop obtained from his ſucceſſor a bull, requiring the archbiſhop of Canterbury and the biſhops of Lincoln and Wincheſter to viſit the chapter of Durham, on an accuſation lodged againſt the prior for dilapidations and divers offences, touching which the prelates were commanded [Page 83] to enquire; but pope Benedict departing this life, the biſhop's purpoſe was fruſtrated, till pope Clement, who created B [...]k patriarch of Jeruſalem, at his ſuggeſtion ſuſpended the prior from all adminiſtration, as well in ſpirituals as temporals. The prior, on his journey to Rome for redreſs, paſſed the winter near Canterbury, ſending from thence two monks of his convent, as proctors: Whilſt he remained there, the biſhop committed the care of the monaſtery to Luceby; and the abbot of Leiceſter with the pope's mandatory letters accompanied him to Durham, to give him poſſeſſion; but on their arrival, they ſound the gates ſhut againſt them, and their admittance refuſed; on which, they pronounced an excommunication againſt the whole ſociety: This brought on a litigation, at the inſtance of the prior, for an offence againſt the crown, on their preſuming to execute the powers of the See of Rome in matters temporal, and a grievous ſine was impoſed upon the offenders.

The prior returned from the South to meet the king at Durham, and on the feſtival of St Oſwald the martyr, celebrated maſs in the royal preſence at the altar of St Oſwald. The king granted him licence to viſit Rome, and recommendatory letters to the pope for redreſs, with which he paſſed into Italy, but did not live to return: He met with a favourable reception from the pope and college, and on the 24th of October obtained a ſentence of reſtitution, but was decreed to pay one thouſand marks to the apoſtolical chamber for the ſame. On the 9th of Jan. (Grayſtanes ſays in the year 1307, but from other authorities in 1308) the prior departed this life; and that the See of Rome might be indemnified for the loſs of the fine, all his goods, plate, books, horſes, and effects then in Italy, were confiſcated.

Prior Hotoun was not deficient in public works, notwithſtanding the troubles in which he was embarraſſed: He compleated the manor-houſe of Houghhall; with the biſhop's licence he purchaſed Oxford Place, afterwards called Durham College, and made the firſt erections there : He alſo built the chapel De Belio Loco, afterwards [Page 84] called Beaurepaire or Bearpark. The convent received a grant of freewarren in their territories at Winſton about this time.

During this prior's office, the diſpute which aroſe between Ralph lord Nevill, of Raby, and the convent, in the time of prior Claxton, was continued, and did not ſubſide for ſeveral years. The account we have of it is to the following effect, as given by Dugdale in his Baronage, vol. i. p. 292.

"About the 13 Edw. I. 1285, there was much variance between the inhabitants of the biſhopric of Durham and Anthony Beke (that great prelate) then biſhop of Durham, by reaſon he had compelled them to go twice into Scotland with horſe and arms, which they alledged to be contrary to right, in regard they held their lands to defend the body of St Cuthbert; and that they ought not, either for king or biſhop, to go beyond the rivers of Tyne and Tees. Ralph Nevill, then lord of Raby, was the chief countenancer of thoſe who oppoſed the biſhop. Not long after, another diſpute aroſe between this Ralph and Hugh de Derlyngton then prior of Durham, about the offering of a ſtag every year upon St Cuthbert's day in September; which (in truth) was rather a rent than an oblation, in regard he held Raby with the eight adjoining townſhips, by the yearly rent of four pounds and a ſtag. For contrary to the cuſtom of his anceſtors, he not only required, that the prior of Durham, at the offering of the ſtag, ought to feaſt him and all the company he ſhould bring, but that the prior's own menial ſervants ſhould for that time be ſet aſide, and his peculiar ſervants and officers put in their ſtead. Whereupon amongſt other of his gueſts he invited John de Baliol of Barnard Caſtle, who refuſed to go with him, alledging, that he never knew the Nevills to have ſuch a privilege there; Sir Wm de Brompton, the biſhop's chief-juſtice, likewiſe acknowledging, that he himſelf was the firſt who began that extravagant practice; for being a young man, and delighting in hunting, he came with the lord Nevill at the offering of the ſtag, and ſaid to his companions, "Come let us go into the abbey and wind our horns," and ſo they did. The prior farther adding, that before the time of this Ralph, none of his predeceſſors ever made any ſuch claim, but when they brought the ſtag into the hall they had only a breakfaſt; nor did the lord himſelf ever ſtay dinner, except he was invited.

In the 5 Edw. III. 1331, Ralph Nevill (ſon of the former) doing his fealty to William de Couton then prior of Durham, upon Lammas-day, for the manor of Raby, he told him he would offer the ſtag as his anceſtors had done; ſaving that, whereas his father required, that the prior's ſervants ſhould be ſet aſide at that time, and his own ſerve in their ſtead; he would be content, that his ſhould attend together with thoſe of the prior: And whereas his father inſiſted, that his ſervants ſhould only be admitted at dinner; he ſtood upon it, that his ſhould be there entertained the whole day, and likewiſe the morrow at breakfaſt.

Whereunto the prior made anſwer, that none of his anceſtors were ever ſo admitted, and that he would rather quit the ſtag, than ſuffer any new cuſtom to the prejudice of the church. But to this Ralph replied, that he would perform the whole ſervice or none, and put the trial of his right upon the country. The prior, therefore, knowing him to be ſo powerful, and that the country durſt not diſpleaſe him, declined the offer. However, at length to gain his favour, (in regard he had no ſmall intereſt at court, and might do him a kindneſs or a diſpleaſure) [Page 85] was content for that one time he ſhould perform it as he pleaſed, ſo that it might not be drawn into example afterwards; and for that purpoſe propoſed, that indentures ſhould be made between them.

Whereupon the Lord, Nevill brought but few with him, and thoſe more for the honour of the prior than a burthen, and ſo ſhortly after dinner took his leave, but left one of his ſervants to lodge there all night, and to take his breakfaſt there on the next day; proteſting, that being both a ſon and tenant to the church, he would not be burthenſome to it, in reſpect it would be no advantage to himſelf, but might much damnify it, if he ſhould bring with him as great a train as he would, ſaying, What doth a breakfaſt ſignify to me? Nothing. And likewiſe, that if the prior would ſhew, that he had no right to what he ſo claimed, he would freely recede therefrom; and if he had a right, he would accept of a compoſition for it, rather than be burthenſome to the convent; but if they ſhould put him to get his right by law, then he would not abate any thing thereof.

Whereupon enquiry being made amongſt the oldeſt monks of the houſe, they affirmed, that being of eight years ſtanding when his father was before repulſed, they had often ſeen the ſtag offered, and that he never ſtaid dinner but when the prior invited him; and ſome ancient men of the country teſtified as much; as alſo, that as ſoon as the ſtag was brought, they carried him to the kitchen, and thoſe who brought him were taken into the hall to breakfaſt, as they that brought their rents uſed to be.

Moreover, when it happened that any of the lords Nevill were deſired to ſtay dinner with the prior, his cook was admitted into the kitchen to prepare a diſh for him; ſo likewiſe another ſervant in the cellar to chuſe his drink, and in like manner ſome other at the gate, who knew his ſervants and followers, merely to let them in, and keep others out, who, under pretence of being his ſervants, might then intrude; but this was only done by the prior out of courteſy and reſpect, and not at all of right.

Hereupon Henry le Scrope, one of the juſtices, affirmed, that he had been of counſel with Ralph Nevill (father of this Ralph) when he brought his writ of Novell Diſſeiſin againſt the prior; and told him that he had no right at all: Whereupon Ralph let fall his ſuit.

Some ſaid, that making this claim out of his own ſee, he ought there, (viz. in the priory) to ſhew ſome ſpecial evidence to aſſert his claim. Others, that as the prior did challenge nothing of him, but what was reſerved by the grant; ſo could not he, unleſs he ſhewed a charter for it. And beſides, claiming to be entertained with as many as he ſhould bring, and not ſpecifying the number, there could be no lawful reaſon for it; becauſe the ſtag was always offered on Holy Rood day, whereupon grew an old ſong in rhyme, as a lamentation for Robert de Nevill, his great grandfather.

Wel I wa, ſal ys Hornes blaw
Holy Rode this Day;
Nou es he dede, and lies law
Was wont to blaw tham ay.

[Page 86] Moreover, it was further ſaid, that it never had been the cuſtom of the prior to make a feaſt on that day, when the ſervants of ſo great a perſon was to offer; and that the prior uſually on St Cuthbert's day had wont to dine with the biſhop at ſome of his own manor-houſes; therefore, who ſhould compel him to make a feaſt at home? Likewiſe, that thoſe lands were given to the anceſtors of this lord Nevill, when they were not ſuch great men as to have a marſhal, a butler, and other ſervants of ſtate; for in thoſe days, they had no more than Raby with its appurtenances, which was not then of ſo much worth as it is now; for Brancepeth and Raſkelfe came to them ſince by marriage; as alſo other lands in Yorkſhire and Richmondſhire: Therefore it could not be thought that the prior of Durham did give lands of ſuch value, and purchaſe the ſervice to be done for them at ſo high a rate, eſpecially conſidering, that in the prior's land book, not only all the ſervices are exactly regiſtered, but whatſoever others ought to receive of him. And laſtly, that there is not ſo much as mention made of this ſervice in any of their chronicles."

During the vacancy of the priory, the biſhop ſeized the temporalties of the convent, and by Stephen Mauley (de Malo-lacu) his vicar-general, diſplaced the ſubprior, the priors of the cells, and many who were adherents of the deceaſed prior, appointing others in their places: The prior of Coldingham alone was continued in his office. This Grayſtanes exclaims againſt as a flagrant breach of the privileges of the convent, though the biſhop alledged the members of the houſe were not capable of holding offices, by reaſon of the ſentence of excommunication, which remained unpurged. In this period much perplexity aroſe touching preſentations to vacant churches, till it was determined they ſhould be made jointly, under the title of Anthony biſhop of Durham and the convent of Durham, the office of prior being vacant. In the year 1308, on the morrow of the Purification, the biſhop viſited the chapter in the order preſcribed by pope Boniface, when, for no other irregularity or offence than their attachment to the prior in his ſtruggles againſt the prelate's oppreſſions, he ſuſpended the following members of the ſociety for ten years:— Richard de Aſlakby, who was ſub-prior in prior Hotoun's time; Galfridus de Burdon, prior of Finchale; and Nicholas de Rothbury, almoner of Durham. But archbiſhop Greenfield, in his viſitation during the vacancy of the See, after the prelate's death, annulled the ſentence*.

The king, jointly with the patriarch, applied to the pope in favour of


then prior of Wederhall, and he was accordingly appointed Hotoun's ſucceſſor on the 24th of February, 1308: In this act we have a flagrant inſtance of the corruption of the holy See; for the price of his collation was not leſs than 3000 marks to the pontiff, and 1000 to the cardinals. He was inſtalled on the feaſt of St Cuthbert in September following, many of the nobility with ſeveral prelates being preſent at the ceremony.

Under the oppreſſive ſpirit of the prelate, the priory ſuffered greatly; being not [Page 87] only much impoveriſhed by the expences incurred, and heavy debt contracted on account of their litigations with him; but alſo greatly embarraſſed and diſtreſſed by the defection of the prior of Coldingham, who renounced his obedience and ſubjection to the monaſtery: The prior of Durham viſited that convent, and diſplaced the prior for his offence, appointing another in his room: After having received the homage and fealty of the terr-tenants of the ſhrine, he followed the depoſed prior to Stamford, whither he haſtened to lay his complaint before the parliament, hoping the king and his miniſters would ſupport him againſt his ſuperior, as he was perſonally known to them, having carried the banner of St Cuthbert in the Scotch war; but in this was diſappointed, for the countenance of the court was denied to ſuch injurious proceedings.

The prior of Durham obtained permiſſion to viſit Rome, where he ſtaid till the prelate's death. On the acceſſion of biſhop Kellow, the convent experienced a happy change of circumſtances, and received repeated marks of that prelate's countenance and favour; he reverſed all the oppreſſive acts of his predeceſſor, and reſtored the ancient privileges of the monaſtery, eſpecially in the material point, that during the vacancy of the priory, none ſave the ſub-prior and chapter ſhould intermeddle with the ſpiritualties or temporalties of the convent; the biſhop retaining to the See the right of having one clerk in the houſe as a nominal guardian thereof, with three horſes and three ſervants, without claiming to have any further concern with the goods of the houſe. By the gift of this prelate, the convent had Waſtrophead, with a fiſhery in the river Were.

In the year 1313 *, the prior finding his health decline, and the attacks of old age haſten upon him, reſigned his office, and had allotted for maintenance the cell of Jarrow and the manor of Wardle ; he lived in retirement until the month of February, 1342, when he departed this life: He is deſcribed to us as a man of good ſtature, a graceful countenance, and pleaſing carriage; laviſh and diffuſive, he was remarked to be improvident of his reſources, delighting in a numerous retinue, repeated and ſplendid feaſts. We hear of no public works by this prior; and, indeed, under the unhappy circumſtances in which he was involved during the patriarchs time, together with his own expenſive mode of life, we cannot wonder at the neglect.

[Page 88] Licence in a ſhort time being obtained for electing a prior,


then ſub-prior of the convent, was placed in the chair, about the time of the feſtival of Peter and Paul, 1313, and ſoon afterwards received confirmation, and was inſtalled: In 1316 *, he had the mortification to have his ſweet country retreat at Beaurepaire, which was embelliſhed with every ornament known to the taſte of thoſe times, pillaged and defaced by a party of marauding Scots. He is ſpoken of by ancient authors in the moſt honourable manner: Grayſtanes remarks of him, as a ſpecial ſingularity, Viros diligens habere in familia et non pueros, equos pro vectura et non equulos: This prompts diſagreeable conjectures touching a monaſtic life, on which an inference ariſes, that the cuſtom of entertaining boys had grown ſcandalous; or otherwiſe the hiſtorian, a monk of that church, would not have marked that part of the prior's character with the eulogium, Iſte in familia erat honorificus, viros diligens, &c. &c. Singularity of character, even in the exerciſe of virtue, occaſions enmity; for the reformation of any vice is a public reproach to thoſe immerſed in the practice of it: The prior, with all his good qualities, was the object of much wrath; he was accuſed with virulence at biſhop Beaumont's viſitation, and many miſdemeanors were laid to his charge by his brethren , which induced him to reſign his important office on the 25th of January, 1322; he having the cell of Weremouth, with the tithes of Weremouth and Fulwell, aſſigned for maintenance: Grayſtanes ſays, that though he had good grounds for defence, he was induced to ſubmit, rather than involve the houſe in litigation and expence . Soon after this reſignation,


was elected prior, a man equally eſteemed for his learning and religious life; but on the following Lord's-day, when every one expected he ſhould receive confirmation of the holy office, he entered the chapter-houſe, and renounced his election §: Whereupon the chapter proceeded to a new election, and


was choſen prior; he ſoon afterwards received confirmation, and was ſolemnly inſtalled on Holy-rood-day: Grayſtanes ſays , he was Vir utique Deo et hominibus amabilis. In this prior's time, a diſagreeable controverſy was determined, touching a claim made by Goldeſburgh, archdeacon of Durham, of juriſdiction in right of his office over the churches appertaining to the monaſtery lying between Tyne and Tees: It had been uſual for the archdeacon to exerciſe archidiaconal juriſdiction in the name of the prior in the churches of the convent, by virtue of an agreement made between them, for which an annual ſum was paid as an acknowledgment; on Goldeſburgh's refuſing payment of the compoſition money, and perſiſting in the exerciſe of juriſdiction, the diſpute aroſe; by compromiſe it was ſettled, [Page 89] that the prior ſhould enjoy archidiaconal juriſdiction in the churches of Jarrow and Weremouth, and Goldeſburgh throughout the reſt for life. The convent had a diſpute of the like nature with the archdeacon of Northumberland, which was compromiſed in the year 1331 on the like terms; but on his death, new diſturbances aroſe, and his ſucceſſor claimed the like privilege.

A mortality raged among the horned cattle, and made a dreadful havoc during this prior's time. After preſiding nineteen years, he departed this life at Pittington, on the 26th day of February, 1342, and was buried in the cemetery-yard of the cathedral church among his predeceſſors *. It appears he was a monk of the abbey of Fountains . His memory was much revered in his monaſtery; for with a truly pious life, he diſplayed much benignity of heart, in a humble carriage towards his brethren, which ſoftened the rigours of the cell, and rendered the cloiſter cheerful: To ſtrangers, and thoſe received at his table, he appeared eaſy of acceſs, and pleaſant in converſation; always affording a liberal, or rather magnificent entertainment: Religion fixed its genuine impreſſion on his countenance, benevolence in ſmiles. He was ſucceeded by


formerly a monk of Durham, and prior of the monaſtery of Weremouth, who was elected the 16th of March, 1342, and confirmed and inſtalled on the laſt day of the ſame month: Chambrè ſpeaking of him, ſays, he was a man of much wiſdom, with a prevailing eloquence, ſo that many took the habit in his time : He cauſed an account to be had of the goods and poſſeſſions of the monaſtery, for the better management and protection thereof; and appointed a burſer of great providence and diſcretion, by whoſe care and aſſiduity, during the courſe of ſix years, 758 l. 3 s. 6 d. of the old debts of the convent were diſcharged, 492l. 7s. 7d. was expended out of the treaſury in public works, and 209l. 5s. 3d. in contributions: He cauſed all the miſſals of the church to be removed, one of which, lying at the altar of St Nicholas and St Giles, coſt him 22 l. At the north end of the middle tranſept of the cathedral church, he made a large window of ſix lights, with three leſſer windows, near the altar of St Nicholas and St Giles, which was the third and laſt altar in that aile to the north, in the maſonry of which he expended 100 l. and 25 l. in glazing. Stevens ſeems to confound Chambrè's account ; and the great window made by our prior is named twice, ſaying, he made another large and ſumptuous window of ſix lights, whereas on a view of the church the error is eaſily diſcovered. He ordained, with conſent of the chapter, that a daily maſs ſhould be ſaid for his ſoul at the abovementioned altar by one monk, for whoſe penſion, with the maintenance of the windows, and for proviſion for his anniverſary, he appropriated lands to the convent. He provided a rich veſtment with three copes, for the ceremonies of his anniverſary. He inſtituted a chantry at the aforeſaid altar, which was called the chantry of the Holy Trinity, for the celebration of divine ſervice for ever; and under the biſhop's licence purchaſed lands in North Pittington, Wolviſton, [Page 90] and Billingham for its endowment, for which he expended 66l. 10s. 9d. and for the erection thereof 20l. * He gave for the uſe of the altar a chalice of the value of 6l. 13s. 4d. with three albes chaſubles and palls; alſo images in alabaſter of the holy Trinity and bleſſed Virgin, with tabernacles and other ornaments, of the price of 22l. He expended in other edifices and ornaments about the church 402l. 6s. 8d. and made a window at the ſouth end of the common hall, which coſt him 40l. In his time many reparations and new works were made, as well within the church as without, particularly in the kiln , granary, and kitchen, the great window of ſeven lights at the weſt end of the nave, three other windows in the north ſide of the nave, two on the north ſide of the choir by John de Tickhill, and two on the ſouth by the feretory: Alſo, in this prior's time, the lord Ralph Nevill preſented to the church a veſtment of red velvet, and obtained permiſſion that he and his lady Alicia ſhould be buried within the walls of the church, which had not been granted before to a layman. John lord Nevill his ſon, at the inſtance of Richard de Birtley and John de Cornvall, then feretraries of the church, cauſed to be made a new work of marble and alabaſter for St Cuthbert's tomb, which coſt upwards of 200l. and at the prior's requeſt, the elegant tabernacle work, which divides the feretory from the high altar, was procured, towards the expence of which lord Nevill gave 600 marks. It was made in London, and ſent down by ſea; but before our munificent prior could ſee it erected, attacked by various infirmities, he departed this life at Beaurepaire, on the 12th day of November, in the 90th year of his age, and 33d of his priorſhip, A. D. 1374. He was buried at the north end of the middle tranſept, before the altar of St Nicholas and St Giles, his tomb being covered with marble prepared in his life-time and curiouſly wrought ; Robert de Syreſton, a monk of the houſe, well acquainted with his virtues, inſcribed it with the verſes§ in the notes, as given by Browne Willis, p. 225.

In this prior's time was fought the great battle of the Red-Hills, in which David Bruce was taken priſoner. The victory was announced to the people of the city by the eccleſiaſtics ſinging a ſolemn hymn or Te Deum on the top of the ſteeple of the cathedral church, in conſequence of a ſignal from the monks at Maiden Bower. This cuſtom was continued on the anniverſary, till the times of general confuſion in the 16th century. The reſtoration of king Charles was a matter of ſuch great joy to this church, that the ceremony was revived on the 29th of May, on which day it is ſtill annually performed. This prior had licence in 1344 to purchaſe [Page 91] lands in Monketon and Monkheſleton *; and certain articles of agreement between the biſhop and the convent were ratified whilſt he preſided .

On the petition of Ralph lord Nevill for a burial place within the church, the prior and convent granted their licence for making a ſepulchre on the ſouth ſide of the nave, to which the conventual ſeal was affixed, then bearing the impreſſion of the head of St Oſwald: Et conceſſerunt cis cum litera ſub ſigillo capitis Sancti Oſwaldi . This was thought the moſt proper place to preſent to the reader the drawing of that ſeal, where it is ſo indiſputably authenticated. The croſs ſide or reverſe is remaining at preſent in the dean and chapter's library, from whence Mr Allan took ſeveral impreſſions in wax, but the head ſide is loſt .

[Page 92] Application was made to the See of Rome by king Edward III. that the church of Hemingburg in Yorkſhire ſhould be appropriated to this church, which the pope in the year 1372 refuſed, becauſe of the populouſneſs and other exceſſes thereof. The epiſtle of pope Gregory II.* ſhews the ſtate of the monaſtery at that time. The king's letter prayed the appropriation to be made propter neceſſitates eis incumbentes; to which the pope replied, he was informed the religious body conſiſted of 150 perſons, with four dependent abbies, where priors had been inſtituted; beſides which they held, appendent to the monaſtery, thirteen pariſh churches, and to many others they had the right of collation: That, by reaſon of their opulence, they were guilty of great enormities; when they travelled, they were each attended by three or four horſemen, and made an appearance inconſiſtent with religious humility; and that in their expences, as well in proviſion for their table as apparel and other ordinary matters, they were guilty of great exceſs.


, alias Benington, alias Berrington, ſucceeded to the office of prior, he being elected on the 11th of December 1374, and confirmed on the 24th of the ſame month. The elegant work which his predeceſſor Foſſour and lord John Nevill gave to this church, this prior was at the expence of erecting, employing therein ſeven artiſts near a year. In the year 1380 the high altar was compleated and ſolemnly dedicated to the holy Virgin, St Oſwald the royal martyr, and St Cuthbert, the whole convent appearing in proceſſion and aſſiſting at the ceremony .

The convent was greatly enriched by him: In 1378 he obtained licence to purchaſe lands , and in 1379 received a charter of confirmation of various purchaſes made in Wolviſton, Billingham, Great Burdon, Aycliff, Fery, Monkheſildon, Edmundbyers, Durham, Hett, Heburn, Spennyngmore, Rayley, Aldernage, Elvet in Durham, and the old borough of Durham . In 1380 he had confirmation of the exchange of Henknowl for lands in Wolviſton, made with John de Belaſys §. In the ſame year a licence was procured for the purchaſe of other lands, of the annual value of 200 marks, for the maintenance of eight monks, and eight ſecular ſcholars to ſtudy in Durham college, Oxford . In 1388 another licence was granted for the purchaſe of lands at Helay, and lands and tenements in Gateſhead Whyckham, the old bridge at Durham, Clayport, Sadlergate, the North-Bailey, Fleſhhewer-Raw, Framwelgate, Pipewellgate, Weſt and Eaſt Merrington, Aycliffe, Fery, Wolviſton, Heſledon, Le Brome, North Pittington, Eaſt Rainton, Hebern, Burdon, Billingham, Edmundbyers, St Giles's or the ſtreet of St Egidius, Alertongate in Durham, [Page 93] the old borough of Durham, Elvet and Cocken*. In 1390 Wm de Scrope preſented, at the feretory of St Cuthbert (in ſatisfaction for certain offences by him committed againſt the rights of the church) a jewel of the value of 50l. This prior obtained from pope Urban VI. a bull, that he and his ſucceſſors ſhould be inveſted with the mitre, paſtoral ſtaff, rings, ſandals, and other pontifical inſignia, and was the firſt prior in this church authoriſed to uſe the ſame . He appeared rigidly attentive to [Page 94] the rites of the church in the ceremonies of biſhop Hatfield's interment. Chambrè tells us *, the executors applied to the convent to permit the chariot on which the remains were brought to enter the church, and that the ſame with the horſes might be returned; or otherwiſe they ſhould be obliged to take the body from the vehicle on the outſide of the church-yard, and carry it on men's ſhoulders into the church, becauſe the chariot and horſes were not the late prelate's property at the time of his death, he having previouſly diſpoſed of them. To this the prior, with the aſſent of the convent, replied, that he would not conſent on any conſideration to the infringement of any of the privileges of his church; but that the ſacriſt ſhould have the chariot, horſes, and all the veſtments, with which the remains ſhould enter the north gate, together with the chapel, and all other the epiſcopal ornaments uſed at the interment. The lord Nevill and four others of diſtinction were choſen to determine upon this claim; who adjudged, that by ancient cuſtom all theſe matters appertained to, and were the right of the church; but they compromiſed the ſame in the preſent inſtance, and the executors conſented to pay 200l. in lieu of the articles demanded, in order that the ſplendor of the interment might not be diminiſhed, or the intended ceremony diſturbed .

After preſiding in the monaſtery ſeventeen years, the prior died, and was buried before the altar of St Benedict, being the firſt of the three altars in the north limb of the middle tranſept. His tomb was covered with marble, and ornamented with his effigies in braſs and other curious work .


ſucceeded in the ſame year, and held this important office twenty-five years . In his time the biſhop's right to receive profeſſion of the monks was re-claimed, and, after much litigation and an appeal, the biſhop withdrew his ſuit. The juriſdiction of the convent's churches within the dioceſe of York was again agitated during this [Page 95] prior's office, and was determined againſt the archbiſhop §. He ſent his proctor to the convocation at York in the year 1398. The prior departed this life in the year [Page 96] 1416, and was interred in the ſouth limb of the middle tranſept of the cathedral church, before the altar of the holy Virgin, being the firſt from the ſouth aile of the choir. His tomb was covered with marble, wrought with his effigies and thoſe of the twelve apoſtles in braſs *. To him ſucceeded


who was elected the 5th of November, 1416. This learned prior wrote many tracts, particularly one, De juribus et poſſeſſionibus eccleſioe Dunelm. wherein he proves, that the priors of Durham were always inveſted with the dignity of abbots . There are ſome of his MSS. in the dean and chapter's library, B. 5, N. 1. The account of the paintings in the windows, and of the ornaments and ceremonies of the church, now extant, is by ſome attributed to him. He renewed the diſpute with the biſhop touching the profeſſion of the monks, which was determined in the prior's favour; and preſided at the general chapter held for the order of St Benedict, at Northampton, in the year 1426. In his time, ſeveral licences were obtained for acquiring lands by the monaſtery , in Coupan, Billingham, Burdon, Eaſt-Rainton, and Fery on the Hill, and alſo in Barmeton, Eaſt, Weſt, and Middle-Merrington, the barony of Elvet near Durham, and the old borough of Durham; and alſo a licence to receive the manor of Heworth near Aykley, according to the diſpoſition and ordinance of prior Hotoun. We have a correct liſt of the fraternity of this monaſtery, reſident at the time of the viſitation of John Marchall, L. L. B. vicar-general to the biſhop, in the month of January 1437 §. Prior Weſſyngton preſided [Page 97] thirty years, and departed this life in the year 1446 *. He was buried before the door of the north aile, near to St Benedict's altar: On his tombſtone was an inſcription on braſs, now totally loſt.


was elected prior on the 30th of June 1446, holding the chair ten years and three months. He reſigned in the year 1456; and ſurviving that act but a ſhort time, was interred under a marble ſtone in the ſouth aile of the middle tranſept, before the altar of the holy Virgin, called our Lady of Bolton, which was erected by the Nevills: This was the ſecond altar in that place. His tomb, Willis ſays, was inſcribed as in the notes . He was ſucceeded by

1.2.27. JOHN DE BURNABY, D. D.

who was elected the 25th of October 1456, and preſided eight years. He died in the year 1464, and was buried on the 15th of October, in the middle aile of the nave, oppoſite the cloiſter door. On the marble which covered his tomb was his effigies in braſs.

1.2.28. RICHARD* BELL, B. D.

[Page 98]

was elected the 26th of November 1464: He preſided here thirteen years and twenty weeks, and was conſecrated biſhop of Carliſle on the 6th of March 1478. Whilſt prior of Durham, we find him named ſeveral times in the commiſſions of Edward IV. on treaties with the king of Scots. He died in 1496, and was interred in the middle of the choir of Carliſle cathedral; his tombſtone, with the effigies in braſs, and other ornamentals, are ſtill in good preſervation. His ſucceſſor


was elected the 26th of November 1478; preſided only ſix years, and during that time obtained ſeveral licences to increaſe the poſſeſſions of the convent. He departed this life on the 29th of June 1484, and was interred in the ſouth aile of the middle tranſept, before the altar called our Lady of Bolton's, under a marble tombſtone, ornamented with his effigies in braſs, the inſcription (given by Willis) as in the notes . His ſucceſſor

1.2.30. JOHN AUCKLAND, D. D.

was elected on the 16th of July 1484; preſided ten years; and, departing this life in the year 1494, was interred within the church . He was ſucceeded by


who was elected the 4th of May 1494, and held his office twenty-five years. The church was not purged, even in this age, of its groſſeſt ſuperſtition; for we find an account in Chambrè of a healing performed on one Richard Poell, a courtier of king Henry VII. at the tomb of St Cuthbert §. In this prior's time we have a liſt of the brethren of the monaſtery, as given in the notes. Much friendly intercourſe [Page 99] appears between biſhop Fox and the convent, and many ſpecial marks of favour were ſhewn by the prelates. The prior was made maſter of the biſhop's game, with a grant of veniſon from his foreſts and parks at pleaſure*. Biſhop Bainbrigg alſo ſhewed great attention to the monaſtery: In 1508 he granted his charter of confirmation, with an inſpeximus of the grant of biſhop Pudſey of Muggleſwſck in exchange for Hardwick, with the paſture of Horſleyhope, Hiſterhope, and Baldinghope; of the grant of biſhop Kirkham of the woods and waſtes in Horſleyhope, by metes and bounds ; alſo of the grant of biſhop Kellow of all the waſte and moorlands from the weſt gates of the priory of Finchale, by metes and bounds ; and alſo granted licence to the monaſtery to purchaſe in mortmain, in which inſtrument is compriſed a general indemnity . The ſame prelate granted to the prior and convent all the waſte lands lying between the bridge of Framwelgate and the bridge of Elvet, and between the walls of the caſtle and the cathedral church and the water of the Were, rendering 13s. 4d. rent§. He alſo granted free-warren in the prior's parks at Muggleſwick, Helay-field, Bear-park, and Raynton-park, and in the woods of Strathowe, Witton, Mayner, Sacriſtonheugh, Hayning-wood, Herber-cloſe, and Ferycliff, Baxtenford-wood, Raley with Raley-wood and the fields and meadows thereto appertaining, Oldingrege with the fields and meadows thereof, Alton-field, and Moreby-bank . The eaſt gates of the abbey, now called the College Gates, having gone to decay, prior Caſtell rebuilt the ſame in a ſumptuous ſtile, with a porter's lodge thereto; above the gateway he erected a chapel in honour of St Helen, where the laity twice a day were admitted to the celebration of maſs, for which two prieſts were aſſigned by the convent, who had their chamber adjacent to the chapel. He alſo reſtored the great north window of the middle tranſept of the church, in which he cauſed to be repreſented, in painted glaſs, the figures of the four Evangeliſts, together with the holy Virgin and St Cuthbert; under which his own figure was depicted, kneeling, with elevated hands, and a label bearing this petition, Virgo, tuum natum fac nobis propitiatum, or, as Davies has it, Virgo [Page 100] mater Dei miſerere mei. He purchaſed and gave to the convent two mills, from thenceforth called Jeſus' Mills, and covered them with lead; for which he obtained the pious memorial of being commemorated in Jeſus' maſs *. The tower on Farn iſland was built by him . Prior Caſtell departed this life on the 2d of April 1519, and was interred in the middle aile of the nave before Jeſus' altar, his effigies in braſs being wrought on his tombſtone, with the inſcription in the notes , as given by Willis.

The office continued vacant near five years, during which period, Wharton ſays , the biſhop received the revenues; but Stevens contradicts this aſſertion in theſe words, ‘What Mr Wharton ſays of the biſhop's aſſuming the priory revenues before the election of prior Hugh, is, as I am informed by my honoured friend Mr Thomas Baker, a miſtake.’ We muſt not depend too much on this bare contradiction; for near the cloſe of biſhop Ruthall's epiſcopacy, and on Wolſey's advancement to the See, we cannot wonder at ſuch a miſapplication . Before we proceed to prior Hugh's life, the records in the notes may perhaps be eſteemed worthy of notice **.


[Page 101]

ſucceeded to the priory, in the year 1524. He was cuſtos of Durham college, Oxford *, and is ſpoken of by hiſtorians in a very reſpectable manner. Chambrè tells us , he was uniformly religious, and his whole ſpirit breathed divine love. He retained in his houſhold perſons of diſtinguiſhed character, by whom he was moſt honourably ſerved; kept a liberal table; made great repairs at Beaurepaire; built a new hall at Pittington, called the prior's hall, with various other edifices; was not only munificent, but excellently charitable, and in his private life truly exemplary. He held the office eighteen years; and on the 31ſt day of December 1540, joining with the convent, ſurrendered the monaſtery into the king's hands , the revenues whereof were then rated at 1366l. 10s. 5d. according to Dugdale, but by Speed at 1615l. 14s. 10d.

[Page 102] On the 12th of May 1541 the king granted his Foundation Charter * to this church, inſtituting therein a dean and twelve prebendaries, and ordaining, that inſtead [Page 103] of the title of the cathedral church of the bleſſed Mary the Virgin, and St Cuthbert the biſhop, that the ſame ſhould for ever thereafter bear the denomination of the cathedral [Page 104] church of Chriſt and bleſſed Mary the Virgin. He thereby nominated Hugh Whitehead the firſt dean; Edward Hyndmers, D. D. firſt prebendary; Roger Watſon, [Page 105] D. D. the ſecond; Thomas Sparke, B. D. ſuffragan of Berwick, the third; William Bennet, D. D. the fourth; William Todd, D. D. the fifth; Stephen Marley, B. D. the ſixth; Robert Dalton, B. D. the ſeventh; John Towton, B. D. the eighth; Nicholas Marley, B. D. the ninth; Ralph Blaxton, the tenth; Robert Bennet, the eleventh; and Wm Watſon, the twelfth. He made them and their ſucceſſors a body corporate, by the name of The dean and chapter of the cathedral church of Chriſt and bleſſed Mary the Virgin; empowering them, under that denomination, to do all legal acts, and plead and be impleaded. He granted them all the ſcite of the monaſtery, and the ancient rights, liberties, and privileges thereof. The Endowment * made by the king bears date the 16th of May 1541: Theſe two inſtruments, being of much conſequence, are inſerted at length in the notes.

[Page 106] The eſtabliſhment, beſides the dean and prebendaries, conſiſted of twelve minor canons, a deacon, ſub-deacon, ſixteen ſinging-men, a maſter of the choriſters, [Page 107] ten choriſters, a divinity reader, eight almſmen, two maſters of the grammar-ſchool, eighteen ſcholars, two vergers, two porters, two ſextons, two barbers. Willis ſays, [Page 108] ‘The king converting the priory into a college of ſeculars, aſſigned his new dean and prebends their reſpective apartments out of the old monaſtery, within the [Page 109] precincts of which the biſhop, dean, prebendaries, and other members, have very good houſes, the beſt of any cathedral in England, according to the dignity of [Page 110] the prebends, which are reputed more richly endowed than any other church, owing, as I hear, to the members allotting themſelves, at firſt, their reſpective dividends [Page 111] or ſhares out of the chapter lands, and not leaſing them in common, by [Page 112] which practice (in this ſole church of the new foundation) ſome prebends are of [Page 113] more value than others, whereas in the reſt they are all equal, as they [Page 114] might be here poſſibly at firſt, though the improvements of eſtates have made a diſproportion, as it now continues.*.’

[Page 115] Dean Whitehead, Chambrè informs us, ſell under the diſpleaſure of the court, and, being accuſed of miſdemeanour againſt the ſtate, together with biſhop Tunſtal and Hyndmers his chancellor *, was ſummoned to appear before the council; being much agitated under ſuch circumſtances, and diſtreſſed by unuſual fatigue and travelling, he fell ſick ſoon after his arrival in London, and dying, was interred in Trinity Church in the Minories, in the year 1548, having enjoyed the office of dean only ſix years. Willis ſays , ‘The Hiſtory of Durham ſays he died at London in 1548, and was buried in the Minories there; which A. Wood in his Athenae alſo mentions, and tells us this epitaph was placed over his graveſtone, though it is now periſhed, as I found when I ſearched that church: Here lyeth the Body of Hugh Whitehead, the laſt Prior of Durham, and firſt Dean thereof, who died at London — and was buried in the Church of the Minories, Anno —’

The office of dean appears to have remained vacant three years from the death of Hugh Whitehead, or that he did not die in the year 1548; for it was not till the 18th of November, 1551, that

1.2.33. ROBERT HORN, D. D.

ſucceeded, it being expreſly ſaid in the patent (5 Edw. VI. part 3) that the king preſented him on the vacancy occaſioned by the death of Whitehead. Some authors have aſſerted he was born in the biſhopric of Durham , but the more probable account is §, that he was the ſon of John Horn, ſon of William Horn, of Cletor [Page 116] in Copeland, in the county of Cumberland, was educated in St John's college, Cambridge, where he commenced doctor in divinity, and went out ad eundem 9th July 1567. It is ſaid he was nominated to the biſhopric of Durham in 1552, biſhop Tunſtall being then living, who declined accepting it, as the conditions were ſuch he could not approve: * It is certain there was much diſagreement between him and that prelate. Soon after the acceſſion of queen Mary, Horn was ejected, and became a voluntary exile for the cauſe of faith, living abroad the whole of her reign. At the head of the epiſcopal party at Frankfort he greatly diſtinguiſhed himſelf, being choſen Hebrew-reader to the Engliſh ſociety there . In a bitter conteſt with one Aſhley, his bigotry rather than his tolerant ſpirit was diſplayed . On the acceſſion of Elizabeth, being reſtored to his deanry, he continued but a ſhort time before his appointment to the biſhopric of Wincheſter, which happened in the year 1560. At the conference at Weſtminſter, he was choſen one of the diſputants concerning the ſervices of the church §. A ſuit was proſecuted againſt him by biſhop Bonner, touching the ſupremacy oath, which was ſuperſeded by the fortunate interpoſition of the ſtatute on conſecrations. He departed this life on the 1ſt day of June 1579. The place of his interment is variouſly ſpoken of; moſt probably it was in the church at Wincheſter, near the pulpit; but Willis and Stevens ſay in the Minories church, London. The inſcription on his tomb has been given us in the Hiſtory of Wincheſter, publiſhed in 1773 **. Under the Life of John Whyte†† he is thus mentioned: ‘He was reported by a certain author ‡‡ to be a man of great mind and profound ingenie, and no leſs ſagacious in detecting the crafts of his adverſaries, than prudent in preventing and avoiding them. He was alſo a frequent preacher, and an excellent diſputant, and wrote in the mother-tongue an Anſwer to John Fackenham's Scruples §§ concerning the oath of ſupremacy. He gave way to fate in 1579, leaving this character behind him, given by one belonging to the church at Durham, who, ſpeaking of his demoliſhing ſeveral ancient monuments of that church while dean thereof, tells us, that he could never abide any ancient monuments, acts or deeds, that gave any light of or to godly religion." His character, as given by Fuller ‖‖, is to this effect: "A worthy man ground betwixt papiſts and ſectaries, who ſported with his name, and twitted his perſon as dwarfiſh, carping at the caſe, when they were not able to find fault with the jewel. Whatever his mould might be, he was made of good metal, as being of a ſprightful and fruitful wit.’ He publiſhed two of John Calvin's ſermons in [Page 117] Engliſh, to which he prefixed his Apology, wherein he gives an account of himſelf, and the reaſons for his flight. There are many things in this Apology worthy remarking *, eſpecially the complaints of hard and unjuſt dealing towards him, by biſhop Tunſtall, and by Gardiner biſhop of Wincheſter, and of the ſad change there was on the acceſſion of queen Mary. Strype ſays, ‘This Apology is well worthy the preſerving; therein he relates at large how he was ſummoned up from Durham to the privy-council: And thereby the biſhop of Durham and the biſhop of Wincheſter accuſed him of divers things that were merely falſe, on purpoſe to bring him into trouble; as that he, being dean of the church, took upon him to meddle in the biſhop's office; that in his new learning he preached hereſy; that he was a Scot; that he brought a wife into that church, where never woman came before: Of all which, with ſundry other charges, he acquits himſelf in this Apology .’ On dean Horn's ceſſion,

1.2.34. THOMAS WATSON, D. D.

was appointed by queen Mary, the 18th of November 1553. He was rector of North-Crawley in the county of Bucks, and maſter of St John's college, Cambridge. Soon after his advancement to this deanry, an act was paſſed to enable [Page 118] the queen to make ſtatutes and ordinances for the government of collegiate churches and their poſſeſſions, the former law of Henry VIII. having become obſolete for want of being duly carried into execution, as appears by the preamble. This power, as we obſerved before *, was as much confined to the queen as the other was to Hen. VIII. ſo that ſtatutes conſtructed, or reformations of ſuch ſtatutes, not done by queen Mary, and without authority of parliament, are void and of no validity.

The preſent ſtatutes of this church were drawn up by Nicholas Heath archbiſhop-elect of York, Edmund Bonner biſhop of London, Cuthbert Tunſtall biſhop of Durham, Thomas Thirlby biſhop of Ely, and William Armiſtead chaplain to their majeſties, who were commiſſioned for that purpoſe; and they received confirmation under the great-ſeal the 20th day of March, in the firſt and ſecond years of the reign of Philip and Mary .

1.2.35. STATUTES. CHAP. I.—The Biſhop's Pre-eminence.

The prelate takes place of the dean, canons, and miniſters of the church; and is to be received, upon his firſt coming, with the following ceremonies: The dean, [Page 119] with the whole choir in their proper habits, ſhall meet him in proceſſion at the north door, the bells ringing, the dean on his right-hand, the next in dignity on his left, conducting him to the high altar, where, kneeling, the prayers preſcribed ſhall be uſed. He is to be received in the ſame manner when he comes to viſit; but on other occaſions by the ringing of bells, and without proceſſion. When the biſhop preaches, or performs divine ſervice, the perſon whoſe turn it ſhould be, is excuſed. On his reading any of the offices on great feſtivals, the dean on his right-hand, and the perſon next in dignity on his left; or, in their abſence, the two next ſuperiors ſhall aſſiſt, and attend him from the veſtry to the altar or the throne; and on other occaſions the ſub-dean, or the perſon next in dignity, ſhall miniſter to him and ſupport his book. The dean and the whole choir, coming in or going out, ſhall bow to him, whether he is ſeated in his ſtall or throne. When the biſhop inſtitutes the dean or prebendaries, he is to ſend his letters to the dean and chapter, for induction and poſſeſſion. CHAP. II.—Induction and Inſtallation of the Dean.

The dean is to be inſtalled and placed in his ſeat in the chapter-houſe by the ſubdean or ſenior reſidentiary, where, having taken the preſcribed oath, both major and minor canons ſhall promiſe canonical obedience to him in theſe words: Domine decane, promitto tibi canonicam obedientiam tanquam decano. The dean's power and juriſdiction is ſupreme, touching the government of the church. He ſhall hear all cauſes relative to the chapter, and, aſſiſted with their opinions, determine therein; correct exceſſes, and reprehend all obſtinate offenders. He ſhall inveſt the prebendaries in the preſence of their brethren, and in his and the chapter's name receive the oath preſcribed. Being ſuperior in authority, all ſhall ſtand when he enters or departs the choir or chapter-houſe. He is firſt in place and voice. The ringing of the bells muſt wait for him morning and evening on feſtivals, when he is to perform the offices; but not at other times, unleſs he officiates *. On the like days he is to chant the anthems, or ſuch of the canons as he ſhall appoint for that purpoſe. On reading the ſervice he is not to quit his ſeat. If the biſhop is not preſent, it is the dean's office, or, in his abſence, the next in dignity, to pronounce the confeſſion. All the miniſters of the church ſhall bow to him in his ſtall as they enter or depart the choir. In correcting exceſſes, ſuch is the prerogative of the dean and prebendaries, on account of their prebends, that they ſhall not be convened out of chapter, becauſe ſuch cauſes as relate to the prebends ſhall be determined in chapter, by the judgment of the dean and chapter. Prebendaries' ſervants ought to be corrected by their proper maſters, unleſs their offences are heinous, and their maſters neglect that duty. Leave of abſence ſhall be given by the dean to the minor canons and other officers of the church for one day, or at moſt not exceeding eight days; and in his abſence, by the ſub-dean or ſenior reſident: Abſence for any greater time ſhall not be given without conſent of the chapter. CHAP. III. Induction and Inſtallation of a Prebendary.

The new prebendary is to produce, and cauſe to be read in chapter, his preſentation from the biſhop; and if nothing be objected to him, he is to be habited [Page 120] and preſented to the dean and chapter; and the dean, or ſenior in his abſence, admits him, by the ceremony of delivering a loaf of white bread placed on the book of ſtatutes, ſaying, Nos recipimus te in canonicum et inveſtimus, et tradimus tibi regularis obſervantioe formam in volumine iſto contentam pro cibo ſpirituali, et in remedium laboris refectionem in pane et vino corporalem. The bread is to be given to the poor*. Then the dean or precentor proceeds to inſtall him, by placing him in his ſeat in the church; after prayers, he returns to the chapter-houſe, and takes the oath preſcribed; and then is ſaluted by the dean and canons, before which ceremony he is not permitted to act in chapter. There are many ſecrets of the chapter, which are not to be divulged, not even to an abſentee when he returns; particularly thoſe which in diſcovery might prejudice the rights of the church, the chapter, or any member thereof. Diſputes among the prebendaries, on any chapter matters, are to be determined by the chapter; and they are to ſubmit to ſuch determination, without going to law. CHAP. IV.—Perſons to be ſupported by the Church.

One dean, twelve prebendaries, twelve minor canons, one deacon, one ſubdeacon, ten clerks (who may be either prieſts or laymen), one maſter of the choriſters, ten choriſters, one maſter and one under-maſter of the grammar ſchool, eighteen grammar ſcholars, eight poor men, two ſub-ſacriſts or vergers, two to ring the bells and look after the clock, two porters (one of whom ſhall be a barber), one baker, one under-baker, one cook, and one under-cook;—the whole number eighty-ſix. CHAP. V.—The Dean's Qualifications.

The dean ſhall be a prieſt, doctor in divinity, bachelor in divinity or doctor of laws, of ſound faith, good life, and under no imputation of hereſy; to be nominated by the crown by letters patent under the great ſeal, and preſented to the biſhop, on whoſe mandate he is to be received and inſtalled, and put in poſſeſſion of his deanry by the prebendaries preſent, the ſub-dean or ſenior reſidentiary giving him the following oath. CHAP. VI.—The Dean's Oath.

Ego (A) qui in decanum hujus eccleſioe cathedralis Dunelm. electus et inſtitutus ſum, Deum teſtor, et per hoec ſancta Dei evangelia juro, quod pro virili meà in hac eccleſia bene et fideliter regam et gubernabo, juxta ordinationes et ſtatuta ejuſd. et quod omnia illius bona, terras, et tenementa, redditus, poſſeſſiones, jura, libertates et privilegia coeteraſque res univerſas, tam mobiles quam immobiles, et alias omnes commoditates ejuſdem eccleſioe bene et fideliter cuſtodiam, defendam, et ſervabo, atque ab aliis ſimiliter fieri curabo, ad hoec omnia et ſingula ſtatuta et ordinationes hujus eccleſioe quatenus me concernunt bene et fideliter obſervabo, et ab aliis quatenus eos concernunt, ſtudioſe obſervari procurabo; ſicut me Deus adjuvet, et hoec ſancta Dei evangelia. CHAP. VII.—The Dean's Duty.

As the eye of the body, he is to look after all the members of it, that they do their reſpective duties; he is to keep a regular family, and live according to his dignity, or be reproved by the biſhop , if he lives ſordidly; of which fault if any of [Page 121] the prebendaries are guilty, he is to reprove them, and alſo touching other duties required by the ſtatutes. He is to take care of the treaſure *, ornaments, utenſils, writings and records of the church ( ac in oerario lociſque aliis ad ea ſpecialiter deputatis, prout illius judicio pro tempore tutiſſimum videbitur) that they may be all preſerved for his ſucceſſor. His conſent is to be had, in all elections to offices and places, in ſetting fines and letting lands, in beſtowing benefices, in the confirmation of any deeds of indenture and other writings, if he is within the realm; if not, then by his deputy lawfully conſtituted, who muſt be a member of the chapter . CHAP. VIII.—Survey of the Lands, and holding Courts.

The dean, or, being prevented, one deputed by him and the chapter, ſhall once a year, or if need require, more frequently, ſurvey all the manors, lands, tenements, houſes, buildings, appropriated churches, woods, underwoods, and trees, belonging to this church, and order neceſſary repairs or new houſes to be built; and the condition of ſuch eſtates and houſes is to be reported in writing within eight days after ſuch ſurvey, wherein the receiver (if convenient) ſhall be one, or, in his abſence, one of the prebendaries to be deputed; alſo the ſeneſcal or clerk of the courts ſhall attend and hold the courts, and aſſiſt with their counſel. The courts are to be kept once a year, beginning after Eaſter, and again (if occaſion) after Michaelmas. The dean upon ſuch ſurvey to be allowed ſix ſhillings and eight-pence a day for his expences, and the receiver four ſhillings. As in theſe ſtatutes mention is often made of the Chapter, we declare, that under that title ſhall be underſtood one half of the prebendaries at leaſt; and thoſe only ſhall be deemed acts of the Chapter where at leaſt that number, who are intra ſeptum eccleſioe, are preſent at the making thereof. The votes of abſentees ſhall not be admitted; but if any one is ſick within the college, he ſhall not be deemed abſent, but under his hand may give his ſuffrage on being conſulted by the dean or one of the prebendaries. CHAP. IX.—Concerning the Woods, and letting the Lands, &c. to farm.

The dean ſhall not ſell or give away any wood fit for timber , or let or leaſe out for term of years any of the lands, tenements, tithes, &c. without the advice and conſent of the Chapter §; but he may, on his viſitation, aſſign to the tenants, wood for neceſſary repairs of their tenements; and alſo let or leaſe out the lands, tenements, tithes, &c. from year to year, and at will, according to the cuſtom of the manors; for doing which, ſuch advice and conſent are not requiſite. Care is to be taken that the ſeveral woods be ſufficiently fenced, that they may not be cropt by cattle: And as (this article declares) great part of the riches of the church conſiſts in [Page 122] woods, when there is a fall of wood for the repair of the church or any other bu [...]dings, it muſt be conducted under the inſpection of the ſuperviſor (the dean or receiver) or one of the prebendaries, or ſome perſon ſpecially deputed and ſworn to that duty, and no part thereof ſhall be ſold, except the bark and tops not fit for timber; and the felling of ſuch wood ſhall be at a proper ſeaſon, to cauſe a new ſpring, unleſs occaſion requires it to be cut at another time. Tallies or a written account ſhall be kept by the wood bailiff of the number of trees felled, and for what uſe, ſo that, at the annual audit, the Chapter may ſee the ſtate of their woods. If by agreement any wood is given to the tenants for firing, it ſhall be that which is decayed, dried, and unfit for timber. No lands or tenements ſhall be leaſed for a longer term than twenty-one years, and no reverſion granted, till within ſeven or eight years at the furtheſt of the expiration of the exiſting leaſe, and then the demiſe is not to exceed twenty-one years at moſt. There ſhall be no leaſing from three years to three years, or from term to term, beyond twenty-one years; neither ſhall there be any covenant or agreement for renewing ſuch leaſe when it expires. And all colluſion and fraud in demiſing the church lands is prohibited *. But it is allowed, that all houſes in towns and villages may be leaſed for fifty or ſixty years at moſt. The tenants ſhall pay their rents to the receiver or his deputy within the precincts of the church, find one or more ſureties for performance of the covenants and agreements in their leaſes, and on the death of any ſuch ſurety to provide a new one, within one month, upon pain of forfeiting the leaſe. The body are totally prohibited alienating, mortgaging, ſelling, changing or pledging any of the manors, lands, rents, tenements, or other immoveable poſſeſſions of the church, pingueſcere enim hanc optamus eccleſiam, non macreſcere, is the expreſſion of the commiſſioners. No ſuit ſhall be commenced or proſecuted touching the poſſeſſions of the church, without conſent of the chapter. The dean, or his procurator if abſent, with the chapter , ſhall preſent to their livings and eccleſiaſtical preferments. The granting of the next turn to any living before the ſame is become vacant, is prohibited, unleſs on ſome very urgent occaſion, or in favour of ſome perſon of diſtinguiſhed worth, to whom the grant ſhall be perſonal and not general, ſo that if he dies before a vacancy, the right of preſentation ſhall revert to the chapter. CHAP. X.—Delivery of the Goods, &c. to the Dean.

This chapter preſcribes the manner of delivering over to the dean all the jewels, plate, treaſures, ornaments, and other valuable effects belonging to the church, the care whereof are committed to him, and which are to be ſpecified by inventory and indenture. CHAP XI.—The Dean's Attendance.
[Page 123]

It is ordained, that the dean ſhall conſtantly reſide at the deanry, without ſome lawful excuſe; ſuch as attendance on the king or queen as chaplain, and that ſo long only as the duty requires; on any negotiation of the crown, buſineſs of the church, attendance on parliament or the convocation, involuntary impriſonment, and great ſickneſs, whereby he is prevented returning to the church *: During ſuch his abſence, he is to be deemed preſent with regard to profits and emoluments, on informing the chapter of the cauſe; but ſhall not be entitled thereto, if abſent on any cauſes than thoſe aſſigned, and for longer time than preſcribed by this ſtatute. The dean may be abſent one hundred days in the year, in the whole, together or at ſeparate times, on his private affairs. CHAP. XII.—The Prebendaries' Qualifications, &c.

In this ſtatute the right of nominating prebendaries is reſerved to the crown . Each ſhall be a prieſt, of ſound faith, without any imputation of hereſy, of fair character and good life; either doctor or bachelor in divinity, doctor of laws, or maſter of arts, or at leaſt bachelor of laws. To take the following oath before the dean or ſub-dean and chapter: Ego (B) qui in canonicum hujus eccleſia cathedralis Chriſti et Beatae Mariae Virginis Dunelm. nominatus, electus et inſtitutus ſum, (tactis ſacroſanctis Dei evangeliis) Juno, quod pro virili mea, terras, tenementa, redditus, poſſeſſiones, jura, libertates et privilegia, caeteraſque res univerſas hujus eccleſiae tucbor, ſervabo et ſervari procurabo; et omnia ſingula ſtatuta ac ordinationes hujus eccleſiae (quatenus me concernunt) fideliter obſervabo; et ab aliis, quantum in me fuerit, obſervari curabo: Nec quod ad utilitatem et honorem hujus eccleſiae legitimè fieri poteſt, ſciens impediam, ſed illius commodo et honori ſemper ſtudebo. Approbatas et approbandas hujus eccleſiae conſuetudines (prout eas didicero) obſervabo. Praeterea, obediens ero decano et capitulo in mandatis licitis et canonicis, et quod ſecreta capituli illicitè non revelabo. Et ſi me poſthac officium aliquod in eccleſia hac gerere contigerit, illud bene et fideliter pro viribus exequar. Haec omnia et ſingula praeſtabo, ſicut me Deus adjuvet, et haec ſancta ejus evangelia. The dean ſhall take his oath before the chapter, the major and minor canons before the dean and chapter, and all the inferiors before the dean and treaſurer. CHAP. XIII.—Obedience to the Dean.

All miniſters, &c. of the church ſhall be obedient to the dean as their head and leader, in his abſence to the ſub-dean, and in both their abſence to the ſenior reſidentiary. CHAP. XIV.—The Prebendaries' Attendance.

They are allowed eighty days abſence to look after their livings and other buſineſs, and the ſame indulgencies as before granted to the dean.§ If any of them ſhall preach within twelve miles of the cathedral, he is to be allowed the emoluments [Page 124] of one day, as if preſent; and if above twelve miles, two days, or at the moſt three. If he is longer abſent, without the excuſe of preaching or the cauſes before ſtipulated, he ſhall forfeit his profits*. A third part of the prebendaries at leaſt ſhall be conſtantly reſident; or thoſe who are abſent, without the cauſes allowed, ſhall not have their ſhare of quotidians and dividends for the time of ſuch abſence. CHAP. XV.—The Dean and Prebendaries' Preaching.

The dean and prebendaries ſhall be diligent in preaching, as well in the country as in the cathedral church. The dean ſhall (per ſe aut per alium) preach in Engliſh in the cathedral on Eaſter-day, Corpus Chriſti and Chriſtmas-days ; and likewiſe twice in the year within the dioceſe, at different places. The prebendaries ſhall each preach four times at leaſt in the year, in the cathedral, on Sundays or other feſtivals, if agreeable to the dean; that is to ſay, once a quarter, between the reſpective quarter-days of Chriſtmas, the Annunciation, John Baptiſt, and Michaelmas-day, according to the priority of their ſtalls; under a mulct of 20s. to be paid towards the common ſtock. When the biſhop chuſes to preach, the dean or canon whoſe turn it was ſhall be excuſed. CHAP. XVI.—Reſidence of the Prebendaries.

All the prebendaries ſhall live in the college diſtinct, and lodge there. If any of them has not 40l. a year clear income, beſides the ſtipends of this church, he ſhall not be obliged to keep houſe or obſerve hoſpitality; but may live privately at his own houſe, or eat at the table of the dean or ſome of the prebendaries, whether in or out of reſidence, or at the table of the minor canons within the precincts of the church: If there ſhould happen to be three of this condition, they may keep one table amongſt them, and uſing hoſpitality, ſhall be reckoned only as one holding reſidence, and out of the common ſtock are to receive the ſhare but of one.§ Thoſe who have not a common table, but live either privately or at the tables of others, are prohibited having any ſhare of the common ſtock, which accrues from the abſence of the dean and others, and the ſeal-fees. The deans and canons, who, excluſive of the ſtipends of this church, have 40l. a year clear yearly value, for the time they ſtay are obliged to maintain a family and keep reſidence and hoſpitality; otherwiſe they ſhall be deemed abſent, and bear the mulct of an abſentee, in forfeiting the quotidians. Thoſe who do not live within the precincts, or when they come do not continue twenty days together, are excuſed keeping houſe for [Page 125] ſo ſhort a time. In diviſion of the common ſtock, the dean ſhall receive double the portion of a prebendary. At the end of each year, about Michaelmas, a dividend is to be made to the reſident dean and prebendaries, according to the number of days they were reſident, and not otherwiſe, as before preſcribed. Whoever deſigns to keep reſidence, ſhall come to the chapter and declare the day he begins ſuch reſidence, which is to be entered in the regiſtry, that there may be no diſpute among the brethren about time. Thoſe who keep reſidence, are ſuch as for twenty-one days together in every year are preſent at divine ſervice, as the ſtatutes direct, and keep houſe. They ſhall give notice to the chapter when they begin their twenty-one days, during which time they ſhall entertain in a more liberal manner than the reſt of the year, receiving the choir, and inviting the citizens and ſtrangers to their table, as becomes thoſe that keep hoſpitality. Two or more muſt not hold reſidence together, but one after another, and when it is moſt convenient to each, unleſs ſome urgent cauſe (approved by the dean or ſub-dean and chapter) prevents. Every reſidentiary who holds reſidence for the whole year, ſhall twice a year entertain the whole choir, and the eight poor men belonging to the church at different times, not more than ſix together et ſemel tantum in die. But if he is not reſident the whole year, then it ſhall ſuffice that he entertains the choir only once a year, in manner before mentioned. If any one is invited and doth not come, the reſidentiary is excuſed aſking him again; for whoever is invited is preſumed to be at the table. Thoſe that neglect the performance of any of theſe ordinances may be puniſhed by the dean, or in his abſence by the ſub-dean, by withholding the monthly allowance, or by an arbitrary mulct. As to the three allowed to hold reſidence together, they ſhall all be preſent; unleſs on ſome urgent occaſion one is obliged to be abſent, and that not above ten days: And they ſhall keep their table at a joint expence, otherwiſe they ſhall not be deemed as one reſidentiary, except only where any of them is ſo ill he cannot poſſibly attend*. The dean, for the benefit of the country air or refreſhment, or other cauſe to be approved by the chapter, ſhall have liberty to retire to his manor of Beaurepaire for forty days in the year, over and above the days of abſence before allowed by theſe ſtatutes, without loſing his uſual perquiſites, in caſe he attends the buſineſs of the chapter, and holds his reſidence within the precincts of the church for twenty-one days, as before ſtipulated. CHAP. XVII.—The Dean and Prebendaries' Stipends.

That the dean and prebendaries may be better enabled to keep hoſpitality, the dean ſhall annually receive from the treaſurer pro corpore decanatus, 40l. 1s. 3d. and each prebendary 8l. 4s. 9¼d. The dean ſhall further receive from the treaſurer for every day he attends prayers morning and evening, and the ſtatutable days of abſence 12s. 5d. and each prebendary 16¼ d. Thoſe are deemed to be preſent at prayers who come into church before the end of the firſt pſalm, and do not depart (but on urgent neceſſity) before the ſervice is concluded. All ſtipends [Page 126] are to be paid quarterly, at the four great quarter days, except the money which accumulates in each year, from forfeitures by abſentees, mulcts, and ſeal fees, which ſhall be collected in the following manner: The precentor is to mark the days of the dean's and each prebendary's abſence above the ſtatutable allowance; for each day the dean ſhall forfeit 12 s. 5d. and each prebendary 16¼ d. to be retained by the treaſurer; which accumulation appellavimus communam dividendam. Further to enable them to keep hoſpitality, (rem Deo et hominibus longe gratiſſimam) particular lands, &c. are aſſigned, as ſet forth in the next chapter, which they may occupy or let as they think expedient, ſo as they pay the reſerved rent at the uſual times, and keep the houſes in repair at their expence, except main-timber: The dean and chapter ſhall be judges of the repairs wanted, and on neglect cauſe them to be repaired at the parties expence. None of the canons ſhall * ſell or let to farm any of the poſſeſſions belonging to the church to any one, even a brother canon, without conſent of the dean and chapter, under the penalty of forfeiting the whole value of the thing ſold, or the profits of the land when lawfully convicted. On the death or removal of the dean or prebendaries, from the day of that event to Michaelmas next following, the profits of the corps lands, &c. and all moveables, ſhall be at his, or his executors diſpoſal. If any ſuch prebendary doth not reſide, and keep hoſpitality, the dean, with the conſent of the chapter, may let the lands, &c. ſo aſſigned from year to year and at will; ſo that the ſaid prebendary or his ſucceſſor afterwards keeping reſidence, may not be deprived of the profits of thoſe lands, &c. longer than a year. CHAP. XVIII.—Lands, &c. aſſigned to the Dean and Prebendaries.

Lands aſſigned to the deanry are, the manor and park of Bear-park (Beaurepaire), with Herber-cloſe, and three arable cloſes near Stotgate, Alansford, with Shipley and Whitwell, North and South Revensflat, with Summer Paſture and Holme; the tithes of the rectories of Billingham and Merrington, and of the villages belonging to them .

[Page 127] The lands aſſigned to the firſt prebend are, half of the manor, &c. of Elvet-hall, commonly called Hall-garth.

[Page 128] To the ſecond prebend, the other half of the manor of Elvet-hall.

To the third, the manor of Sacriſton-hugh, and a cloſe called Holcrofte.

To the fourth, the manor, houſe, and farm of Witton-Gilbert, Newhouſe, and Underſide.

To the fifth, the third part of the houſe, manor, and park of Muggleſwick.

To the ſixth, another third part of that manor and park.

To the ſeventh, the houſe and demeſne lands of the manor of Finkell, with the mill and pond there called the Dam.

To the eighth, the remaining third part of the houſe, manor, and park of Muggleswick.

To the tenth, the manſion-houſe, garden, farm, lands, and tenements of South Pittington, the cloſe called Pond Garth and Pulter Cloſe.

To the eleventh, the manor of Houghall.

To the twelfth, the manor houſe of Bewley, with the demeſne lands and farm thereto belonging.

All woods, mines, and quarries within each corps lands, are excepted and reſerved for the common uſe and neceſſaries of the church, and each pay thereto the annual ſums following, (viz.)

[Page 129]
  l. s. d.
The deanry 10 4 0
Firſt and ſecond prebend 0 13 4
third 0 15 10
fourth 0 10 0
fifth and ſixth 0 15 7
ſeventh 1 9 8
eighth prebend 0 7 9
ninth 1 0 4
tenth 0 13 4
eleventh 5 0 0
twelfth 2 3 4 CHAP. XIX.—Election of Officers.

Commanding belongs alone to the dean, or in his abſence to the ſub-dean or ſenior reſidentiary; and to the canons preſent the power of reproving*. The dean, or, he being out of the realm, the ſub-dean, with the chapter aſſembled, ſhall yearly on the 20th day of November, with the conſent of the chapter, elect out of the body a vice or ſub-dean, a treaſurer and receiver; which officers the nominees ſhall not refuſe under the penalty of loſing all his emoluments for that year. The dean ſhall be preſent at ſuch election, if within the realm; but if any lawful cauſe prevent his attendance on the 20th of November, he ſhall have power to change the day of election, and appoint another between Michaelmas and the end of the audit, giving a week's notice to the abſent canons that they may attend. If upon the firſt or ſecond ſcrutiny the members cannot agree in the choice, the election ſhall fall upon ſuch as the dean, or, he being out of the realm, the vice-dean, and five of the canons preſent ſhall nominate; but if only eight of the canons or fewer be preſent, then the dean or vice-dean and four canons ſhall make the election: But if they cannot ſtill agree, the diſſention ſhall be ended by the biſhop's viſitorial authority, who, under canonical cenſure, ſhall compel them to finiſh the election . The ſame order is to be obſerved in the annual choice of a precentor and ſacriſt out of the minor canons. CHAP. XX.—The Sub-Dean's Duty.

The ſub-dean, in the abſence of the dean, or the deanry being vacant, ſhall preſide and have the care of the church, and ſee that divine offices are duly performed, correcting all omiſſions and negligencies, and diſcharging the dean's duty, touching the affairs and rules of the church, as if he was preſent, except only in ſuch matters where the dean's ſpecial aſſent (or of his proctor in his abſence) is required. The deanry being vacant, the ſub-dean and chapter ſhall not put the common ſeal to leaſes of lands or other things ; or to benefi [...] advowſons, donations, or offices; or to confirmations of any deeds, except letters of proctorſhip and attornies, where the affairs of the church or lawſuits require the ſame to prevent injury and delay. The ſub-dean ſhall take the pre-eminence due to the dean, and as being ſuperior, he [Page 130] ſhall be more diligent and circumſpect in the affairs of the church; that, together with the dean, he may appear like the father of the houſe: And when the deanry is vacant, he ſhall have full power to regulate and govern the church, and do all things therein (ſave thoſe excepted) according to the ſtatutes, until a dean is elected and inſtalled, he being firſt ſworn duly to perform his office. CHAP. XXI.—The Receiver-General's Duty.

He is to collect and receive all money, rents, and revenues of the church, as well of ſpiritualties as temporalties; and the ſame, when received, is within twenty-eight days after to be duly paid over to the treaſurer for the time being. He ſhall diligently look after the eſtates of the church, and direct the neceſſary repairs of houſes, unleſs ſome fitter perſon be particularly appointed. He ſhall do all things preſcribed by the dean relative to the lands, tenements, and courts. His ſtipend being 6l. 13s. 4d. yearly, he ſhall put the church to no further charge, except 4s. a day allowed him when keeping courts, and ſuch charges as are before ſtipulated touching the conduct of other affairs of the church. He ſhall be ſworn duly to execute his office, and faithfully obſerve all things ordered by the dean and chapter touching the collection and receipt of arrears, the churches ſecurity, indemnity, and advantage, and due paying over the money belonging thereto. CHAP. XXII.—The Treaſurer's Duty.

The treaſurer ſhall pay all the ſtipends as by the ſtatutes are appointed, and alſo the dividend. It is his duty to repair the church and houſes of the miniſters (except thoſe of the dean and prebendaries) within the limits thereof*, with the conſent and appointment of the dean, or in his abſence, of the ſub-dean, in caſe the houſes are gone out of repair, without the wilful default of the party to whom they reſpectively belong: But if they are become ruinous by default, the party ſhall be compelled to repair them. He ſhall provide neceſſary ornaments for the church and choir: Shall take care of the wood and other materials which are prepared for repairs. When the houſes of the dean and chapter are out of repair, if on notice the party doth not do what is neceſſary thereto, the treaſurer out of the parties ſtipend, and at his expence, at the inſtance of the dean and chapter, ſhall cauſe the ſame to be repaired. The houſes of the dean and prebendaries ſhall not be demiſed, ſold, or changed; any ſuch demiſe, ſale, or exchange, if made, being altogether void; and each perſon ſhall be content with the houſe which was firſt allotted to him or his predeceſſor. Each new elected prebendary ſhall ſucceed to the houſe, ſtable, garden, and other appurtenances, together with the ſtall in the church and ſeat in the chapter which his predeceſſor held. And no dean or prebendary ſhall take away from his houſe in the college or country houſe belonging to his prebendal lands, any fixtures therein , but ſhall leave them to the ſucceſſor: And the like in reſpect [Page 131] to the minor canons houſes *. It belongs alſo to the treaſurer to attend to the repairs of the houſes belonging to the chapter within the city of Durham; which repairs ſhall be made between the 1ſt day of March and Michaelmas, according to the dean or ſub-dean's orders; and not later in the year, unleſs in caſes of great neceſſity, and where, in the dean's judgment, delay would be materially detrimental. Bills for repairs and other affairs of the church ſhall not be allowed, unleſs the dean, or, he being abſent and not objecting, the ſub-dean ſhall certify the ſame. The treaſurer ſhall have charge of the plate, veſtments, and muniments, leaſt the ſacriſt ſhould be negligent; and ſhall examine them every quarter with the regiſter, &c. that nothing be wanting. He ſhall likewiſe take an oath faithfully to diſcharge his office. CHAP. XXIII.—The Qualification, Election, and Admiſſion of the Minor Canons, &c.

The twelve prieſts or minor canons, the ten clerks, the deacon and ſub-deacon, (called the goſpeller and the epiſtler) are to be of good name and converſation, of ſound faith, and men of erudition, with voices and ſufficient ſkill in muſic to ſerve in the choir. They, with the ten choriſters, and eighteen grammar ſcholars with their maſters, and others the officers of the church, are to be choſen by the dean, with the advice of the chapter, as before preſcribed; all whom (except the choriſters and grammar ſcholars) ſhall take the following oath:—‘Ego (A) in hujus eccleſiae Cath. Chriſti & beatae Mariae Virg. Dun in numerum cooptatus, juro, quod quandiu in hac eccleſia morabor, omnes ordinationes & ſtatuta ejuſdem (quatenus me concernunt) pro meo virili inviolabiliter obſervabo erga decanum et ſingulos de capitulo [Page 132] in geſtu et verbis debitam obedientiam & reverentiam exhibebo, commodum & honorem hujus eccleſiae diligenter procurabo, ſicut me deus adjuvet & haec ſancta dei evangelia.’ CHAP. XXIV.—The Attendance of the Minor Canons and others.

The minor canons, ſinging-men, and all others bearing office in the church, ſhall not be abſent a whole day and night, without leave of the dean, ſub-dean, or ſenior reſidentiary, under pain of an arbitrary ſine. If any of them leave the church, without giving three months notice to the dean or ſub-dean, he ſhall forfeit three months ſtipend: And if abſent from morning ſervice, ſhall forfeit a penny; if from evening ſervice, a halfpenny; if he comes not in before the firſt pſalm, a farthing. If any one refuſe contemptuouſly to perform the part the precentor enjoins, he ſhall be fined two-pence. The amount of the forfeitures, at the end of every quarter, or at fartheſt at the end of the year, ſhall be divided by the treaſurer, among thoſe who attended duly, according to the days of their attendance. The minor canons and prieſts belonging to the church, ſhall enjoy only (quantum in nobis de juri ſitum eſt) one benefice, and that within twenty-four miles of Durham: And ſo long as they attend the church ſervice, are not obliged to reſidence. CHAP. XXV.—The Precentor's Duty.

He is to be choſen out of the minor canons, of ſuperior age and diſtinguiſhed conduct and erudition: He ſhall regulate the order of the whole choir; and boys introduced for the purpoſe of ſinging ſhall be examined by him, and others inſtructed; and he ſhall direct what ſhall be performed, and by whom, to prevent diſcord. Not only the minor canons and ſinging-men are to obey his directions, but alſo the prebendaries, when the ſolemnity of any feſtival requires them to perform part of the ſervice. He is to note all abſentees without partiality, which is to be laid before the chapter every fortnight. The power of puniſhing belongs only to the dean and chapter. He is to take care of the books belonging to the choir, and in his abſence to have a deputy, who ſhall be approved by the dean or ſub-dean. He ſhall alſo take an oath duly to perform his office*. CHAP. XXVI.—The Duty of the Sacriſt, Vergers, and Bell-ringers.

The SACRIST ſhall be an induſtrious and faithful perſon, and choſen out of the minor canons. Shall have in charge all the veſtments, veſſels, and ornaments of the church, to be ſcheduled and examined therewith quarterly; with the advice of the treaſurer he ſhall provide wine, oil, wax, and neceſſary lights for the church. To viſit the ſick , and adminiſter the ſacrament to them, as well as thoſe in health, [Page 133] when need or times require. To receive oblations, and pay them over to the treaſurer for the uſe of the church. To take care of the linen, that it be neat, whole, and clean, and that the books be well bound and preſerved: That there be no diſturbance during divine ſervice. To take care of the ſchool books, that they may be produced yearly before the dean, to prevent their being loſt or deſtroyed. Alſo of the books in the library, which are not to be lent to any canon or ſtranger without the dean or ſub-dean's conſent; and in that caſe, the perſon to give a note of his name and the book borrowed, and engage to return it at a time fixed. He is to have under him two careful, honeſt men, called SUB-SACRISTS or vergifers, ſworn to be faithful and obedient to him: They are to fold up the veſtments, light the candles, cover the altar, and with a verge go before the biſhop, choir, and dean in proceſſion, at their going in and out of church; and to perform all ſuch other duties as vergers do in other cathedral churches. Every year upon the day of election of officers, the vergers are to deliver the verge to the dean in the chapter-houſe, which he is to retain till enquiry is made of their paſt behaviour; and if found culpable, to remove and place fit perſons in their room, ſo that there may be no pretence of perpetuity in the office. The ſame rule to be obſerved in reſpect to other officers of the church. He ſhall alſo have under him two other honeſt men, to keep the floor and walls of the church clean; to ring or cauſe to be rung the bells, at the hours appointed by the dean; to take care of the clock, and look after the church. They are to open the church doors in the morning before ſix o'clock, and ſhut them in winter time after ſervice, but in ſummer not till after the ringing of the curfew*; and not open them again after that time unleſs upon ſome urgent occaſion, leaſt any thing criminal ſhould be committed there. They are to ſearch the church after the doors are ſhut. To take care that the cloiſters and other places through which any proceſſion is to be made, be perfectly clean; and to dig the graves in the church-yard. When the ſacriſt, ſub-ſacriſt, or bell-ringers, are abſent on their lawful occaſions, they ſhall be allowed deputies, to be approved by the dean or ſub-dean: And all be ſworn faithfully to perform their reſpective duties. CHAP XXVII.—The Choriſters and their Maſter.

There ſhall be ten young boys as choriſters, with good voices, to ſerve in the choir; to teach whom (as well in ſinging as in good manners, beſides the number of clerks) a perſon ſhall be appointed, of good fame and converſation, ſkilful in ſinging and in the management of the organ: And to encourage his greater attention, he ſhall have leave of abſence on ordinary days; but he muſt conſtantly attend upon Sundays and holidays to perform the ſervice: When he has leave of abſence, the precentor ſhall appoint one of the minor canons or ſinging-men who underſtands playing on the organ, to do that office. If the maſter is negligent of the boys' health or education, after a third admonition to be removed. He ſhall likewiſe be ſworn to perform his duty. CHAP. XXVIII.—The Grammar Scholars and their Teachers.
[Page 134]

There ſhall be conſtantly maintained eighteen poor boys of apt parts, whoſe friends are not able to give them education, but not to be admitted till they have learned to read and write, and in the dean's judgment, are ſufficiently grounded in the firſt rudiments of grammar: After admiſſion to be maintained by the church, until they competently underſtand grammar, and can read and write Latin, for which they ſhall be allowed four years, or with the dean's aſſent five at the moſt: None ſhall be admitted above fifteen years of age. The choriſters ſhall not be limited to that age, but may be admitted ſcholars if they are fit; in caſe they have proved themſelves particularly ſerviceable to the choir, and ſkilful in muſic, they are to be preferred before any others. If any one is found dull, and without a taſte for literature, the dean ſhall remove him, and appoint another in his room ne veluti fucus apum mella devoret. The upper maſter is to be learned in the Greek and Latin languages, of good fame, found faith and pious life: He ſhall not only teach the eighteen boys, but alſo all others that ſhall reſort to his ſchool. The under-maſter ſhall bear the like character: They ſhall teach ſuch books and rules, and follow ſuch order as the dean and chapter (with the biſhop's aſſent) ſhall preſcribe. If they prove negligent, or incapable of teaching, after a third admonition, to be diſplaced. They are alſo to be ſworn faithfully to perform their duty. CHAP. XXIX.—The Eight Poor Men and their Duty.

Eight poor men, ſuch as are diſabled by war or age, or otherwiſe reduced to poverty, are to be appointed by royal mandate, and maintained by the church, and whoſe duty is to attend divine ſervice daily, ſo long as their infirmities will permit them; to be aſſiſtant to the ſub-ſacriſt and other officers, in lighting and extinguiſhing the candles, and ringing the bells, if able; and to be obedient to the dean or ſub-dean and ſacriſt in all things which relate to their duty in the church: For default, ſubject to the dean or ſub-dean's reprehenſion. If they are abſent (unleſs prevented by infirmities) they ſhall be puniſhed by withdrawing the ſtipend, and which ſhall be divided among thoſe that attend. The dean or ſub-dean may grant them twenty days leave of abſence, but not more, without ſome urgent occaſion, to be allowed of by the dean and chapter. To take an oath for the due performance of their duty. CHAP. XXX.—Of inferior Perſons belonging to the Church.

The dean, or ſub-dean in his abſence, (with his conſent) ſhall appoint two induſtrious men of good name and approved conduct, to be butler and under-butler: Who, with a cook and under-cook, are to provide meat and drink for the minor canon's table, and thoſe other miniſters who eat together in common. The porters to keep the keys of the church and college gates; and never to open them in the night time without the expreſs order of the dean, or ſub-dean in his abſence: One of them to be a barber, who muſt ſhave and cut the hair of all perſons belonging to the church, gratis. They ſhall all be ſworn to perform their duty faithfully and perſonally. CHAP. XXXI.—Of the Commons.
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The minor canons, deacon, and ſub-deacon, and clerks, not having wives, ſhall meſs together in the common-hall, where the precentor (or in his abſence the ſenior minor canon) ſhall preſide, and the reſt ſhall ſit without diſtinction of place. The following monthly allowances to be made: To the minor canons, the upper-maſter of the grammar ſchool, and maſter of the choriſters, ſix ſhillings each,—to the deacon, ſub-deacon, ſinging-men, or clerks and uſher, four ſhillings and eight-pence,—to each of the grammar ſcholars and choriſters, three ſhillings and four-pence,—to the ſub-ſacriſt, ringers, butlers, porters, and cooks, four ſhillings. They had two ſtewards, one to ſerve the whole year, the other one month; the firſt procured wood, coals, ſalt, &c. for the year's ſtore; the other, the neceſſaries for every month: the firſt examined the ſtewards accounts at the end of every week, and reported the ſame to the major part of thoſe who lived together, at the concluſion of the year, by a ſtatement of the whole expence. Both the ſtewards to be ſworn to the due performance of their office. CHAP. XXXII.—The Miniſter's Veſtments, commonly called Liveries.

The minor canons, clerks, and other miniſters of the church, choriſters, grammar ſcholars, cooks, and poor men, ſhall uſe an upper veſtment of the ſame colour. Each minor canon, and head maſter of the grammar-ſchool, ſhall receive four yards of cloth for his gown, of the price of five ſhillings a yard; the maſter of the choriſters, three yards of the ſame; the deacon and ſub-deacon, four yards at four ſhillings and ſix-pence; each clerk, and the under grammar maſter, three yards at four ſhillings and ſix pence: The other miniſters, as the ſub-ſacriſts, bell-ringers, butlers, porters, and cook, three yards each at three ſhillings and four pence; the choriſters, grammar ſcholars, and under-cook, two yards and a half, at three ſhillings and four-pence; the poor men, three yards at three ſhillings and four-pence. The dean, or in his abſence the ſub-dean or treaſurer, to give the ſame againſt Chriſtmas, to be made up by the ſeveral parties. The poor men to wear a roſe of red ſilk upon the left ſhoulder, and never appear in public without their livery gowns. CHAP. XXXIII.—The Miniſters' Stipends.

Beſides their commons and veſtments, the treaſurer ſhall pay quarterly to the minor canons and head-maſter of the ſchool, 5l. 2s.—Maſter of the choriſters, 5l. 7s.—Under-maſter, 2l. 19s. 2d.—Deacon, 2l. 14s. 8d.—Sub-deacon, 2l. 14s. 8d.—Each clerk or ſinging-man, 2l. 19s. 2d.—Each ſub-ſacriſt, 2l. 18s.—Each bell-ringer, 1l. 18s.—The butler who buys the proviſions, 3l. 6s. 8d.—The porter who is barber, 2l. 18s.—The other porter, 1l. 18s. —The under-butler, 1l. 18s.—The cook, 2l 18 s.—Under-cook, 1l. 18s.— Each choriſter, 15s.—Each ſcholar, 15s.—Each poor man yearly, 6l. 3s. 4d.— Sub-dean, 2l. 13s. 4d.—Receiver, 6l. 13s. 4d.—Auditor, 6l. 13s. 4d.— Treaſurer, 2l. 13s. 4d.—Precentor, 2l. 10s.—Sacriſt, 2l.—Steward or clerk of the courts, 5l CHAP. XXXIV.—Of Divine Service.

All the minor canons, the deacon and ſub-deacon, the ſinging-men and maſter of the choriſters, (except when he has leave of abſence to teach the boys) are to [Page 136] aſſiſt every day at divine ſervice. They are excuſed ſinging the evening ſervice. The dean ſhall perform the ſervice in feſtis principalibus; the ſub-dean in majoribus duplicibus; the other prebendaries in feſtis duplicibus, unleſs there happen ſome lawful impediment to any, when his turn ſhall be ſupplied by ſome one as near the ſame rank as poſſible: None ſhall officiate without his proper veſtment; the dean and canons with their ſurplices and other habits; the reſt of the choir and the boys in ſurplices. Upon holidays both the upper and under-maſter are to attend morning and evening prayer in their proper habits, the firſt to ſit above the minor canons, the other below them. The grammar ſcholars are to be at church on feſtivals in their ſurplices, under the direction of the precentor. The dean or prebendaries ſhall not detain any of the minor canons, ſinging-men, or other miniſters of the church, from divine ſervice upon any account*. CHAP. XXXV.— Of the Treaſury, the Seal, and Cuſtody of the Writings.

In the treaſury are to be lodged all writings, evidences, books of accounts, inventories, and rentals; and alſo a cheſt for the ſecurity of the church money, wherein ſhall remain at the end of each year, 200l. to anſwer all incidental occaſions, and therein ſhall be kept a ſmall box for the public ſeal, which is not to be put to any writing until the ſame is fairly tranſcribed into the regiſter, and therewith examined. The ſeal fee ſhall be ſix ſhillings and eight-pence. The ſeal ſhall not be put to any blank or writing, without the conſent of the dean, under the pains of perjury and perpetual excluſion of him that either does, or conſents to the doing thereof. In this place ſhall be lodged the ſtatutes, letters patents of foundation and endowment, and other muniments and writings of the lands and poſſeſſions of the church. There ſhall be three locks to the cheſt, of different wards, one key to be kept by the dean, another by the ſub-dean, and a third by the treaſurer; alſo two keys to the door of the treaſury, one to be kept by the dean, the other by the treaſurer, who are all, or their deputies, to be aſſenting and preſent at the opening thereof. If one or two refuſe ſealing ſuch inſtrument as is agreed to by the chapter, he or they ſhall be ſubject to ſuch arbitrary penalty as ſhall be adjudged by the dean and chapter, which if he refuſes to ſubmit to, is to be declared guilty of perjury. No one is to have two keys; and a key-bearer going abroad is to leave his key with ſome canon who is not a key-bearer. CHAP. XXXVI.—Of the yearly Accounts.

There ſhall be a place aſſigned within the limits of the church where the accounts ſhall be made up; here the bailiffs, collectors, wood-keepers, officers, and other miniſters are to give in their accounts: At the ſame time the receiver and treaſurer ſhall deliver in their accounts, before the dean and prebendaries, and pay up their balance under the penalty of loſing their quotidians until the whole is paid; or a ſeverer mulct, if the offence appear to merit it. The receiver and treaſurer's accounts ſhall be inſpected by the dean and chapter twice a year, about Lady-day [Page 137] and after Michaelmas, ſome time before the audit. They may, if they think proper, have an auditor, whoſe ſalary, beſides entertainment for himſelf and one ſervant, is at moſt to be 6l. 13s. 4d. The auditor is to take an oath to diſcharge his office faithfully. The gathering in of the arrears may be aſſigned by the dean to any one of the chapter beſide the receiver: And he is to pay what he receives within one month to the treaſurer, and make up his accounts at the end of the year; and is to take an oath for doing his duty. He is to do this buſineſs gratis, or may have a ſalary aſſigned by the dean, with the advice of the chapter. The account of the goods in uſe belonging to the church, at the ſame time ſhall be laid before them; that if need requires they may be removed, and the ſtate of the church be known to the dean, or vice-dean and the chapter. CHAP. XXXVII.—Of correcting Offences.

If any of the minor canons, ſinging-men, or other miniſters and ſervants of the church, ſhall be guilty of a ſmall fault, he may be puniſhed at the diſcretion of the dean, or in his abſence, of the ſub-dean; but if of a heinous offence, he ſhall be expelled at the biſhop's viſitation, and by his judgment and cenſure corrected or deprived, and thenceforth ſhall be immediately removed; and previous to the viſitation his ſtipend ſhall ſtand ſequeſtered. If any of the prebendaries are guilty of any heinous crime, as hereſy, adultery, theft, perjury, or the like, by which the church may come under great ſcandal, he ſhall be accuſed before the biſhop at his viſitation, and under his judgment and cenſure ſhall, if the offence appears to merit it, be deprived and expelled. Whilſt the cauſe is depending before the viſitor, the dean and chapter ſhall ſequeſter all the offender's ſtipends and revenues. If any of the poor men offend, he is to be corrected by the dean or ſub-dean; and if he remains incorrigible, may be expelled by the dean and chapter. CHAP. XXXVIII.—Of Alms.

Beſides what is allowed to the eight poor men, there is given to the church, the annual ſum of 86l. 13s. 4d. for the relief of the poor, and making and repairing the public bridges and highways*; of which the ſum of 66l. 13s. 4d. ſhall be diſtributed partly among the poor upon the church eſtates, leaſt we ſhould ſeem, omnia metere & nihil ſeminare, and partly by the dean or treaſurer, or one appointed by the dean out of the canons, amongſt the poor and indigent neighbours of the church, or any other the dean ſhall judge neceſſitous, whoſe conſcience is charged coram Domino ſervatone, with the faithful diſpenſing this charity; and the viſitor is to enquire particularly about it at his viſitation. The ſpecial cauſes which influence the diſtribution ſhall be ſhewn at the audit. The remaining 20l. aſſigned for making and repairing of the public bridges and highways, is to be expended [Page 138] conſiſtent with the judgment of the dean or ſub-dean and chapter, and to be accounted for at the general audit. The biſhop is likewiſe to enquire after this diſpenſation at his viſitation. CHAP. XXXIX.—Of holding the Chapters.

The dean or ſub-dean, with the prebendaries preſent, ſhall hold a chapter in the chapter-houſe every fortnight, or oftener if occaſion requires, to treat of the affairs of the church; (pie et prudenter) and every year there ſhall be two general chapters, one on the 20th of November, the other on the 20th of July; in which whatever is done and agreed upon, not contrary to the ſtatutes, ſhall be obligatory on all that belong to the church. The dean and every prebendary is to be preſent at one of theſe chapters, (unleſs abſent as before allowed, upon a reaſon to be approved of by the dean and chapter) otherwiſe he loſes the whole money which otherwiſe would be received pro corpore prebendae ſuae, for the whole year. CHAP. XL.—The Viſitation of the Church.

The biſhop of Durham for the time being is viſitor, who is required to ſee that the ſtatutes and orders are inviolably obſerved; that the goods and poſſeſſions of the church, as well ſpiritual as temporal, be in a flouriſhing condition, and the rights, liberties, and privileges thereof preſerved and defended. The viſitor may be called in by the dean or two of the prebendaries: And once in three years may viſit without being called, either in his own perſon, or by his vicar thereto duly deputed, who ſhall convoke in ſome proper place, the dean, prebendaries, minor canons, [Page 139] ſinging-men, and all other officers of the church, and interrogate them upon any and every the articles contained in theſe ſtatutes, or any other articles relating to the ſtate, profit, or honour of the church, and oblige them by virtue of the oath they have taken, to declare the truth touching the matters enquired of; and according to what is proved, appoint puniſhment agreeable to the nature and degree of the offence, and as the ſtatutes require; and reform and do all things which may ſeem neceſſary to the rooting out vice, and which of right belongs to the office of viſitor: And all are hereby required to obey him. No one by virtue of his oath ſhall alledge any thing againſt the dean or canons, or other officers of the church, but what he believes to be true, or is derived from public fame or report. The biſhop or his deputy, with his family or attendants, when viſiting, is to be entertained once, or at the moſt but twice, by the dean at the charge of the church. If there appears any ambiguity in, or any diſpute happens between the dean and canons, or amongſt the canons themſelves, touching the true ſenſe and meaning of the ſtatutes, which are always to be underſtood juxta planum & grammaticalem ſenſum, it is to he referred to the biſhop, and the parties ſhall abide by his interpretation, ſo it be not contrary to the ſtatutes. The viſitor is prohibited making any new ſtatutes, (hiiſce ſtatutis contraria) and ſhall not diſpenſe with any of them. The dean and prebendaries are prohibited receiving any new ſtatutes made by others, or any diſpenſations, under the pains of perjury and loſs of their preferments for ever. A power is reſerved to the crown of altering, changing, or diſpenſing with theſe ſtatutes; and likewiſe, if thought proper, of making new ones.

Then follow the prayers to be uſed in the grammar ſchool, and by the poor men and others; after, this ſubſcription,
  • NICHOL. EBOR. Electus.

Facta collatione concordat cum originali libro, apud reverendiſſimum dominium Reginaldum Cardinalem legatum a latere, et archiepiſcopum cantuarienſem totius Angliae primatem, remanente. An Act of Chapter, 20 July, 1556.
[Page 140]

Conſidering that this our church, during the late ſchiſm, has been ſpoiled of all its ornaments and much waſted; and moreover, that a very ſmall ſtipend is aſſigned by the ſtatutes to the miniſters of this church, to alleviate which, we the dean and chapter, by common and unanimous conſent, this 20th day of July, in the year of our Saviour 1556, in a general chapter held at Durham, have ordained and decreed, that whoever after this day ſhall be admitted into the place of canon or prebendary of this church, however becoming vacant before he be inſtalled, is to pay the precentor three ſhillings and four-pence; the regiſter ſix ſhillings and eight-pence; the two vergers four ſhillings; for bread and wine five ſhillings; to the bell-ringers one ſhilling; the chapter of the reſident prebendaries one pound; to the fabric and ornaments of the church one pound: And this we will to be obſerved as a local ſtatute of the church for ever.

The ſtipends are then ſtated, as before noted in the 33d chapter, &c.

Analecta Capitularia Ex Archivis Dunelm. An account of the practices of the church, about the lands and tithes, commonly called corps and bycorps, lotteries, dividends, reſidences, &c. ſince the erection of the deanry: Extracted out of the regiſter-books and rentals, &c. ſuppoſed to be collected by Dr Baſire. The original ſigned P. Smith, regiſter.

It has been the cuſtom ſince the erection, to call the lands aſſigned to the dean and prebendaries for augmentation of reſidence and hoſpitality their corps; although in our local ſtatutes the yearly ſtipend of the dean is ſaid to be given him pro corpore decanatus ſui, and of the prebendaries pro corpore prebendae ſuae; the word corps being uſed herein not otherwiſe, nor bycorps at all.

Our ſtatutes were made by Queen Mary, in the firſt year of her reign, ſhe being enabled thereto by an act of parliament. The former ſtatutes by King Henry VIII. being defective, as in other things, ſo in point of law, as appears by the preamble of that act. We have, I ſuppoſe, no copy of the old ſtatutes, but by ſome paſſages in our books, we may think they did not differ much from the new, in the matter of corps, and ſome other particulars: Biſhop Tunſtall having, as it is probable, a great hand in both; and there is a traditional commendation of him for the good ſervice he did the church concerning the ſtatutes.

But ſearching into the practice, we find theſe corps not ſo diſpoſed of for a good while as they are now. At the erection of the deanry, although their corps with other lands, were ſettled upon the dean and prebendaries, they came not all of them into their hands at the ſame time, the prior and convent had leaſed out ſome, as Houghhall and Witton-Gilbert, for forty years, and South Pittington for thirty-five years, ſome two years before the diſſolution; for if it had been but one year before, the leaſes had been void by an act of parliament. And King Henry VIII. in the interval between the diſſolution and erection, had made a grant of more of them to ſeveral perſons for twenty-one years, &c.

[Page 141] As the remaining part of this account is in no wiſe intereſting to the public; and relates to the private management of the chapter, we think it prudent to proceed no further therein.

1.2.36. DEAN WATSON,

chaplain to Gardiner biſhop of Wincheſter, was eſteemed a warm Roman Catholic*; and was a great favourite with cardinal Pole: Continuing dean of Durham until the year 1557, he was made biſhop of Lincoln by papal proviſion, the bull bearing date the 24th of March; and was conſecrated on the 15th of Auguſt. There is ſome doubt whether his deanry was then reſigned, for he wrote himſelf Biſhop of Lincoln, and Dean of Durham, till the 26th of September, 1558: He was removed from the See of Lincoln by authority of parliament, in the beginning of queen Elizabeth's reign, as being an enemy to reformation, and the queen's ſupremacy over the church; having threatened her majeſty with excommunication. Becoming highly obnoxious to the new principles, he was impriſoned in the Tower of London, in 1559§, and there remained, or in ſome other durance in or about London, until the year 1580; when, together with Jo. Feckenham and others, he was ſent priſoner to Wiſbich-caſtle, in Cambridgeſhire, and dying there, was privately buried on the 17th of Sept. 1584, in Wiſbich church, without any monument. In his youth he wrote ſeveral poems ; in elder life, being then of a ſour diſpoſition, as one writer ſaith**, and learned in deep divinity, but ſurly, with an auſtere gravity ††: He publiſhed ſeveral religious tracts, particularly two ſermons, preached before queen Mary, touching the real preſence in the ſacraments ‡‡. Pitts gives him the character of a famous preacher, a ſolid divine, and a good poet§§.— On the 23d of July, 1558 ‖‖, he was ſucceeded by


who was born either at, or in the neighbourhood of Wakefield, Yorkſhire; was originally of Queen's College, Oxford, and afterwards of Magdalen College, wherein he had a fellowſhip: Was maſter of the adjoining ſchool; and about the year [Page 142] 1539, was treaſurer of the church at Saliſbury. It is ſaid the congregation of Regents were ſupplicated by him, for admiſſion to the reading of the ſentences, being then eſteemed Flos & decus Oxonii. In 1540, by the intereſt of Langland, biſhop of Lincoln, he was made archdeacon of Leiceſter, and enjoyed that office till the year 1560: Was ſome time rector of St Laud's church, at Sherrington, in the county of Bucks; and in 1546, was inſtituted vicar of Wakefield, on which he reſigned his treaſurerſhip: His character was that of a correct grammarian, and that he greatly exceeded his predeceſſors in the education of his pupils; he added ‘Quae genus’ to Lilly's grammar: In the year 1549, we find him named among thoſe who were appointed by King Edward VI. to compoſe the church liturgy. At the time the deanry of Durham was given, the queen greatly reſpected him for his piety and learning, would have nominated him to a biſhopric, which was modeſtly refuſed. He was the author of ſeveral grammatical works; was ejected from his deanry in 1559, to make room for Dr Horn's reſtoration. On Horn's promotion to the See of Wincheſter, he might have been replaced, on taking the ſupremacy oath, but refuſed: He reſigned his archdeaconry to avoid the diſgrace of an ejection, and though a better adverſary to reformation, and buſy in ſpreading his arguments in Yorkſhire, was overlooked, as ſome thought, becauſe of his lameneſs*; but Willis ſays, he was taken into cuſtody: What afterwards became of him, our authorities are ſilent.

1.2.38. ROBERT HORN,

in 1559, was reſtored to this deanry, but remained a very ſhort time, being made biſhop of Wincheſter, the 16th February, 1560. In the ſame month


was appointed dean, and inſtalled on the 5th of March following: He was a ſtudent of New College, Oxford; whether he took the degree of maſter of arts, or of any other faculty, in that univerſity §, is not known, but being elected warden of that college in May, 1551, was on that occaſion ſtiled maſter of arts: Wood and others note him as a member of the Houſe of Commons in the year 1554: Archbiſhop Parker recommended him to this deanry, and gave him the character of being "learned, wiſe, and expert**." On the 22d of June, 1561, a recantation ſermon was preached by him at Paul's Croſs, wherein he gave warning of a note book he had printed, bidding every man take heed of it, as very hereſy ††. In 1559, he was [Page 143] appointed maſter of Sherburn hoſpital in this county: In 1561, was made temporal chancellor; and being rector of Sedgfield, in the ſame county, died there, and was interred on the 21ſt of January, 1562-3.

In this dean's time, it was agreed in Chapter, that certain tithes ſhould be annexed to each prebend; the ſame was confirmed under dean Whittingham, and the augmentation hath continued to this time, (ſee page 127.) To him ſucceeded


on the 19th of July, 1563, who was inſtalled on the 8th of October*. He was born in the city of Cheſter, ſon of William Whittingham, Eſq by a daughter of —Haughton, of Haughton Tower: Became a commoner of Brazen-Noſe College in Oxford, in the year 1540, being then 16 years of age, where he made great proficiency in literature: Having become bachelor of arts, he was elected fellow of All-Souls', in 1545: And two years afterwards, was made one of the ſeniors of Chriſt-Church, on its foundation by K. Henry VIII. who endeavoured to repleniſh the ſame with the firſt ſcholars of the univerſity. On the 17th of May, 1550, having obtained leave to travel for three years, his time was ſpent chiefly at the univerſity of Orleans, where he married the daughter of Lewis Jacquiene. He returned to England in the latter end of the reign of K. Edward VI. but on the acceſſion of Q. Mary, was one of the fugitives to Frankfort, and afterwards became a member of the church of Geneva: On John Knox's leaving that ſociety, to return to Scotland, Whittingham was prevailed upon by Calvin to become a miniſter of the church: He engaged, with other learned men of that ſociety, in an Engliſh tranſlation of the Bible; but it was not finiſhed before ſeveral of thoſe employed therein returned to England, on Q. Elizabeth coming to the crown: Whittingham remained near eighteen months at Geneva, to perfect the work; during which time, he reduced into metre five of David's pſalms, (inſcribed W. W.) of which the 119th was one; together with the ten commandments, and a prayer, now placed at the end of the verſion. Soon after his return to England, he was employed to accompany Francis, earl of Bedford, on his embaſſy of condolence for the death of the French king, in 1560: And he attended Ambroſe, earl of Warwick, to Newhaven, to be preacher there, whilſt the earl defended it againſt the French; on which occaſion he ſhewed a reproachable diſpoſition, in ſpiriting the people againſt uniformity: The earl, either to be rid of him, or through an eſteem, which even his improprieties could not wean, obtained this deanry of the queen, on Skynner's death, although the ſame had been promiſed by her majeſty to Dr Wilſon, then one of her ſecretaries of ſtate. Whittingham enjoyed the deanry ſixteen years; was a violent oppoſer of meaſures touching the ſacerdotal veſture, and uſed all his influence with the earl of Leiceſter therein; ſupporting Biſhop Pilkingtru's [Page 144] arguments to the utmoſt of his power: He wrote to the earl, and, as Collier obſerves*, ‘Wrought the point with more heat than his biſhop, and made the colours more glowing: He cited ſeveral of the fathers, though wide of his purpoſe, and at length fell into vehemence and coarſe language.’

Notwithſtanding all applications to the contrary, the order touching ſacerdotal veſtments iſſued in 1564, and was urged in ſuch a manner, that they that refuſed the ſame were not permitted to exerciſe their miniſtry; on which the dean ſubmitted thereto. It was not long before he was ſeverely upbraided, for this compliance, by one who was with him at Geneva: But finding an apt reply, anſwering, that he and others knew, and had heard John Calvin ſay, ‘ That for external matters of order, they might not neglect their miniſtry, for ſo ſhould they, for tithing of mint, neglect the greater things of the law.’ He was a great advocate for ſinging in the church, and provided the beſt anthems uſed in the queen's chapel, being himſelf ſkilful in muſic . Whittingham did eſſential ſervices to government in the rebellion, 1569, and was a warm defender of the privileges of his church, in oppoſing the archbiſhop's viſitation, in 1577 . Richard Bancroft, in his writings, called him, the falſe and unworthy dean of Durham §: He rendered himſelf obnoxious at court, by a zealous preface, wrote by him, to Chriſtopher Goodman's book , which profeſſedly denied the right of governing to belong to a woman: This occaſioned him to become the mark of public reprehenſion. Archbiſhop Sandys, in the viſitation of this province, ‘having heard of ſome irregularities in the church of Durham, (that See being then void) begins a viſitation thereof: The dean whereof, he underſtood, was no ordained miniſter, according to the order of the church of England, having received his orders at Geneva, in the Engliſh congregation there. But that church refuſed his viſitation; which cauſed a conteſt between the ſaid church and the archbiſhop, which proceeded even to an excommunication: And for the better ſearching into the merits of the cauſe, and for putting ſome good concluſion to this difference, a commiſſion was at length, by the lord-keeper, iſſued out, to ſome perſons to hear it **.’— This commiſſion we have in Rymer's Foedera, vol. xv. p. 785, dated 14th of May, 1578. It was directed to the archbiſhop of York, the lord preſident, the biſhop of Durham, the dean of York, and others, to enquire into dean Whittingham's orders. Upon the examination it did not appear, that he was ordained according to the [Page 145] order of Geneva, as then eſtabliſhed; nor according to the law of this realm; for the ordination of K. Edward VI. was repealed by Q. Mary, and that repealed 1ſt of Q. Elizabeth; and that of K. Edward, reſtored the 8th of Q. Elizabeth. The dean's certificate produced, was, ‘that it pleaſed God, by lot and election, of the whole Engliſh congregation, to chooſe him to the office of preaching, &c.’ But this being objected to, he produced another certificate, viz. ‘That it pleaſed God, by the ſuffrages of the whole congregation, orderly to chooſe W. Whittingham into the office of preaching:’ It was objected, that there was no ordination by election or lot, in any church in Europe: The archbiſhop was for depriving him, but the dean of York and lord preſident were againſt it; and ſaid, it was not fit to allow popiſh orders, and refuſe orders of reformed churches. The dean ſoon after departing this life, nothing was determined*.

Dean Whittingham was guilty of much profanation on the pious monuments and ſacred remains in this church. The account given by Wood , of thoſe acts of violence and irreligion, is ſhortly ſtated to the reader; but antecedent thereto, we beg leave to obſerve, that in all ages, and with all people, where civilization and the true ſpirit of religion prevailed, things applied to pious offices and religious ceremonies were held in ſuch veneration, that defiling and employing them in mean and contemptuous uſes, was forbidden and puniſhed. The example of Balthazar, in holy writ, is tremendous; though the ſuperſtitious rites of the Jewiſh temple might render the veſſels he abuſed, as odious to thoſe who ſtripped them from the ſacred places, as ever dean Whittingham held the veſſels of the church at Durham. Diſturbing the aſhes of the dead, is an offence to human nature, ſuch as the moſt ignorant of ſavages refrain from; poliſhed nations of antiquity held ſuch remains in the higheſt veneration, and did not conceive the moſt depraved mind capable of their profanation: The Egyptian who left his father's corps unredeemed, was denied the privileges of ſociety. In profane hiſtory, the ſtory of Cambyſes affords us reflections of the like nature. The learned Dr Prideaux is a ſufficient authority to quote this inſtance; and his words are, ‘As he mounted his horſe for the march, his ſword falling out of the ſcabbard, gave him a wound on the thigh, of which he died a few days after. The Egyptians remarking, that it was in the ſame part of the body, where he had afore wounded the Apis, reckoned it as an eſpecial judgment from Heaven upon him, for that fact, and perchance they were not much out of it: For it ſeldom happening, in an affront given to any particular mode of worſhip, how erroneous ſoever it may be, but that religion is in general wounded thereby; there are many inſtances in hiſtory, wherein God hath very ſignally puniſhed the profanations of religion in the worſt of times, and under the worſt mode of heathen idolatry." Wood proceeds thus, "The works of impiety that Whittingham performed, while he ſat dean of Durham, were very many, among [Page 146] which I ſhall tell you of theſe. Moſt of the priors of Durham having been buried in coffins of ſtone, and ſome in marble, and each coffin covered with a plank of marble, or free ſtone, which lay level with the paving of the church, (for anciently men of note that were laid in ſuch coffins, were buried no deeper in the ground than the breadth of a plank to be laid over them, even with the ſurface of the pavement) he cauſed ſome of them to be plucked up, and appointed them to be uſed as troughs, for horſes to drink in, or hogs to feed in. All the marble and free ſtones alſo that covered them, and other graves, he cauſed to be taken away and broken, ſome of which ſerved to make pavement in his houſe. He alſo defaced all ſuch ſtones as had any pictures of braſs, or other imagery work, or chalice wrought, engraven upon them; and the reſidue he took away and employed them to his own uſe, and did make a waſhing houſe of them, at the end of the centery garth; ſo that it could not be diſcerned afterwards that ever any were buried in the ſaid centery garth, it was ſo plain and ſtraight. The truth is, he could not abide any thing that appertained to a goodly religiouſneſs, or monaſtical life *. Within the ſaid abbey church of Durham, were two holy-water ſtones, of fine marble, very artificially made and engraven, and boſſed with hollow boſſes, upon the outerſides of the ſtones, very curiouſly wrought. They were both of the ſame work, but one much greater than the other. Both theſe were taken away by this unworthy dean, and carried into his kitchen, and employed to profane uſes by his ſervants, ſteeping their beef and ſalt fiſh in them, having a conveyance in the bottoms of them, to let forth the water, as they had when they were in the church, to let out holy-water, &c. He alſo cauſed the image of St Cuthbert, (which before had been removed from its proper place by dean Robert Horn, who alſo had a hand in ſuch impieties) and alſo other ancient monuments to be defaced and broken all to pieces, to the intent that there ſhould be no memory of that holy man, or of any other who had been famous in the church, and great benefactors thereto, (as the priors his predeceſſors were) left whole and undefaced. I ſay it again, that he did this to the end, that no memory or token of that holy man, St Cuthbert, ſhould be left, who was ſent and brought thither by the power and will of Almighty God, and was thereupon the occaſion of the erection of the monaſtical church of Durham, where the clergy and ſervants have all their livings and commodities from that time to this day. At length, after his many rambles in this world, both beyond and within the ſeas, and his too forward zeal for promoting his Calviniſtical (if not worſe) opinions, whereby much miſchief happened to the church of England, he did unwillingly (being then full of worldly troubles) ſubmit himſelf to the ſtroke of death, on the 10th day of June, 1579, and was buried in the cathedral church of Durham; ſoon after was a tomb-ſtone laid over his grave, with an epitaph of twelve long and ſhort verſes, engraven on a braſs plate, faſtened thereto; which, with moſt, if not all of the monuments, which were ſet up after his time, were miſerably defaced by the Scots, when they invaded England, in 1640. So that as he had [Page 147] before in a woeful manner, violated the monuments of his predeceſſors and others, ſo was his, by invaders; and nothing now left to preſerve his memory, or perſon to ſhew the place where his carcaſe was lodged.’ After what Wood has ſaid of our dean, it is juſtice to his character to gather up the ſentiments of other authors*. ‘The Lord Burleigh being advanced to the white ſtaff, his place of ſecretary of ſtate, if we believe A. Wood, was likely to be given to dean Whittingham, ſo noted a Puritan, that he has many an ill word from that Oxonian, who however ſays of him, had he ſtirred in it, and made intereſt with his friend Robert, earl of Leiceſter, he might have obtained it.’ Bancroft, another ſuch rigid doctor as Whitgift, in a treatiſe of his, ſtiles Whittingham ‘ the falſe, unworthy dean of Durham, for taking upon him that deanry, when he was only maſter of arts, and, by the ſtatutes of the church at Durham, he ſhould have been a doctor or bachelor of divinity: With ſuch ſtraws are theſe men's heads ſtuffed. It gave alſo great offence, that he ſhould content himſelf with a Geneva ordination, and for this they did not forbear injuring him, in ſaying he encouraged Knox and Goodman, in ſetting up ſedition in Scotland; for the ſettlement made by Knox in Scotland, was the reformed religion, and not ſedition. Dr Sandys, now archbiſhop of York, ſuſpecting that the gentle hand of Dr Pilkington, late biſhop of Durham, had given the Puritans too much encouragement in that dioceſe, reſolved to viſit it himſelf, Dr Barnes, the new biſhop, having complained to him, of the number of non-conformiſts, whom he could not reduce to the orders of the church. But whatever his pretence was for this grand viſitation, the real deſign was ſuppoſed to be againſt Whittingham, whom Sandys valued not the more for having been a fellow exile with him in Germany, in the bloody reign of queen Mary. He was a divine of great learning, an admirer of Calvin and the church of Geneva, which the late honourable and reverend Dr Compton, biſhop of London, ſtiled his brethren, in a letter he wrote to them, and which the Laudeans treat with contempt or indignation, as ſchiſmatics. It ſeems dean Whittingham had only had Geneva ordination, which I believe as much, as that the ſun is now ſhining in a very fine day, is by the bulk of the inferior clergy, and younger academics, at this time looked upon to be no more an ordination than that of a veſtry would be. There were thirty-four other articles againſt him; but that was like an ignorant ruſtic's inſiſting to have a fellow hanged for ſtealing his gooſe, when he had juſt been convicted of burglary: The latter was ſufficient to hang him, and the gooſe afterwards not worth mentioning. If he was no prieſt, as archbiſhop Sandys urged, on account of his foreign ordination, that would have outed him of courſe, and then what ſignified the other roll of articles: But the dean, inſtead of anſwering the charge, ſtood by the rights of the church of Durham, and denied the archbiſhop's power of viſitation; upon which [Page 148] the archbiſhop excommunicated him, that is, denied him the privilege and benefit of receiving the Lord's ſupper. The dean appealed to the queen, who directed a commiſſion to the archbiſhop, to the lord preſident of the North, and to the dean of York, to hear and determine the validity of his orders, and to enquire into the other miſdemeanors contained in the articles: The lord preſident was a favourer of the Puritans, and Dr Hutton, dean of York, of Whittingham's principles, and boldly averred, that the dean was ordained in a better ſort than even the archbiſhop himſelf; ſo that the commiſſion came to nothing. Sandys, vexed at the diſappointment, and at calling in queſtion his right of viſitation, the reader ſees how it goes, the power, the denomination, the ſelf ever uppermoſt, obtained another commiſſion, directed to himſelf, to the biſhop of Durham, the lord preſident, (he muſt come after notwithſtanding his precedency) the chancellor of the dioceſe, and ſome others, whom he could depend upon, to viſit the church of Durham: The aim of Sandys and Barnes was to deprive Whittingham of his deanry, as a layman. When the dean appeared before the commiſſioners, he produced a certificate under the hands of eight perſons, for the manner of his ordination; upon which the lord preſident roſe up, and ſaid, I cannot in conſcience agree to deprive him for that cauſe only, for it will be ill taken by all the godly and learned, both at home and abroad, that we ſhould allow of the popiſh maſſing prieſts in our miniſtry, and diſallow of miniſters made in a reformed church; upon which the commiſſion was adjourned ſine die.— One cannot help obſerving here, how the noble and the wiſe abhorred perſecution, and how enlarged their minds were in compariſon with the lordly eccleſiaſtics. Theſe proceedings of the archbiſhop againſt the dean were invidious, and loſt him his eſteem, both in city and county. Beſides the calling the dean's ordination in queſtion, was contrary to the ſtatute 13th Elizabeth, by which the ordinations of foreign reformed churches were declared valid; and thoſe that had no other orders, were made of like capacities with others, to enjoy any place of miniſtry within England. It is ſtrange the archbiſhop of York, and the biſhop of Durham, among other articles againſt the dean, did not think of that mentioned by Wood, the Oxonian, who doubtleſs thought it of the higheſt importance, which was, that he was only graduated maſter of arts, whereas the ſtatutes of the church of Durham required, that the dean ſhould be a bachelor of divinity*. What trifles do they hoard up for treaſures! He is charged with horrid impieties by Wood, &c. &c. ſure I am that all theſe, and other the like impieties, as the Oxonian calls them, are in no degree ſo impious, as what himſelf ſays of that idolatrous monk Cuthbert's being brought to Durham, by the power and will of Almighty God, to ſet up a church full of idols, and prieſts almoſt as ſtupid as the wooden images they worſhipped .’ The reader now hath both ſides of Mr Whittingham's character.

[Page 149] The agreement entered into in Dean Skynner's time*, touching an augmentation of the prebends, was confirmed on the 20th of November, 1573.

In 1577, the diſturbances between the chapter and their tenants, became ſo ſerious, as to require the interpoſition of the ſtate, and thereupon the queen's privy council in the north were ordered to hear the parties, and make determination thereon; on which occaſion an adjudication was made, as a perpetual ordinance to be obſerved between them

[Page 150] Dean Whittingham died at Durham, on the 10th of June, 1579, and was interred [Page 151] in the cathedral church: The inſcription* given in the notes was placed upon his [Page 152] monument, which, ſoon after its erection, met with the ſame fate as he had treated others.


was appointed dean on the 5th day of February next following Whittingham's death, and was inſtalled the 28th, by Ad. Holyday his proxy. He was born in Lincolnſhire, and elected a ſcholar in King's College, Cambridge, in the year 1541: Was tutor to Henry and Charles Brandon, dukes of Suffolk, and domeſtic chaplain to Charles, and Katharine, his ducheſs, and afterwards to queen Catherine Parr*. He was a voluntary exile in the time of queen Mary, and travelling to Rome in 1558, was put into the Inquiſition there, on a charge of hereſy, ſaid to be contained in his writings on logic and rhetoric: He ſuffered the torture, and would have been put to death on refuſing to deny his faith, had not a fire happened, which induced the populace to force open the priſon, that thoſe conſined might not periſh; by which accident he eſcaped. Queen Elizabeth made him maſter of the hoſpital of St Catherine, near the Tower, and maſter of requeſts; after which he became ſecretary of ſtate and privy-counſellor. He was on many occaſions ſent abroad as ambaſſador, and his reſidence as dean was much diſpenſed with. After Whittingham's death, we hear no more of that vile character, the Augean ſtable, given to the cathedral church of Durham, in biſhop Barnes' writings. The dean died on the 16th of June, 1581, and was buried at St Catherine's. He wrote a much approved book againſt uſury.

The deanry continued vacant two years, and on the 31ſt of Auguſt, 1583,


rector of Biſhop-Weremouth, in this county§, was appointed dean, then thirty-ſeven years of age. Strype ſpeaks of him thus:—‘A great preacher, and a pious, holy man: This venerable prelate firſt entered into orders by the motion and counſel of Dr Calfhill, a learned dignitary of the church in thoſe times, and his couſin; though his father and mother, perſons of good quality, who ſeemed to be diſaffected to religion, were not inclinable thereto, as I have ſeen in a letter of the ſaid Calfhill, ſoon after written to Sir William Cecil, That he was bound by all honeſt means to prefer his couſin, as well in reſpect of his rare abilities, as alſo for that he had followed his advice, in entering into the miniſtry, againſt the good will of father and mother, and other his able friends. Matthew was ſoon ſent for to court by the earl of Leiceſter, having been recommended to him by his ſaid kinſman; as alſo the ſaid ſecretary Cecil, who by ſoliciting the queen, obtained for him the deanry of Durham, though ſhe ſtuck a good while, becauſe of his youth and his marriage.— When he departed from court to Durham, Cecil, (now lord Burleigh) according to his grave and godly way, gave him much good counſel for his wiſe and good [Page 153] behaviour of himſelf, and diſcharging of his duty in that place; and die next year ſent him a letter of the ſame import, by Mr. Tonſtal going down thither.’

Matthew anxiouſly ſolicited the lord-treaſurer to diſpatch him quickly to Durham, after he was appointed dean*, as in caſe of his non-reſidence, twenty-one days before Michaelmas, the whole crop of hay and corn, and other fruits, belonging to the tithe and glebe, appropriated to his deanry, would go to the prebendaries who did reſide. It ſeems the great men then in power had an eye to ſelfiſh gains, from eccleſiaſtical preferments, for the lord treaſurer ſought to obtain a leaſe of Pittington, from Dean Matthew, on which there were at that time two unexpired leaſes for long terms, which obliged the dean to draw an unfavourable picture of his poſſeſſions. An attempt was made by Mr Carey, ſon to the lord Hunſdon, to diſſeize the church of Billingham and Holme, part of the dean's corps, upon pretence of concealed lands, given to ſuperſtitious uſes; and a fuit was alſo projected by one Brackenbury, touching thoſe places.—Matthew was made Biſhop of Durham in 1594; and after a vacancy of two years,


was appointed dean, on the 5th of June, 1596, and was inſtalled by Clement Colmore, his proxy: He was born at Sandbach, in Cheſhire; ſon of Mr John James, of Ore§, in Staffordſhire, by Ellen his wife, of the family of Bolt, of Sandbach: He was admitted ſtudent in Chriſt-Church, Oxford, in 1559, and took the degree in arts: Afterwards entering into holy orders, was admitted to the reading of the ſentences in 1571, being then divinity reader in Magdalen College. The next year, was elected maſter of Univerſity College; and on the 27th of Auguſt, 1577, became archdeacon of Coventry: In 1584, was made dean of Chriſt-Church, Oxford; and in 1606, ſucceeded biſhop Matthew in the See of Durham**. After him

1.2.44. ADAM NEWTON,

a Scotchman and a layman, obtained the deanry, and was inſtalled the 27th of September, in the ſame year, by his proxy, Mr Ewbanke: He was tutor to prince Henry, eldeſt ſon of king James I. and wrote his life††. Newton held the deanry till the year 1620, when a reſignation was made in conſideration of a large ſum of money‡‡: About that time he was created knight and baronet: Was a man of learning, and wrote ſeveral things of note‖‖. He died on the 13th of September, [Page 154] 1626, and was interred at Charleton, near Greenwich, in Kent*.—By the means before noted, a vacancy took place for the admiſſion of

1.2.45. RICHARD HUNT, D. D.

who was preſented on the 3d of May, admitted the 8th, and inſtalled the 29th of the ſame month, 1620. He had been rector of Fobſham; alſo vicar of Terrington, on the preſentation of king James I. 1603, and rector of the ſame place, on the preſentation of Sir John Stanhope, knight, 1609: Was made a prebendary in the ſecond ſtall of Canterbury cathedral, in the year 1613 or 1614; and was chaplain to king James. In 1633, the dean and chapter petitioned the king, (then at Durham) for a confirmation of their charters and endowments, as in the notes§. The [Page 155] dean died on the 1ſt of November, 1638, and was buried in the cathedral church of Durham, under the ſeat ſet apart for the prebendaries' wives: His epitaph was inſcribed on a tablet of wood, fixed to the adjoining pillar, which not being eſteemed ornamental, was taken down and thrown into the veſtry-room. Willis gives the inſcription as in the notes*.


[Page 156]

was appointed dean, and inſtalled on the 14th of May, 1639 *. He was by birth a Scotchman; educated at Pembroke Hall, and there took the degree of bachelor in divinity: Was appointed the king's chaplain; and on the 16th of December, 1617, made maſter of the Savoy, which he reſigned the ſucceeding year, in favour of the able, but deſultory Marc Antonio di Dominis, archbiſhop of Spalato, a refugee, in reward for his converſion to Proteſtantiſm: That year he was ſent to the ſynod of Dort, to repreſent the church of Scotland. In February, 1621, Marc Antonio left England, and recanted, whereupon Mr Balcanquall was reſtored to the maſterſhip of the Savoy: In 1624, having obtained naturalization, and taken the degree of doctor in divinity, he was inſtalled dean of Rocheſter on the 12th of March. A ſhort time after his becoming dean of Durham, thoſe commotions aroſe in the ſtate, which forced him from his maſterſhip and deanry, when he was plundered, ſequeſtered, and obliged to fly for perſonal ſafety. The Scotch troops vented their ſpleen on the cathedral church; and defaced all the monuments in the nave: The dean fled to the king at Oxford, and afterwards ſhifted from place to place, to eſcape the fury of the rebels: Being the mark of much inveteracy, as they attributed to him the writing of the king's declaration, in 1639. His epitaph expreſſes, that he eſcaped from the ſiege of York, and in the extremity of a bad ſeaſon, through inexpreſſible danger, took refuge at Chirk Caſtle, in Denbighſhire; but ſinking under the fatigue of the journey, and ſeverity of the weather, died there on Chriſtmas-day, 1645, and was interred in the pariſh church of Chirk; where, ſome years afterwards, a ſmall mural monument was erected to his memory, by Sir Thomas Middleton, of Chirk Caſtle, at whoſe requeſt, Dr Pearſon, then biſhop of Cheſter, compoſed the epitaph .

[Page 157] Diſputes ſubſiſted between the chapter and their tenants, when the dean firſt came to this church, which were laid before the council, and an order made thereon, dated the 11th March, 1639, which ſhews, that innovations were renewed, and freſh attempts had been made againſt the leaſeholders, which government would not encourage*.


was nominated in January 1645, to this deanry, but died in March following, and before he was inſtalled: He was born in the barony of Kendal, in Weſtmoreland; was educated in Queen's College, Oxford, and became a fellow thereof. In 1626, he ſucceeded Dr Barnard Potter, his uncle, in the provoſtſhip of his college, and the next year proceeded in divinity. When Dr Laud became a favourite at court, he was induced to be his follower, and thereupon eſteemed an Arminian: In the latter end of the year 1635, then being chaplain in ordinary to the king, he was made dean of Worceſter; [Page 158] and in 1640, executed the office of vice-chancellor of Oxford, not without much trouble from the puritanical party: In the rebellion, he ſuffered much in the royal cauſe: Was a perſon greatly eſteemed by all who knew him, for learning and piety: Was exemplary in his manners and diſcourſe; of a courteous carriage, a ſweet and obliging temper, and a comely preſence *.

This period of time muſt not be paſſed over without obſerving, that archbiſhop Laud was very urgent for the eſtabliſhment of decent regulations in the church ſervice, and particularly for placing the communion table at the eaſt end of the church, and encloſing it with a rail, to ſecure it from profanation and common buſineſs: But in 1641, the commons interpoſing their authority in thoſe matters, the table was ordered to be removed, the rails taken away, the chancel levelled, ornaments to be diſuſed, as baſons, tapers, candleſticks, &c. and that bowing at the hallowed name, towards the eaſt, ſhould be forborn. In ſhort, the hour was come, when religious veneration was extinguiſhed, and ſlovenlineſs, diſorder, and irreverence, ſimilar to the rudeneſs of a Jewiſh ſynagogue, were tolerated in the churches.—On the 6th of March, 1645,


[Page 159]

was appointed dean of Durham; but it is doubtful was never inſtalled: He was born at Hadleigh, in Suffolk, the ſon of Andrew Fuller; received his education in Cambridge, and was much noted for his learning, piety, and prudence: Was chaplain in ordinary to king James I. and king Charles I. and eſteemed an excellent preacher; having preached ſeveral times before the king at Oxford. In 1636, he was made dean of Ely, and had the vicarial church of St Giles, near Cripplegate, London.— ‘In the beginning of the rebellion, 1642, he was ſequeſtered from his church preferment, impriſoned, and ſpoiled of all, for his loyalty to his prince, by the impetuous and reſtleſs Preſbyterians *.’ After Oxford was ſurrendered, the dean retired to London, where he lived in obſcurity and poverty, in an advanced age, and full of ſorrows, till death releaſed him from miſery and fears, though not from perſecution; at the age of ſeventy-nine, he departed this life, on Holy Thurſday, the 12th of May, 1659; but the vengeance of thoſe days of confuſion followed him to the tomb, for his remains were denied interment in his own church of St Giles, ſo that his body was ſtolen to the grave, to the church of St Vedaſt, in Foſterlane, where it reſts in the ſouth aile. His daughter Jane, (who married Dr Brian Walton, biſhop of Cheſter) on the reſtoration of peace and government to this country, cauſed a monument to be erected to his memory.

[Page 160] In the Annals of the Biſhops are fully related, the circumſtances which befel this church during the uſurpation; and to which, for avoiding prolixity and repetition, we muſt refer the reader.

On the commiſſion of ſurvey, iſſued, relative to the poſſeſſions of the church, the commiſſioners returned the certificate into the regiſter office of the court of chancery at Durham, dated the 1ſt of October, 1649, ſtating the nature and tenure of the dean and chapter's lands*.

[Page 161] The year following dean Fuller's death

1.2.49. JOHN BARWICK, D. D.

was appointed to this deanry: He was born at Weatherſlake, in Weſtmorland, in the year 1612, was educated at Sedbergh ſchool, in Yorkſhire, and admitted of St John's College, Cambridge, in 1631, of which he became a fellow: Was incorporated bachelor of divinity at Oxford, in February, 1661; and was chaplain to biſhop Morton, who, in 1645, collated him to a prebend in this church, and when that prelate fell in the political confuſion of the times, Dr Barwick was turned out of his fellowſhip and prebend: It is ſaid he aſſiſted Dr Hewitt in the melancholy duties of the ſcaffold; and was highly inſtrumental in king Charles II.'s reſtoration *. [Page 162] On the king's return, he became doctor in divinity*, and chaplain in ordinary to his majeſty; and in conſideration of his great ſufferings, impriſonment, and perſecution in the royal cauſe, had the deanry of Durham conferred on him, and was inſtalled on the 1ſt of November, 1660, by his proxy, Dr Carlton: He preached at the cathedral on the occaſion of Dr Coſins' election to the See: In the ſame year, he had the rich rectory of Houghton-le-Spring, which he held till December, 1661. Whilſt he held the deanry, he cauſed the cathedral and all the prebendal houſes to be repaired; erected the grammar-ſchool from the ground, and made it a nurſery of good literature. He brought water into the college, to ſupply the occaſions of all the prebendaries' houſes; reformed the manners of his clergy, and augmented the ſalaries of the poorer ſort; and did many other public acts for the benefit of his church. The chapter not only gave their conſent to all theſe matters, but did all in their power to promote them; yet they were ſo far from exacting in the fines on their leaſes, and were ſo beneficial to all the poor, that, in an age very little favourable to the clergy, they are mentioned with honour for their humanity, candour, and piety. Nay, in many caſes, they were ſo bountiful as to recede from their own right, in favour of their ſucceſſors, that the revenues of the church might deſcend to them with ſome augmentation.—Tempora mutantur!

On the 19th of October, 1661, he was removed from Durham, and made dean of St Paul's; and in the ſame year, on Dr Fearn's being made biſhop of Cheſter, was choſen prolocutor of the convocation, and held the ſame till his death, which happened on the 22d of October, 1664, aet. 53. His remains were interred at St Paul's, and an elaborate epitaph was inſcribed on his monument. He wrote and publiſhed many ſermons and other things, among which was the Life and Character of Dr Morton, before mentioned. Upon being informed of his intended removal from the deanry of Durham, he inſtantly put a ſtop to all leaſing of farms, (even ſome, where the fine had been already agreed upon between the chapter and the [Page 163] tenants) that the revenue of the deanry might come more intire to his ſucceſſor, who was ſoon to take poſſeſſion of it*. This and other acts of ſeverity, occaſioned the tenants to petition the king, ſetting forth their grievances, eſpecially a breach of thoſe ordinances which were made in the reign of queen Elizabeth. The petition was referred to commiſſioners; an anſwer was given in by the dean and chapter, in 1662, and an interlocutory order was made in the matter; but whether any final determination was had, we cannot at preſent aſcertain.

[Page 164] On Dr Barwick's promotion,

1.2.50. JOHN SUDBURY, D. D.

ſucceeded to this deanry, and was inſtalled on the 25th of February, 1661. He was born at St Edmondſbury, and before his coming to the deanry, was one of the [Page 165] prebendaries of Weſtminſter: He ſuffered all the diſtreſſes attending the diſtracted [Page 166] ſtate of the church during the uſurpation, with great magnanimity and virtue of mind; retaining his loyalty, and ſupporting the clerical character with dignity and fortitude: Was a great benefactor to his native place; and ſhewed an exalted and munificent ſpirit while dean of Durham: He began to build the preſent library in the cloiſter where the refectory ſtood, and expended thereon 1500l. or as others ſay, 1000l. but died before it was completed: The vicarage houſe of Billingham, in this county, was built by him. The dean departed this life in the year 1684, aet. eighty, and was interred in the cathedral church, before the dean's ſtall in the choir: His tomb-ſtone was inſcribed with the epitaph given in the notes *. Poſſeſſed [Page 167] of a conſiderable eſtate, he deviſed the ſame to his nephew Sir John Sudbury*; after his own death and that of his lady, it was limited to the dean's neice, who married Mr Tempeſt, of Old Durham, and with whom the dean gave a large portion.—He was ſucceeded by


a younger ſon of the loyal and valiant Sir Bevil Granville, and brother to John, the firſt earl of Bath of that family. After a ſuitable education, in September, 1657, he was admitted a fellow commoner of Exeter College, in Oxford. On the 28th of September, 1660, was created maſter of arts; and ſoon after, marrying Anne, youngeſt daughter of biſhop Coſins, was collated by his lordſhip on the 16th of September, 1662, to the archdeaconry of Durham; and to the firſt prebend in the cathedral church, which he exchanged for the ſecond, April 16, 1668. He had alſo, of his gift, the rectories of Eaſington and Elwick; and in the room of the latter, the living of Sedgefield. But he took a very regular and exemplary care of them, in the due diſcharge of all miniſterial functions, as appears by the directions given to his curates, printed among his works, On the 20th of December, 1670, he was created doctor in divinity, being then chaplain in ordinary to his majeſty, as he had been for ſeveral years before; and on the 14th of December, 1684, was inſtalled dean of Durham. Thus poſſeſſed of ſuch great preferments, he might have long enjoyed them with much profit and honour to himſelf and friends; and have continued to be an ornament to his function, and a general benefit to the world: But ſome abſurd notions entertained of the unlimited extent of the prerogative, together with his ſtrict adherence to the doctrines of paſſive obedience and non-reſiſtance, involved him in inextricable difficulties. For, poſſeſſed with the [Page 168] indiſpenſableneſs of their obligation, upon the prince of Orange coming to reſcue this nation from the dangerous attempts made upon our religion and liberties, the dean oppoſed the meaſures taken for our common ſafety to the utmoſt of his power; by preaching, delivering charges to the clergy, ſending up an addreſs to king James, and ſubſcribing a ſum of money for his ſervice. And when all his endeavours proved ineffectual, he was ſo entangled with thoſe abſurd doctrines, that, rather than ſubmit to king William, he choſe to loſe his great preferments, and go into a voluntary exile; and, quitting Durham the 11th December, 1688, he arrived the 19th of March following, at Honfleur, in France. In February, 1689, he took a hazardous journey to England, whereby he got a ſmall ſupply of money, to ſubſiſt abroad. His brother, the earl of Bath, (who was warm in the intereſt of the prince of Orange) endeavoured for ſome time to ſecure his revenues; but as no conſiderations whatever could induce him to ſwear allegiance to king William and queen Mary, he was at length deprived of all his preferments, February 1, 1690. He not only refuſed himſelf, but likewiſe did all in his power to deter, or rather to terrify others from taking the oaths, by repreſenting the revolution as a rebellion and uſurpation. Having no proſpect, after the late king James's defeat in Ireland, of recovering his benefices, he repaired to the abdicated monarch's court, at St Germain; where, though he had reaſon to expect an uncommonly kind reception, yet, becauſe he was a proteſtant, he was ſoon obliged to retire, not only from court, but alſo from the town. 'Tis ſaid, that upon the death of Dr Lamplugh, he had the empty title of archbiſhop of York conferred upon him by king James. In 1695, he came incognito to England, where he found no encouragement to make any ſtay. Having for ſome years enjoyed but an indifferent ſtate of health, he died at his lodgings in Paris, the 8th of April, 1703, aged 64, and was buried at the lower end of the church-yard of the Holy Innocents in that city. His nephew, lord Lanſdown, draws his character to great advantage in the following words:—‘Sanctity ſate ſo eaſy, ſo unaffected, and ſo graceful upon him, that in him we beheld the very beauty of holineſs. He was as chearful, as familiar, as condeſcending in his converſation, as he was ſtrict, regular, and exemplary in his piety; as wellbred and accompliſhed as a courtier, and as reverend and as venerable as an apoſtle. He was indeed apoſtolical in every thing, for he abandoned all to follow his lord and maſter.’ From this man's example, we may learn the great danger and miſchief of propagating abſurd and unreaſonable doctrines. Since there will always be found ſome perſon or other, that will embrace and ſtiffly defend them, though never ſo much to their own, or others prejudice: All not being equally endowed with the ſame penetrating genius, or not having a yielding conſcience alike *.

1.2.52. THOMAS COMBER, D. D.

was inſtalled dean on the 15th of June, 1691, on the deprivation of Granville: He had his education in Sydney College, Cambridge; in 1677, was made prebendary [Page 169] of York, and had the ſtall of Holme; and in 1681, was removed to the prebend of Fenton in that cathedral: In 1683, he was collated to the precentorſhip there, by archbiſhop Dolben: After the revolution, was made chaplain in ordinary to king William and queen Mary, and obtained the deanry of Durham by the recommendation of lord Fauconberg and archbiſhop Tillotſon*: There was allowed him 160l. for dilapidations in his deanry, which was never received; yet he expended in reparations about 400l. He departed this life on the 25th of November, 1699, aet. 55, and was interred at Stonegrave in Yorkſhire.


fourth ſon of the earl of Sandwich, was inſtalled the 19th June, 1699. In 1680, he was appointed maſter of Sherburn hoſpital, in this county. In 1683, he was made maſter of Trinity College; and in 1687, choſen vice-chancellor, and prebendary of the fourth ſtall in Durham cathedral, and after of the eleventh. He died on the 23d of February, 1727, aet. 73, and was interred at Barnnoll, the burying place of the family.

On Dr Montague's deceaſe,

1.2.54. HENRY BLAND, D. D.

was appointed to this deanry, and inſtalled the 6th of May, 1728, by his proxy Mr Walter Oſtley: He was a native of Yorkſhire, and received the firſt rudiments of literature at Eton ſchool, where he contracted a friendſhip with Sir Robert Walpole: Was admitted ſcholar in King's College, Cambridge, in 1695, in which year Sir Robert alſo took his admittance: Was made rector of Harpley, on the death of Dr Henry Colman, in the year 1715, by the preſentation of William Hookes, Eſq and Elizabeth his wife, which living he held to the time of his death: Was made chaplain to the king, and alſo of the royal hoſpital at Chelſea, in 1716; took his degree of doctor in divinity in 1717; and was appointed maſter of Eton ſchool 1719: On the 13th of December, 1723, was inſtalled canon of Windſor, and admitted dean of Durham the 12th of March, 1727: In February, 1732, he reſigned his ſtall in Windſor, on being made provoſt of Eton College: Died at Eton on the 24th of May, 1746, and was interred in a vault in the antichapel there; leaving two ſons and three daughters.—To him ſucceeded


a ſon of lord chancellor Cowper: He was inſtalled on the 21ſt of July, 1746, by his proxy Mr Wadham Knatchbull: Was rector of Fordwich in Kent, and alſo one of the prebendaries of Canterbury, which he reſigned on this promotion: He died at [Page 170] the deanry houſe on the 25th of March, 1774, aet. 62, and was interred in the eaſt tranſept of the cathedral church called the Nine Altars, where a monument is erected to his memory*.


was inſtalled dean on the 17th of June, 1774: Was prebendary of Canterbury, which he exchanged for a canonry at [...]indſor. Inſtalled in the ſecond prebend at Durham, the 20th of April, 1771; and exchanged it in March, 1773, for the maſterſhip of Sherburn hoſpital, wherein he was inducted the 10th of the ſame month, and afterwards reſigned it in favour of his ſon, the preſent dean of Rocheſter. Died at Bath the 31ſt of July, 1777.


dean of Worceſter, and canon of Oxford, was inſtalled dean of Durham the 20th of September, 1777, and now enjoys that dignity.


EDWARD HYNDMERS, D. D. was nominated in the foundation charter: He was a Benedictine monk, and ſpiritual chancellor to biſhop Tunſtall; took his bachelor's degree at Oxford, 1513; made warden of Durham College about 1527, and proceeded doctor in divinity in July, 1535. He died in 1543, and was ſucceeded by

JOHN CRAWFORD, or CRAWFORTH, D. D. who was preſented by king Henry VIII. the 7th of September, 1543. Was vicar of Midford, in the county of Northumberland, the 12th of June, 1546, which he reſigned before the 16th of July, [Page 171] 1561. Was ſpiritual chancellor to biſhop Tunſtall, and probably held both his prebend and chancellorſhip till his death: He gave St Auguſtine's works, edition 1529, to the library. By his will, dated the 4th of January, 1561, he ordered his body to be buried in St Michael's church, Witton, if he died there; otherwiſe, before Boulton's altar, in Durham cathedral, nigh the clock.

ROBERT SWYFT, LL. D. was collated the 28th of March, the mandate to induct him dated the 29th of March, and he was inſtalled the 8th of April, 1562. He was born at Rotheram, in Yorkſhire; educated at St John's College, Cambridge; ſtudied the law, and took his degrees at Louvain. Having obtained a fellowſhip in St John's, and being rector of Sedgefield, void by the deceaſe of dean Skynner, was ordained deacon and appointed prebendary by biſhop Pilkington, the 5th of October, 1563, ad titulum eccleſiae ſuae de Sedgefield: Was ſpiritual chancellor during biſhop Pilkington's prelacy, and for a ſhort time after biſhop Barnes came to the See; and was rector of Sedgefield above forty years: He married Ann, daughter of Thomas Lever, maſter of Sherburn hoſpital; and departing this life about the year 1599, was interred under the organ loft of the cathedral church, on the north ſide of the choir door*.

JAMES RAND, A. M. an. 1599, was prebend of Litchfield, and half brother to biſhop Neile; collated to Norton vicarage, the 29th of October, 1578: Reſigned his prebend the 4th of October, 1620, and died at Norton, where he was interred the 19th of November, 1621.

ROBERT NEWELL, D. D. was inſtalled the 20th of October, 1620: Was half brother to biſhop Neile, and his chaplain: He was a Cambridge man, but incorporated doctor in divinity at Oxford, 1600: Was made treaſurer of Chicheſter the 25th of November, 1610: Prebendary in the ninth ſtall of Weſtminſter, 1613: Subdean of Lincoln, the 14th of May, 1613, which he quitted the ſame year: Inſtalled archdeacon of Bucks, the 24th of April, 1614: Prebendary of Clifton, in Lincoln church, the 26th of April, 1614: Rector of Iſlip, in the county of Oxford, and of Crawley, in the county of Bucks; and had ſome preferments in Wincheſter cathedral, where he is ſuppoſed to be buried; having departed this life in the year 1643. He reſigned his prebend in 1638.

GABRIEL CLARK , D. D. was collated and inſtalled the 1ſt of Auguſt, 1638, being removed from the third ſtall in this church: He was of Chriſt-Church, Oxford, and chaplain to biſhop Neile: Was collated to the archdeaconry of Northumberland, the 7th of Auguſt, 1619, which he reſigned two years after: Was collated [Page 172] to the archdeaconry of Durham, the 11th of October, 1620, and to Elwick the 6th of September that year: Was made maſter of Gretham hoſpital, the 24th of July, 1624: Was inthroned as proxy for biſhop Coſins, but died before the biſhop made his firſt viſit the 19th of July, 1662: The 20th of May, 1637, was appointed by the chapter, with two others, (by letter of attorney) to proſecute their ſuits: The 4th of September, 1661, was choſen proctor to the convocation. He was prebendary here forty-two years in the whole, viz. in the ſixth ſtall three years, the third ſtall twelve years, and in this ſtall twenty-ſeven years; and it is very remarkable, was inſtalled the ſame day of the ſame month, into each prebend. He died at Durham the 10th of May, 1662, and was buried in the cathedral near the clock*, being that year ſubdean.

DENNIS GRANVILLE, D. D. inſtalled the 24th of September, 1662; afterwards dean of Durham .

THOMAS SMITH, D. D. was removed from the fourth prebend; collated the 21ſt of April, and inſtalled the 1ſt of July, 1668. He was born at Whitewall, in the pariſh of Aſhby, in Weſtmorland; was educated at Appleby ſchool, and thence ſent to Queen's College, Oxford, where he obtained a fellowſhip, and was employed as a tutor: Was nephew to Dr Barlow. Auguſt 2, 1660, he was created bachelor of divinity; and the 14th of November in that year, inſtalled a prebendary of Carliſle: In November or December following, obtained the degree of doctor in divinity by diploma: On the 23d of March, 16 [...]0, was made prebendary of Litchfield. During the rebellion he lived in retirement, in Cumberland, and there married. After the reſtoration, was made chaplain in ordinary to the king: On the 4th of March, 1671, was made dean of Carliſle; and in 1684, was elected to that biſhopric, and quitted his ſtall at Durham. He died at Roſe-caſtle, on the 12th of April, 1702, aet. 78, and lies buried in the cathedral at Carliſle, before the high altar.

WILLIAM GRAHAM, D. D. was inſtalled the 16th of Auguſt, 1684 He was ſon of Sir George Graham, of Netherby, and younger brother of Richard, lord viſcount [Page 173] Preſton: Was educated at Chriſt-Church, Oxford, where he took the degree of maſter of arts, the 11th of March, 1680, and was diplomated doctor in divinity, the 14th of June, 1686: Was chaplain in ordinary to the princeſs Ann of Denmark: Collated to the rectory of Whickham, and inducted therein the 10th of Auguſt, 1685: Inſtalled dean of Carliſle, the 23d of June, 1686, and of Wells the 28th of July, 1704. He died the 5th of February, 1711, and was buried at Kenſington*.

JOHN BOWES, D. D. was removed from the fifth ſtall, collated the 1ſt of May, inſtalled the ſecond of that month, 1712: He was the fifth ſon of Thomas Bowes, of Streatlam-caſtle, Eſq and next brother to William Bowes, many years member in parliament for this county: Was rector of Elwick, 1701, but reſigned for the rectory of Biſhop-Weremouth, to which he was inducted the 6th of September, 1715. He expended in rebuilding and ornamenting his prebendal houſe, about 1000l. towards which he had an allowance of wood from the chapter, to the value of 250l. He died unmarried, the 14th of January, 1721.

THOMAS RUNDLE, LL. B. was preſented the 23d of January, and inſtalled the 14th of February, 1721, but quitted it the ſame year for the twelfth ſtall: Was of Exeter College, Oxford, where, on the 26th of June, 1710, he obtained a bachelor's degree, and on the 27th of July, 1723, that of doctor of laws: Was chaplain to biſhop Talbot, archdeacon of Wilts, and treaſurer of Sarum, in 1720: Was collated to the rectory of Sedgefield, 1722; and, in 1727, was made maſter of Sherburn hoſpital, both which he reſigned in 1735, on being conſecrated biſhop of Derry, in Ireland. He departed this life in April 1743.

THOMAS MANGEY, firſt LL. D. afterwards D. D. was removed from the fifth ſtall: Collated the 22d of December, and inſtalled the 16th of January, 1722: Was ſon of Arthur Mangey, a goldſmith, at Leeds; fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, afterwards chaplain to Dr Robinſon, biſhop of London: He was deputy to Dr Lupton, as preacher at Lincoln's Inn, and chaplain at Whitehall: Was made rector of Ealing, in Middleſex, which he reſigned in 1754; had the living of Guildford, and was rector of St Mildred, Bread-ſtreet, London, to the time of his death. When Dr Robinſon, at the requeſt of biſhop Crew, conſecrated Sunderland church, on the 4th of September, 1719, Dr Mangey preached the ſermon, for which he was rewarded with a prebend in the cathedral church: He married one of the daughters of archbiſhop Sharpe. When treaſurer of the chapter at Durham, he greatly advanced the fines upon the tenants, and improved the rents of his prebendal lands near 100l. a year. He died at Durham on the 6th of March, 1755, and was interred in the eaſtern tranſept of the cathedral church §.

[Page 174] WILLIAM WARBURTON, D. D. was inſtalled by proxy, the 11th of April, 1755. He ſerved ſome years as clerk to an attorney at Newark upon Trent, and afterwards was a ſchoolmaſter* there, but never received a univerſity education. ‘He was a great flatterer of Sir Robert Sutton, afterwards of archbiſhop Potter's ſon, and Mr Allen, of Prior Park, near Bath, whoſe niece he married, with a large portion.’ He was preacher of Lincoln's Inn, and was made dean of Briſtol in October, 1757: On the 20th of January, 1760, was conſecrated biſhop of Glouceſter at Lambeth, and had leave granted to hold this prebend and Briante Broughton rectory, in the county of Lincoln, in commendam: Was chaplain to king George II. He wrote much, particularly A Treatiſe on the Divine Legation of Moſes.—After uſing Mr Pope very groſsly, in a letter to Dr Birch, by his power in the arts of adulation, he inſinuated himſelf at laſt ſo far into that poet's good opinion, that all his manuſcripts were left to his care. In 1768, he transferred the ſum of 500l. bank 4 per cent. annuities conſolidated, to Lord Mansfield, Judge Wilmot, and Mr Cha. Yorke, upon truſt for the purpoſe of founding a lecture in the manner of a ſermon, to prove the truth of revealed religion in general, and of the Chriſtian in particular, from the completion of the Prophecies in the Old and New Teſtament, relative to the Chriſtian church, eſpecially directed to arraign the apoſtacy of Rome. Biſhop [Page 175] Warburton died at Glouceſter, the 7th of June, 1779, upwards of fourſcore years of age, and lies buried in the cathedral there *.

CHARLES COOPER, D D. was inſtalled the 30th of Auguſt, 1779: He was a prebendary of York, and now holds the rectory of Kirby-over-blow, in Yorkſhire.


ROGER WATSON, D. D. a monk of this church, appointed May 12, 1541: He was inſtituted to the rectory of Rothbury, in Northumberland, the 2d of September, 1550; and to the vicarage of Pittington, the 25th of October, 1560 . Was ferrarius at the diſſolution of this houſe; and died in September, 1561. By his will, dated the 7th of that month, he ordered his body to be buried in the cathedral church, before the choir door, as nigh Mr Caſtell, (formerly prior it is ſuppoſed) as might be convenient.

JOHN PILKINGTON, D. D. (frater et ſacellanus epiſcopi) collated the 1ſt of October, and inſtalled the 8th, 1561. He was born in Lancaſhire; ordained a prieſt by biſhop Grindal, the 25th of January, 1559, being maſter of arts, and [Page 176] fellow of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge *. On the 5th of December, 1563, was collated archdeacon of Durham. He died in 1603, and was buried in this church without any monument.

JOHN BROWNE, A. M. 1603, reſigned the 1ſt of Auguſt, 1620.

AUGUSTIN LINDSELL, D. D. was removed from the tenth ſtall, and inſtalled here 5th of Auguſt, 1620. He was born at Burnſed, in the county of Eſſex; was a fellow of Clare Hall, and made a prebendary of Lincoln, the 6th of November, 1612, and Melſworth, in the county of Hants, and was collated to Houghton-le-Spring, by biſhop Neile the 7th of June, 1623; made dean of Litchfield in 1628, and elected biſhop of Peterborough, the 22d of December, 1632, when he reſigned his deanry: He was tranſlated to Hereford, the 7th of March, 1633, and died ſuddenly in his ſtudy , the 6th of November, 1634, and was buried there . He compoſed a regiſter of the church of Durham, which is cited in Reyner's Apoſtol. Benedict. Tract. I. p. 78.

JOHN WEEMES, A. M. was inſtalled the 7th of June, 1634: Was a Scotchman, and miniſter of Laythaker, in Scotland; promoted at the ſpecial recommendation of king Charles I. and was a learned writer in divinity: He died in the year 1636 .

JOSEPH NAYLOR, D. D. was collated the 10th of November, 1636: Was born at Wakefield, in Yorkſhire, fellow of Sidney College, Cambridge, and chaplain to biſhop Morton; was collated to the archdeaconry of Northumberland, the 25th of February, 1632, and to Sedgefield rectory, the 19th of January, 1634. He applied to Mr Lever, for his aſſiſtance in procuring the payment of the dues of the living of Sedgefield in Oliver's time, and afterwards wrote Mr Lever a warm letter of thanks for what he did therein §. On the 3d of May, 1661, he was choſen a proctor for the chapter, at the convocation of York: His prebendal houſe was in effect wholly [Page 177] ruined, which he rebuilt and enlarged in 1662. He was the author of Additions to the Hiſtory of Biſhop Morton's Life, wrote by his father-in-law, R. Baddely, the biſhop's ſecretary *. Dr Naylor died the 6th of January, 1667, and was buried in the chancel of his church at Sedgefield .

DENNIS GRANVILLE, A. M. removed from the firſt prebend, and inſtalled the 16th of April, 1668; afterwards was made dean .

Sir GEORGE WHELER, knight, and D. D. was collated the 1ſt, and inſtalled the 9th of December, 1684, by his proxy: Was deſcended of the family of Whelers, in Kent, and born at Breda, in Holland: Was of Lincoln College, Oxford, 1667, where he entered as a commoner, and afterwards as gentleman commoner, under the tuition of Dr Hicks: He obtained the degree of maſter of arts, 1683, but previous thereto had travelled over the greateſt part of Greece: On his return, preſenting a journal of his travels to king Charles II. was knighted. He took his doctor in divinity degree by diploma on the 18th of May, 1702: Held the vicarage of Baſingſtoke, in Hampſhire; was curate of Whitworth, in this county, 1703, rector of Winſton, 1706, of Houghton-le-Spring, 1709, and had the appointment of official to the dean and chapter of Durham: His temporal eſtate amounted to 1400l. a year, or thereabouts. He died on the 15th of January, 1723, aet. 74, and was interred at the weſt end of the nave of Durham cathedral, near the tomb of the Venerable Bede, where a handſome monument is erected to his memory .

MARTIN BENSON, A. M. was collated the 25th of January, and inſtalled the 5th of February, 1723, by his proxy, Mr Stonhewer, of Waſhington. He was of [Page 178] Chriſt-Church, Oxford, and attended Lord Pomfret in his travels, as tutor: Was chaplain to king George II. 1727, a prebendary of Saliſbury, archdeacon of Berks, and rector of Blechley, in Bucks; was created doctor in divinity at Cambridge, in 1730, when the king viſited that univerſity, and was conſecrated biſhop of Glouceſter, the 19th of January, 1734, being permitted to hold this prebend in commendam. He died at Glouceſter, on the 30th of Auguſt, 1752, and was buried in the cathedral there.

JAQUES STERN, LL. D. was collated to this prebend by king George II. it having fallen void during a vacancy of the See, by the death of biſhop Butler, and was inſtalled by proxy, the 31ſt of May, 1755. He was collated to the prebend of Abſthorpe, in York cathedral, and reſigned the ſame for Ulleſkelf, 1731: Was made precentor of York, the 24th of November, 1735; afterwards canon reſidentiary and prebendary of Driffield, and chaplain to archbiſhop Blackburn, by whom he was collated to the archdeaconry of Cleveland, the 24th of November, 1735, which he reſigned for that of the Eaſt Riding, April 1750. He was alſo rector of Riſe, and vicar of Hornſea cum Riſton, both in the Eaſt Riding: On being preſented to this ſtall, he reſigned the archdeaconry of the Eaſt Riding: Died at his houſe in York, the 9th of June, 1759, and was buried at Riſe*.

WILLIAM MARKHAM, LL. D. maſter of Weſtminſter ſchool, was inſtalled the 20th of July, 1759. Was of Chriſt-Church, Oxford, where he took a maſter of arts degree, the 20th of March, 1745; on the 20th of November, 1752, a degree of bachelor of civil law, and on the 24th of the ſame month, a doctor's degree was obtained. In the month of January, 1764, he quitted the maſterſhip of Weſtminſter ſchool: In February, 1765, was made dean of Rocheſter: Was chaplain to king George II. and king George III. and vicar of Boxley, in Kent. On the 12th of October, 1767, he was promoted to the deanry of Chriſt-Church, in Oxford; conſecrated biſhop of Cheſter in January 1771, and in the ſucceeding month, was appointed preceptor to the Prince of Wales: In 1777 he was tranſlated to the archbiſhopric of York.

[Page 179] THOMAS DAMPIER, D. D. was inſtalled the 20th of April, 1771: He was canon of Windſor. In 1773, he reſigned this ſtall for the maſterſhip of Sherburn hoſpital, and ſucceeded to the deanry of Durham in 1774 *.

HENRY EGERTON, D. D. brother to the preſent lord biſhop of Durham, ſucceeded to this ſtall in the year 1773. He was rector of Whitchurch, in the county of Salop, archdeacon of Derby, reſidentiary of Litchfield, and prebend of Holme, in York cathedral, which he reſigned in May 1773. He now holds the rectory of Biſhop-Weremouth, in this county.


THOMAS SPARKE, B. D. appointed by the foundation charter, May 11, 1541. He was of Durham College, Oxford, and took his bachelor of divinity's degree in 1528, being at that time prior of the cell of Lindisfarne: In the year 1529, he left the univerſity cum pannis ſuis, to come to the monaſtery of Durham, and was chamberlain there at the diſſolution. He was conſecrated ſuffragan biſhop of Berwick, June 1537, in which dignity he continued during the remainder of his life; the royal mandate to archbiſhop Lee for his conſecration, bears date the 12th of June, 1537, and the 20th of June following, biſhop Tunſtall empowered him to exerciſe his chorepiſcopal authority through the whole dioceſe of Durham; and likewiſe granted him, by letters patent under his palatine ſeal, an annuity of forty pounds out of his manor of Auckland, to be paid half yearly, until he ſhould be preſented to an eccleſiaſtical benefice of the yearly value of fifty pounds: He was collated to Gretham hoſpital September 6, 1541, and to Wolſingham rectory the 14th of June, 1547; and departed this life in the year 1571. Though by his will, dated the 25th of January, 1563, he ordered his body to be buried in Durham cathedral, before our Lady's or Houghwell's altar, yet he was interred in the choir of Gretham chapel, near the ſepulchre of William Eſtfield, a former maſter there.

JOHN FOX, A. M. the martyrologiſt, was collated the 2d of September, and inſtalled the 14th of October, 1572. This perſon, averſe to the habits of the church of England, which were here kept up in great ſtrictneſs, quitted his ſtall within the year, probably on that account: He was born at Boſton, in the county of Lincoln: Was fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, and took the degree of maſter of arts in 1543. Holland ſays he never had any eccleſiaſtical preferment; and Wood, that he was only prebend of Shipton , in Saliſbury, and vicar of St Giles', Cripplegate. He wrote [Page 180] an epitaph on biſhop Pilkington, his benefactor: Died the 18th of April, 1587, aet. 70, and was buried in the chancel of his vicarial church of St Giles *.

ROBERT BELLAMY, M. D. was inſtalled the 13th of October, 1573: Was of St John's College, Oxford, and admitted doctor in phyſic the 23d of June, 1571; was collated to Eggleſcliff, in this county, the 6th of February, 1577; inſtituted to Whalton, in Northumberland, the 9th of Auguſt, 1579, which he reſigned: Was collated rector of Houghton, the 25th of January, 1584; and was chaplain to biſhop Barnes. He quitted his prebend and Houghton living for Sherburn hoſpital, to which he was collated in November 158 [...], and died poſſeſſed thereof in 1606.

ROBERT HUTTON, B. D. was inſtalled the 13th of December, 1589: Was ſenior fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge; and collated to Houghton le-Spring, the 4th of December, 1589, where he purchaſed an eſtate, and built a houſe, now poſſeſſed by his deſcendants: He was younger brother to biſhop Matthew Hutton, and married a daughter of biſhop Pilkington: Was proſecuted in the high commiſſion court in 1621, for reflecting, in a ſermon preached at the cathedral, on the king, the biſhop, the church and its ceremonies. He died at Houghton in 1623, and lies buried in the choir of the church there .

GABRIEL CLARK, A. M. inſtalled the 1ſt of Auguſt, 1623, was removed to the firſt ſtall.

JOHN NEILE, A. M. afterwards D. D. was collated the 1ſt of Auguſt, 1635: Was nephew to the biſhop. On the 27th of October, 1638, he was made archdeacon of Cleveland; the 20th of September, 1660, prebendary of Strenſhall, in York cathedral; inſtituted vicar of Northallerton, the 2d of May, 1669, and appointed dean of Ripon in May, 1674. He was rector of Beeford, in Holderneſs, and exchanged for Sigſton near Northallerton; in 1661, was prolocutor in the convocation at York, when the common prayer book was reviſed. He died the 14th of April, 1675, and was buried at Ripon §.

THOMAS MUSGRAVE, D. D. was inſtalled the 12th of July, 1675. He was of Queen's College, Oxford; and on the 5th of May, 1662, took the degree of maſter of arts, and bachelor and doctor in divinity in October, 1685: Was collated to the archdeaconry of Carliſle, the 25th of March, 1668, and to the third ſtall in that church, 1669: On the 22d of Auguſt, 1675, was collated to the rectory of Whitburn, in this county: In 1676, he reſigned his prebend in Carliſle cathedral, and the 13th of October, 1684, was admitted dean there. He departed this life the 28th of March, 1686, and was buried in the cathedral church at Durham, near the clock .

[Page 181] JOHN CAVE, A M. was inſtalled the 15th of May, 1686: He was ſon of John Cave, vicar of Great Milton, in Oxfordſhire, and educated at Tame ſchool: In 1654 he was of Magdalen College; on the 24th of September, 1660, was choſen a fellow of Lincoln College; and on the 30th of April, 1661, had a degree of maſter of arts: He was chaplain to biſhop Crew, had the rectory of Gateſhead, and exchanged with Mr Richard Werge, for Nailſton, in Leiceſterſhire; alſo held the rectory of Cole Orton, in that county, where he died in the month of October, 1690, aet. 52, and was interred there*.

SAMUEL EYRE, D. D. was inſtalled the 10th of November, 1690. He was of Lincoln College, Oxford, and on the 8th of July, 1687, took his degree of doctor in divinity: In April 1686, he was collated to the rectory of Whitburn. Died in 1694, and lies buried in the cathedral church at Durham, near Dr Swyfte, on the north ſide of the choir door, under the organ-loft.

JAMES FINNEY, D. D. was inſtalled on the 27th of November, 1694: Was of St John's College, Oxford; on the 5th of July, 1676, took a maſter of arts degree; and on the 14th of April, 1698, was diplomated doctor in divinity. He held the vicarage of Kirklington, belonging to the college, and was chaplain to lord Burlington: In the year 1689, was made prebendary of Huſthwaite, in the church of York, and was rector of Long Newton, in this county, in 1690, and built the parſonage houſe, which coſt him 700l. afterwards had the rectory of Ryton, alſo in this county, and built an elegant houſe there, which coſt him about 1200l. On taking this ſtall he reſigned the prebend of Huſthwaite; died on the 10th of March, 1726, and was buried in the eaſtern tranſept of this church .

THOMAS SECKER, A. M. was collated the 3d of June, and inſtalled, by proxy, the 16th, 1727. He was born in 1693, at Sibthorp, in Nottinghamſhire; took the degree of doctor in phyſic at Leyden, in March 1721, and in April following, became a gentleman commoner of Exeter College, Oxford: Was ordained deacon, being bachelor of arts in 1722, in which year he was chaplain to biſhop Talbot: On the 12th of February, in the ſame year, he was collated to Houghton-le-Spring: On the 4th of February, 1723, he took his maſter of arts degree; and on the 17th of June, [Page 182] 1727, was inducted to Ryton rectory; and in July, 1733, took his doctor's degree in law at Oxford, having in the preceding month of May been inſtituted to the rectory of St James's, Weſtminſter, when he reſigned Ryton. On the 19th of January, 1734, he was conſecrated biſhop of Briſtol; and on the 13th of April, 1737, was tranſlated to the See of Oxford: He was inſtalled prebend of Purpool, and then dean of St Paul's, the 11th of December, 1750: Held this prebendary in commendam with his biſhoprics, but reſigned it, and the rectory of St. James, on his receiving the deanry: In April, 1758, he was confirmed archbiſhop of Canterbury; died on the 3d of Auguſt, 1768, aet. 75 *; and was buried in the paſſage from the garden door of his palace to the north door of his church at Lambeth, and forbad any monument or epitaph to be placed for him any where.

THOMAS CHAPMAN, D. D. was preſented by the king ſede vacante, and inſtalled the 1ſt of January, 1750. Was the ſon of John Chapman, of Billingham, in this county, where he was born : Was educated at Richmond ſchool, in Yorkſhire; entered of Chriſt College, Cambridge, and became fellow thereof: In 1746 was maſter of Magdalen College, and on the 4th of November, 1748, was appointed vice chancellor: He was chaplain to king George II. In 1749, was rector of Kirby-over-blowers, in Yorkſhire: In 1758, was appointed official to the dean and chapter of Durham; and on the 9th of June, 1760, departed this life at Cambridge, aet. 43, and was buried in the college chapel there.

THOMAS BURTON, D. D. was inſtalled the 18th of Auguſt, 1760, and was removed to the twelfth prebend: Was the ſon of Dr Thomas Burton, of Chriſt-Church, where he was ſtudent, and obtained a maſter of arts degree on the 28th of June, 1731: Was vicar of St Mary's, Oxford, and reſigned for the rectory of Batsford, in Glouceſterſhire: Was prebendary of Glouceſter, and archdeacon of St David's. He died the 17th of July, 1767, at Batsford.

GIDEON MURRAY, D. D. was inſtalled the 20th of Auguſt, 1761: Was the ſecond ſon of lord Elibank, in Scotland; was of Baliol College, Oxford, where, on the 6th of June, 1735, he obtained a maſter of arts degree: Was prebendary of Lincoln, and vicar of Gainſborough, in Lincolnſhire, which he reſigned, and afterwards had the rectory of Carlton, in Nottinghamſhire. He died at London in the month of June, 1778.

RICHARD FAWCETT, D. D. was inſtalled the 13th of July, 1778: He was the ſon of an eminent counſellor, recorder of the city of Durham, and had his education at the grammar ſchool there: He was fellow of Corpus-Chriſti College, Oxford; had the rectory of Gateſhead, and maſter of K. James's hoſpital there; chaplain in ordinary to king George II. and III. and vicar of St Nicholas', in Newcaſtle upon Tyne. He died at Durham, the 29th of April, 1782, and was interred in the cathedral, near to dean Cowper.

[Page 183] HENRY CHAYTOR, LL. D. ſecond ſon of Henry Chaytor, of Croft, in the county of York, Eſq. Had his education at Appleby ſchool, in Weſtmoreland, and afterwards entered of Magdalen College, Cambridge, and became fellow of that ſociety. In 1759, was preſented by his father to the vicarage of Kirkby-Stephen, in Weſtmoreland: In 1767, took his doctor's degree: In 1773, preſented to the vicarage of Catterick; and in 1778, to the rectory of Croft, by the king. He reſigned Kirkby-Stephen, and had his ſtall conferred on him by the preſent biſhop of Durham, the 24th of July, 1782, and was inſtalled the ſame day.


WILLIAM BENNET, D. D. a monk of Durham on the foundation, the 12th of May, 1541. He was collated to Kellow vicarage the 4th of March, 1547, but reſigned the ſame, together with his prebend, in the ſame year, and retired to Aycliff vicarage, where he died, and was buried the 20th of February, 1583.

HENRY NAUNTON, A. M. rector of Eggleſcliff, in this county, was inſtalled on the 3d of November, 1579. He was inſtituted to Gainford church, alſo in this county, the 27th of October, 1575, and was collated to Bedlington, in Northumberland, on the 14th of April, 1581. The time of his death is uncertain, he was buried in Durham cathedral, near to chancellor Swyfte.

EMANUEL BARNES, D. D. was removed from the fifth prebend to this ſtall, in the year 1607. He was a near relation to biſhop Barnes, and was collated to the rectory of Houghton-le-Spring, on the 5th of March, 1583. In 1587, was rector of Wolſingham: He had the prebend of Fenton, in York cathedral, and the rectory of Craike; and died in the year 1614.

PETER SMART, A. M. was removed from the 6th prebend to this ſtall, the 10th of July. 1614. He was born in Warwickſhire, a miniſter's ſon: Was educated at Weſtminſter ſchool, a batteler at Broadgate Hall, aet. 19, in the year 1588, in which year he was elected a ſtudent in Chriſt-Church, Oxford, and on the 9th of July, 1595, took the degree of maſter of arts: He was maſter of Durham ſchool in 1598, [Page 184] was ordained deacon and prieſt the 30th of November, 1609, and was chaplain to biſhop James, by whom he was collated the 30th December, 1609, to the ſixth prebend in this church: In the year 1614, he had the rectory of Bolden, and was appointed maſter of Gateſhead hoſpital, the 2d of March, 1612. Biſhop James was inſtrumental in promoting him to be one of the high commiſſioners for the province of York. On the 7th of July, 1628, he preached in the cathedral that ſeditious ſermon, whereof we have given an extract in the life of biſhop Coſin, (vol. i. p. 534) and for which he was degraded and diſpoſſeſſed of all his eccleſiaſtical preferments, and fined five hundred pounds, for the non-payment of which he ſuffered eleven years impriſonment in the King's-Bench, and at length was ſet at liberty by the Houſe of Commons in 1640. He was in London the 31ſt of October, 1648, as appears by the date of one of his letters. On Dr Carr's death, who ſucceeded to this ſtall on his deprivation, he was reſtored to his prebend by the Lords, and lived to the year 1652, or near it, having paſſed his 82d year. At the like inſtance of the Lords, he was preſented by the dean and chapter to Aycliff, the 20th of November, 1641, but refuſed; petitioning, it might be given to one Carwardine, who enjoyed it a conſiderable time*.

THOMAS CARR, D. D. was inſtalled the 30th of March, 1631. He was born in Yorkſhire, and educated partly at Peterhouſe, and tranſlated to Jeſus' College, Cambridge: Was inſtituted the 7th of April, 1632, to the vicarage of Aycliff: Was chaplain to Thomas earl of Strafford, and attended him on the ſcaffold when beheaded; [Page 185] by his intereſt the doctor was preferred to the rectory of Hugge [...], in the county of York. He was ſequeſtered, and went beyond ſeas in the time of the rebellion, and died at Leghorn after the Reſtoration, in his way to England, where he was honourably interred by the duke of Tuſcany. Brown Willis ſays, ‘I met with the will of Dr Thomas Carr, dated the 13th of July, and proved the 13th of November, 1641, in which he gives his wife his effects at Aycliff, with orders to be buried in the Black Friars, London*.’

JOHN BARWICK, B. D. about 1642, was removed from the eighth prebend, but never inſtalled: Was made dean of Durham.

THOMAS SMITH, D. D. prebendary of Litchfield, was inſtalled the 20th of July, 1661; and in 1668 was removed to the firſt ſtall . Was preſented alſo by king Charles II. in majorem corroborationem tituli.

JOHN DURELL, D. D. was collated the 21ſt of April, and inſtalled by proxy, the 1ſt of July, 1668. He was born in Jerſey, was of Merton College, Oxford, retired to France, and took a maſter of arts degree at Caen, in Normandy: Was ordained at Paris, by the biſhop of Galloway, at the chapel of the Engliſh reſident: In the year 1661, he was one of the French preachers in the Savoy chapel: In 1663, was made prebendary of Northaulton, in the church of Sarum, and chaplain to the king; in the next year, was made prebendary of Windſor, and on the 26th of July, 1677, was appointed dean there, and had the rectory of Witney, in the county of Oxford. He died on the 8th of July, 1683, aet. 58, and was buried at Windſor. His wife tranſlated the Whole Duty of Man into French. His ſon was a brigadier general and governor of Dunkirk §.

JOHN MONTAGUE, D. D. was inſtalled the 10th of November, 1683: Was maſter of Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1683, which he reſigned, and was made maſter of Sherburn hoſpital; in 1692, was removed to the eleventh prebend; and afterwards, in 1699, made dean of Durham.

THEOPHILUS PICKERING, D. D. was inſtalled by proxy, the 3d of June, 1692. He was the 7th ſon of Sir Gilbert Pickering, of Tichmarſh, in the county of Northampton, baronet, and born the 10th of May, 1663: Was fellow of Sidney College, Cambridge, 1687; chaplain to lord Crew, the 13th of November, 1690; rector of Gateſhead, the 5th of December, 1695, and of Sedgefield, the 31ſt of Auguſt, 1705, where he died the 20th of March, 1710, and was interred in the chancel of that church . He quitted this prebend for the eleventh ſtall.

[Page 186] PHILIP FALLE, A. M. was inſtalled the 1ſt of February, 1699: Was born in the iſland of Jerſey, of which he wrote the hiſtory, in 1694, much quoted by biſhop Gibſon, and greatly enlarged and reprinted in 1734. He was a commoner of Exeter College, in Michaelmas term, 1669, aged 14; and took a maſter of arts degree at Albion-hall, the 8th of July, 1676: Was miniſter of St Saviour's, in Jerſey, and rector of Shenley, in Hertfordſhire, at which latter place he built an elegant houſe, which coſt him 1000l. At the Revolution, he was ſent by the ſtates of the iſland of Jerſey to king William and queen Mary, and by them was recommended to a prebend in Durham. The golden prebend was then vacant; but the biſhop removed Dr Pickering to it, and gave Dr Falle this ſtall, of which he afterwards complained. The repairing of the prebendal houſe coſt him 200l. He died at Shenley, in the year 1742, aet. 87, and left his excellent library, (except a collection of ſacred muſic, which he gave to the library at Durham) to the iſland of Jerſey *.

JAMES GISBURN, A. M. was collated the 22d of May, 1742, and inſtalled the 21ſt of July following. He was born at Loughborough, in Leiceſterſhire; was of Jeſus' College, Cambridge, and afterwards obtained a fellowſhip in Queen's College. He had the rectory of Stavely, in Derbyſhire, by the gift of lord James Cavendiſh; and departed this life on the 7th of September, 1759, aet. 72.

JAMES DOUGLAS, D. D. was inſtalled the 11th of October, 1659, being removed from the fifth ſtall. He was by birth a Scotchman, of the Tiviotdale family; was educated at Eton, and an exhibitioner of Baliol College, Oxford: Had a ſmall living near Bridgewater; afterwards was vicar of Kellow, 1735, and rector of Long Newton, 1742, which he reſigned for this prebend, and the rectory of Great Stainton, in this county; was alſo curate of Witton Gilbert. He departed this life on the 29th of July, 1780, and was interred in the eaſtern tranſept of Durham cathedral.

FRANCIS EGERTON, A. M. ſecond ſon of the preſent biſhop of Durham, was inſtalled the 13th of November, 1780. He was made rector of Whitchurch in February, 1781.


WILLIAM TODD, D. D. by the foundation the 12th of May, 1541. He was admitted doctor at Oxford, the 13th of April, 1537; was vicar of Northallerton, in [Page 187] the county of York, 1553, and reſigned the ſame the 5th of September, 1561: Was alſo archdeacon of Bedford: He was deprived of this prebend in the year 1567, for which no reaſon appears in the authorities before us *.

RALPH LEVER, A. M. was collated the 14th of October, and inſtalled the 17th, 1567. He was admitted ſcholar in King's College, Cambridge, from Eton ſchool, 1558, and took the degree of doctor in divinity, in St John's College, 1577: Was tutor to Walter earl of Eſſex, in 1564; was collated to Waſhington in 1565, and to the archdeaconry of Northumberland, the 21ſt of Auguſt, 1566, which he reſigned in 1573: He was collated to the rectory of Stanhope, the 17th of November, 1575, and to Sherburn hoſpital, the 16th of July, 1577: Was chaplain to biſhop Pilkington, and one of the commiſſaries for the dean and chapter in the conſiſtory, upon the vacancy of the See, by the death of that prelate. He was a troubleſome non-conformiſt, and very diſobedient to his patron in trifles and ſrivolous matters. He died in 1585 .

EMANUEL BARNES, D. D. was inſtalled the 29th of July, 1585. He was preſented to this prebend by Robert Tailbois, gentleman, patron inter alios pro hac vice tantum, the 26th of July, 1585, and was admitted by the biſhop on the 27th: Was removed to the fourth ſtall.

JOHN CALFHILL, A. M. was preſented on the reſignation of Barnes. He was chaplain to biſhop Matthew, and was inducted to Redmarſhall, in this county, in July, 1599, where he died, and was buried in 1619. By the regiſter of dean James, it appears that Henry Naunton was vicar of Bedlington, and that Thomas Colmore was preſented to that vicarage by the dean and chapter, the 23d of Auguſt, 1603; therefore it is probable, that Barnes ſucceeded Naunton in the 4th ſtall that year, and conſequently Calfhill ſucceeded Barnes in this ſtall the ſame year

JOHN CRADOCK, A. M. was collated tho 7th of Auguſt, and inſtalled the 18th, 1619. He was collated to the archdeaconry of Northumberland in the year 1619, and reſigned it the 6th of Auguſt the ſame year, being appointed the biſhop's ſpiritual chancellor, and vicar general that day. Was preſented to Northallerton, the 23d of February, 1624, and had the rectory of Gainford, in this county, and vicarage of Woodhorn, in Northumberland, at which latter place he died in 1627, and was buried in the church there. There was a complaint againſt him [Page 188] in parliament for extortion *. He died by poiſon, for which his wife was accuſed and tried, but was acquitted .

ELEAZAR DUNCAN, B. D. was inſtalled the 8th of January, 1627. He was of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge; had a fellowſhip, and, in 1633, obtained a degree of doctor in divinity. He was ordained deacon by biſhop Laud, the 13th of March, 1624 ; and received prieſt's orders from biſhop Neile, the 24th of September, 1626, whoſe chaplain he was. On the 13th of November, 1629, was inſtalled a prebendary of Wincheſter; on the 1ſt of May, 1640, prebendary of Knareſborough, in York cathedral; and on the 10th of April, 1633, was collated to the rectory of Haughton, near Darlington, in this county. He was chaplain to king Charles I. and died in exile, 1649 or 1650 §.

THOMAS DALTON, D. D. was promoted by king Charles II. and inſtalled the 2d of November, 1660: Was rector of Berwick, in Elmet, in the county of York, and of Dallam, in the dioceſe of Ely. He reſigned this prebend.

THOMAS CARTWRIGHT, D. D. on Dalton's reſignation, was collated the 6th of November, 1672, by king Charles II. the See being vacant, and was inſtalled the 15th of the ſame month. He was the ſon of Thomas Cartwright, of Broxwood, in Eſſex, and was born at Northampton, the 1ſt of September, 1634: Was firſt of Magdalen College, then of Queen's College, Oxford; had the vicarage of Walthamſtow, in Eſſex; was preacher of Mary Magdalen, in Milk-ſtreet, London; vicar of Barking, in Eſſex; miniſter of St Thomas the Apoſtle, London; a prebendary of Weſtminſter, and of Twiford, in St Paul's; alſo prebendary of Shalford, in Wells; chaplain in ordinary to the king, and dean of Ripon. He was eccleſiaſtical commiſſioner, and one of the delegates to enquire into the affairs of Magdalen College. To conclude all his eccleſiaſtical promotions, in the year 1686, he was conſecrated biſhop of Cheſter. At the Revolution he fled into France, and came with king James into Ireland, where he departed this life on the 15th of April, 1689, at the city of Dublin, aet. 55 , and was interred in Chriſt-Church.

CONSTANS JESSOP, D. D. was inſtalled the 15th of November, 1686, deſcended from Conſtantine Jeſſop, a remarkable preſbyterian preacher: On the 27th of June, 1666, he obtained a degree of maſter of arts in Magdalen College, Oxford, and on the 4th of June, 1685, that of bachelor and doctor in divinity. He had the rectory [Page 189] of Brington, in the county of Northampton, where he died, and was interred, on the 10th of March, 1695, aet. 55 *.

JOHN BOWES, D. D. was inſtalled the 21ſt of April, 1696, and was removed to the firſt ſtall .

NATHANIEL ELLISON, D. D. was collated the 30th of September, and inſtalled the 1ſt of October, 1712: Was of Edmund's-hall, Oxford, and from thence choſen fellow of Corpus-Chriſti College; on the 22d of February, 1678, he obtained the degree of maſter of arts; and on the 7th of May, 1702, that of bachelor and doctor in divinity: Was made archdeacon of Stafford, the 14th of July, 1682 , collated to the vicarage of Newcaſtle, 1694, and rector of Whitburn, 1704. He died at Newcaſtle, in May 1721, aet. 63, and was interred in St Nicholas' church there §.

THOMAS MANGEY, LL. D. was inſtalled the 20th of May, 1721, and removed to the firſt ſtall .

JONATHAN HALL, A. M. afterwards D. D. was inſtalled the 21ſt of January, 1722. He was the ſon of John Hall, a draper and alderman of Durham: Was a fellow of St John's College, Cambridge, where, from his mean principles, he became diſagreeable to the ſociety, and, in order to get rid of his company, they preſented him to the rectory of Cockfield, in the county of Suffolk: He was chaplain to the lord Cadogan, when ambaſſador to the States-General, and chaplain to the garriſon at Berwick. He died, after a long illneſs, on the 12th of June, 1743, and was privately interred in the eaſtern tranſept of this cathedral, without any monument, though it is ſaid he left his nephew 20,000l.

ROBERT STILLINGFLEET, A. M. afterwards D. D. was inſtalled the 20th of July, 1743, was the ſon of Dr Stillingfleet, dean of Worceſter, and grandſon of the great biſhop Stillingfleet: Was of Wadham College, Oxford, where he took a maſter of arts degree, the 1ſt of July, 1729, and bachelor and doctor in divinity the 6th of [Page 190] May, 1748: He was chaplain to biſhop Talbot, and afterwards to biſhop Chandler: He was collated, in 1731, to the rectory of Gateſhead, to Ryton in 1732, and was made maſter of Sherburn hoſpital in 1738, and held the ſame, with this prebend, to the time of his death, which happened at Briſtol, on the 3d of Auguſt, 1759 *.

JAMES DOUGLAS was inſtalled the 17th of Auguſt, 1759, and was removed to the fourth ſtall .

SAMUEL TERRICK, A. M. inſtalled the 8th of December, 1759. He was ſon of Samuel Terrick, prebendary of York, the elder brother of biſhop Terrick, and was of Clare Hall, Cambridge. He died ſuddenly at Stilton, on the 8th of Auguſt, 1761, aet. 55, and was buried at Peterborough.

JOHN MOORE, A. M. afterwards D. D. was inſtalled by proxy, the 26th of September, 1761. He was fellow of Pembroke College, Oxford, where, on the 28th of June, 1751, he took a maſter of arts degree; in 1763, was made canon of Chriſt-Church, where he took the degrees of bachelor and doctor in divinity, the 1ſt of July, 1763: Was chaplain to his majeſty king Geo. III.; in 1771, he was appointed dean of Canterbury; and conſecrated biſhop of Bangor, in 1775. In 1783, he was advanced to the Metropolitan See of Canterbury, which he now enjoys.

THOMAS FOTHERGILL, D. D. provoſt of Queen's College, Oxford, was inſtalled the 27th of May, 1775, on Dr Moore's reſignation.


STEPHEN MARLEYE, B. D. a monk of Durham, appointed on the foundation, the 12th of May, 1541. He was ſub-prior, and maſter of the frater-houſe, at the diſſolution. The place allotted for his lodging was the refectory of the almerey children, north of the abbey gates, which he altered into a dwelling-houſe. He was deprived in the year 1572, but no reaſon appears.

PETER SHAWE, A. M. was inſtalled the 12th of Auguſt, 1572,—when he died is uncertain §.

WILLIAM SELBY, A. M. was collated on the 12th of July, 1608. In 1607, he was preſented by the chapter to the vicarage of Berwick upon Tweed, and on the 1ſt of March, 1608, to the vicarage of Kirk Merrington,—when he died is uncertain.

[Page 191] PETER SMART, A. M. was collated the 30th of December, 1609. He was removed to the fourth ſtall *.

ROBERT COOK, A. M. and afterwards D. D. was collated the 20th of July, 1614. He was the ſon of William Cook, of Beeſton, in the pariſh of Leeds, and was baptized there the 23d of July, 1550: Was a ſtudent of Brazen-Noſe College, and elected probat fellow in 1572: In 1576, he obtained the degree of maſter of arts; was made proctor of the univerſity in 1582, and took a bachelor in divinity's degree in 1584. In June 1590, he reſigned his fellowſhip, and was inſtituted to the vicarage of Leeds in December following: Was much eſteemed as a learned man, and pious preacher: In January, 1614, he died at Leeds, and was interred at St Peter's church there .

FERDINANDO MOORCROFT, A. M. was collated the 6th of January, 1614: Was maſter of Gretham hoſpital, in this county, which he reſigned on his removal to the eleventh ſtall, the 13th of July, 1619: On the 6th of November, 1608, he was collated to Stanhope, and, in 1625, to Heighington; died about the year 1641, and was buried at Goſwick, in the county of Lancaſter .

DANIEL BIRKHEAD, D. D. collated the 14th of July, 1619; was removed the 3d of Auguſt, 1620, to the 10th ſtall. He had the rectory of Winſton; in 1610, was collated to Eggleſcliff; died in 1624, and was interred in the cathedral at Durham, on the 27th of November §.

GABRIEL CLARKE, A. M. was inſtalled the 5th of Auguſt, 1620, and removed to the third ſtall the 30th of July, 1623 .

JOHN ROBSON, A. M. was inſtalled the 1ſt of Auguſt, 1620. He was rector of Morpeth in 1611; was inſtituted to the rectory of Whalton, in Northumberland, the 1ſt of June, 1615; was returned a member in parliament for Morpeth, in the third parliament of king James I. but not allowed to ſit, as being in holy orders: He was one of the chapter proxies to the convocation held at York in May, 1625: He was buried in Durham cathedral in 1645 .

[Page 192] RICHARD WRENCH, B. D. was collated about the 14th of February, 1645, by biſhop Morton, but not inſtalled for ſome years, on account of the war: Was born in the city of Cheſter; chaplain to biſhop Morton, and fellow of St John's College, Cambridge, from whence he was ejected by the earl of Mancheſter. Biſhop Coſin's mandate to induct him was dated the 18th of March, 1660, and his inſtallation on the 20th of that month. He was inſtituted to Heighington vicarage, the 25th of November, 1661; was collated to Boldon the 16th of October, 1665; departed this life on the 26th October, 1675, and buried in this cathedral*.

RICHARD KNIGHTLEY, A. M. was inſtalled by proxy, the 17th of November, 1675, and was removed to the ſeventh ſtall. He was ſon of Thomas Knightley, rector of Byfield, in the county of Northampton; had the livings of Charwelton and Aſton, the latter of which he reſigned on the death of his father, 1688, when he was preſented to Byfield, where he died the 17th of September, 1695, aet. 59, and was interred there.

[Page 193] JOHN MORTON, D. D. was inſtalled November 29, 1676: He moved from the ſeventh to this ſtall, the revenue of which is much inferior, to oblige biſhop Morton, who wiſhed to place his chaplain, Knightley, therein: Was of Lincoln College, where he took the degrees of maſter of arts the 27th of June, 1667; bachelor of divinity, the 11th of November, 1674; and doctor in divinity, by diploma, the 6th of April, 1692. He was made rector of Boldon upon Mr Wrench's death, in 1676, and afterwards had Eggleſcliff. In October, 1685, was collated to the archdeaconry of Northumberland, and to the rectory of Sedgefield, in 1711, where he died, the 16th of November, 1722, and was interred*. He built his prebendal houſe whilſt in the twelfth ſtall, to which he was removed in 1685; he alſo built the parſonage houſe at Eggleſcliff, and made great improvements at Sedgefield. In 1685, there was a controverſy between him and Sir George Wheler, concerning precedency; the queſtion being, whether the ſeniority was to be accounted from admiſſion to any new ſtall, or admiſſion to the church and chapter by the firſt inſtallment; and the biſhop, as viſitor, determined in favour of Dr Morton.

FITZHERBERT ADAMS, D. D. was inſtalled the 11th of Auguſt, 1685; was removed to the tenth ſtall in 1695; and from that to the eleventh, in 1711: Was of Lincoln College, Oxford, where he took the degree of maſter of arts in June, 1675; bachelor in divinity, the 2d of January, 1682; and doctor in divinity, the 3d of July, 1685: Was inducted to Waſhington rectory, the 29th of September, 1683, and elected rector of Lincoln College, the 2d of May, 1685. Was vice chancellor of Oxford in 1695, where he departed this life, the 17th of June, 1719, and was interred in All-Saints' church, Oxford. He received 1500l. for renewing the leaſe of Twiford, and laid out that ſum in beautifying the chapel of Lincoln College, and the rector's lodging: Was a benefactor to All-Hallows' church, and left 200l. to purchaſe a parſonage houſe: He left his library to the college.

[Page 194] HENRY DOBSON, D. D. was inſtalled the 8th of June, 1695. He was collated to the rectory of Boldon in 1692; was of Magdalen College, where, on the 3d of June, 1677, he took a maſter of arts degree; bachelor in divinity the 17th of December, 1689; and doctor in divinity the 23d of January, 1693: He died at London, the 23d of March, 1717, aet. 67, and was buried in St Margaret's church-yard, Weſtminſter.

JOHN DOLBEN, D. D. was inſtalled the 17th of April, 1718, and removed to the eleventh ſtall. He was the grandſon of archbiſhop Dolben, and ſon of Sir Gilbert Dolben, baronet*. Was born at Biſhop Thorpe, near York; received the firſt rudiments of literature at Weſtminſter ſchool, from whence he was removed to Chriſt-Church, Oxford, where he took the degree of maſter of arts on the 8th of July, 1707, and bachelor and doctor in divinity the 6th of July, 1717. He was ſub-dean of the Chapel Royal in the reign of queen Anne, and had the rectory of Burton Latimers, and vicarage of Fyndon, in the county of Northampton. On the death of his father, in October, 1722, he ſucceeded to the baronetage and eſtates; departed this life at Durham on the 21ſt of November, 1756, aet. 73, and was interred at Fyndon.

WILLIAM WATS, D. D. was inſtalled on the 18th of Auguſt, 1719. He was born at Barnſhall, in the county of York, and was fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford, where, on the 17th of June, 1708, he took the degree of maſter of arts; on the 11th of July, 1719, that of bachelor in divinity; and, on the 21ſt of October following, of doctor in divinity; and was a noted tutor in his college: In 1721, he was collated to the rectory of Wolſingham: Died at Durham on the 5th of February, 1736, aet. 50, and was buried at the Weſt end of the nave of Durham cathedral, below the font.

[Page 195] HENRY BLAND, A. M. was inſtalled Auguſt 2, 1737. He was the eldeſt ſon of Henry Bland, dean of this church; received the firſt rudiments of literature at Eton, from whence he was removed to Chriſt-Church College, Oxford; admitted a gentleman commoner, and took a bachelor of arts degree; he obtained an honorary degree of maſter of arts at Cambridge; and in 1747; a degree of doctor in divinity. On the 23d of Auguſt, 1735, he was inducted to Waſhington, and alſo held the rectory of Biſhop Weremouth. He was formerly beneficed in Lincoln. Died at his prebendal houſe on the 7th of May, 1768, aet. 64, and was interred in the eaſtern tranſept of this cathedral *.

CHARLES WESTON, A. M. was inſtalled the 2d of Auguſt, 1768, being removed from the ninth ſtall: Was a grandſon of the biſhop of Exeter, and ſon of Edward Weſton, of the city of Lincoln, Eſq writer of the Gazette for many years, and one of the chief clerks of the ſignet office: Was a ſtudent of Chriſt-Church, and took a maſter of arts degree on the 18th of April, 1755: Rector of Thirfield, in the county of Hertford.


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ROBERT DALTON, B. D. appointed on the foundation, the 12th of May, 1541. In the year 1560, he was deprived for recuſancy, and committed to the cuſtody of lord Dacres, of the north; was inſtituted to Billingham in 1547; and eſteemed rich, but arrogant and unlettered. The place allotted to him, at the ſuppreſſion of the convent, was the granary for wheat and malt, which he converted into a handſome dwelling.

THOMAS SAMPSON was inſtalled the 9th of September, 1560, by proxy, at which time he had no degree. He was preſented by queen Elizabeth, and admitted, by her commiſſioners for ſpiritualties, ſede vacante: Was one of thoſe concerned in tranſlating the Bible. He was dean of Chicheſter, 1552; rector of All Hallows', Breadſtreet; and made dean of Chriſt-Church, Oxford, 1561, of which he was deprived in 1565; afterwards was made maſter of Wigſtan's hoſpital, in Leiceſter, where he died the 9th of April, 1589, and was buried . He was ſucceeded by

WILLIAM BIRCH, A. M. inſtalled the 4th of July, 1562: Was rector of Gateſhead, and deprived for non-conformity, 1567 . He was warden of Mancheſter College, 1560; rector of Stanhope, the 25th of Auguſt, 1564; and alſo of Gateſhead.

LEONARD PILKINGTON, D. D. was collated the 1ſt of Auguſt, and inſtalled the 6th of September, 1567: He was brother to the biſhop and Joſeph Pilkington, and rector of Middleton, the 20th of March, 1560: Was admitted maſter of St John's College, Cambridge, the 19th of October, 1561, which he reſigned in 1562; was regius profeſſor of divinity there in 1561; was rector of Whitburn, where he built the houſe now Sir Hedworth Williamſon's, and the great parſonage barn. In 1592 he was treaſurer of this church §.

MARMADUKE BLAKISTON, A. M. was the ſon of J. Blakiſton, of Blakiſton, Eſq was inſtalled in 1601, and was vicar of Woodhorne, and treaſurer of this church in 1606: On the 14th of October, 1585, was collated to Redmarſhall; and in July, 1599, to Sedgefield: On the 25th of November, 1615, was collated to the archdeaconry of the Eaſt-Riding of Yorkſhire; and the 6th of March, 1617, was inſtalled prebendary of Wiſtow, in York cathedral. In 1623, he reſigned his ſtall at [Page 197] York in favour of his ſon, Thomas Blakiſton; in 1625, he did the ſame touching his archdeaconry, in favour of J. Coſin, afterwards biſhop, who married his daughter *; and in 1631, he reſigned this prebend and Sedgefield, in favour of his ſon, Robert Blakiſton. He died at Newton, near Durham, the family ſeat, and was interred in St Margaret's church, Croſsgate, the 3d of December, 1639 .

ROBERT BLAKISTON, A. M. was collated the 27th of November, and inſtalled the 14th of December, 1631. He married biſhop Howſon's daughter, and died the 17th of January, 1634, before his father, but ſurvived the biſhop: He was one of the eight prebendaries that ſupported the canopy over the head of king Charles I. when he came to viſit the cathedral .

MATTHEW LEVET, A. M. was collated the 24th of January, 1634: Was fellow of St John's College, Cambridge, and pupil to biſhop Morton: He had a prebend, and was ſubdean in Ripon Church, and held his preferments in 1641, but how much longer doth not appear §.

ISAAC BASIRE, D. D. was inſtalled the 12th of Auguſt, 1643. In the Biogra. Brittannia, we are told he was born in Jerſey, from the authority of Wood , which the annotator contradicts, but without telling us the certain place of his nativity. Grey, in his MS. Notes, ſays, he was born at Rouen, in Normandy, but quotes no authority; the place of his education is equally uncertain. The firſt of his being noted to us is under the patronage of biſhop Morton, who ordained him deacon and prieſt whilſt biſhop of Litchfield, and made him his chaplain: In September, 1636, he was collated to the church of Eggleſcliff; in July, 1640, he had the degree of doctor in divinity conferred upon him at Cambridge, by mandate, and was incorporated in the ſame at Oxford, in November following; about which time he was made chaplain in ordinary to king Charles I. On the 24th of Auguſt, 1644, was appointed to the archdeaconry of Northumberland; and, on the 7th of July, 1646, was inducted to the rectory of Stanhope, on the preſentation of king Charles I. On the breaking out of the rebellion, he was ſequeſtered, plundered, and obliged to abſcond, and after flying to the king at Oxford, and ſharing in the diſtreſſes of his ſovereign, he fled the kingdom, and went to propagate the doctrine of the church of England among the Greeks and Arabians, travelling through Apulia, Naples, Sicily, Morea, &c. into Syria and Paleſtine. During his travels he collated the ſeveral confeſſions of faith of the different ſorts of Chriſtians, Greeks, Armenians, Jacobites, Maronites, &c. which he kept by him in their own languages: In his travels he endured many hardſhips, particularly in 1653, he paſſed from Aleppo to Conſtantinople by land, being 600 miles, without either ſervant, or Chriſtian, or any man with him, that could ſpeak the Frank language; yet, by the help of ſome Arabic acquired at Aleppo, he performed that journey in the company of twenty Turks, whoſe courteſy [Page 198] was purchaſed by his diſpenſing to them in the phyſical line, he having ſtudied medicine at Padua. On the Reſtoration, he was recalled to England, and put in poſſeſſion of his eccleſiaſtical benefices. He was the author of many religious tracts and diſcourſes, as alſo the Life of Dr Coſin, biſhop of Durham, publiſhed with his funeral ſermon. He departed this life on the 12th of October, 1676, aet. 69, and was interred in the cathedral church-yard at Durham *.

JOHN MORTON, B. D. was inſtalled the 16th of October, 1676, and ſoon after removed to the ſixth ſtall .

RICHARD KNIGHTLEY, A. M. was inſtalled the 29th of November, 1676, removed from the ſixth ſtall He died at Byfield, in the county of Northampton, 1695.

JOHN SMITH, D. D. was inſtalled the 26th of September, 1695. He was the eldeſt ſon of Mr William Smith, rector of Lowther, in Weſtmoreland; was admitted a minor canon of this church on the 20th of July, 1682, and had the office of precentor: On the 20th of July, 1683, he was appointed to Croxdale curacy; and the 1ſt of July, 1684, to Witton-Gilbert curacy. On the 12th of June, 1695, was collated to Gateſhead rectory and hoſpital; and in July, 1696, took the degree of doctor in divinity: And on the 28th of July, 1704, was collated to Biſhop-Weremouth, having previouſly reſigned Gateſhead. He repaired and altered his prebendal houſe at the coſt of 200l. and expended 200l. in repairs of the chancel at Weremouth. He rebuilt the parſonage houſe at no leſs coſt than 600l. receiving of Dr Grey's executors for dilapidations not above 100l. and in his aſſerting and recovering the rights of that church, he expended 600l. notwithſtanding which he died rich §. At the time of his death he was printing a moſt correct edition of Venerable Bede's works, the preparing of which coſt him fourteen years labour: This was publiſhed by his ſon after his deceaſe, in April 1722. He died at Cambridge in the month of July, 1715, and was interred in the anti-chapel of St John's College chapel .

[Page 199] THOMAS EDEN, LL. D. was inſtalled the 23d of Auguſt, 1715, being removed from the ninth ſtall. He was the fourth ſon of Sir Robert Eden of Weſt-Auckland, baronet; was educated at Newcaſtle ſchool, under the famous Thomas Rud, and admitted of Trinity Hall, Cambridge: He was chaplain to lord Crew; collated to the rectory of Winſton in 1709; and to Brancepeth, 1749. Upon Sir Geo. Wheler's death, he was appointed official to the dean and chapter, the 12th of February, 1723. He died on the 3d of March, 1754, aet. 71, and was buried in the cathedral church-yard, by his will expreſsly prohibiting his remains being interred in any church *.

[Page 200] JOSEPH SPENCE, A. M. was inſtalled the 24th of May, 1754: Was born of poor parents in Northamptonſhire; educated at Wincheſter ſchool; was of Trinity College, Oxford, where he continued two years; and afterwards of New College, where he held a fellowſhip, and took a degree of maſter of arts, the 2d of November, 1727: Was inſtituted to the rectory of Birchanger, in Eſſex, the 10th of Auguſt, 1728, which he reſigned about December, 1742; was preſented, by the warden and fellow of New College, to the rectory of Harwood Magna, in the county of Bucks; and was made profeſſor of modern hiſtory at Oxford, in the room of Dr Holmes, who was appointed dean of Exeter in 1742. He died the 20th of Auguſt, 1768, at Byfleet, in Surry, aet. 65 *.

NEWTON OGLE, D. D. inſtalled the 27th of October, 1768, the ſon of Nath. Ogle, M. D. of Kirkley, in the county of Northumberland, phyſician to the army under the duke of Marlborough. Dr Newton Ogle was made archdeacon of Surry, in 1761, and inſtalled dean of Wincheſter the 21ſt of October, 1769.


JOHN TOWTON, S. T. B. appointed at the foundation, the 12th of May, 1541. He was deprived for recuſancy on the royal viſitation, 1560.

ADAM SHEPERDE was inſtalled the 18th of July, 1560, being preſented by the queen, the See vacant: He was admitted by Dr Watſon and Dr Crawforth, prebendaries of this church, who were guardians of the ſpiritualties, by virtue of a commiſſion from the chapter of York, their archbiſhop being deprived, and the dean abſent . He died in the year 1563.

[Page 201] THOMAS LEVER was inſtalled the 21ſt of February, 1563. He was born in Lancaſhire, and was preacher to king Edward VI. was elected maſter of St John's College, Cambridge, the 10th of December, 1551; was contemporary and fellow collegian with biſhop Pilkington, archdeacon of Coventry, and on the 28th of January, 1562, made maſter of Sherburn hoſpital, in which year he ſubſcribed the articles. He changed his religion in queen Mary's reign, and was deprived, in 1567, of his prebend for refuſing to comply with eccleſiaſtical orders, but kept the hoſpital to the time of his death, which happened in July 1577, and was interred there.*

RICHARD LONGWORTHE, D. D. was collated the 9th of November, and inſtalled the 3d of January, 1567. He was born at Bolton, in Cheſhire, and ordained deacon the 9th of March, 1560, being maſter of arts, and fellow of St John's College, Cambridge, at the age of twenty-ſeven: Was admitted maſter of St John's, the 11th of May, 1564, which he reſigned in December, 1569; was inſtalled prebend of Worceſter, the 3d of June, 1568; and promoted to the deanry of Cheſter, the 28th of February, 1572, upon which he reſigned his prebend in this cathedral. He departed this life in 1579; and by his will, dated the 19th of April in that year, gave a legacy to his hoſt at the Red Lion, in Holborn, ſo that it is probable he died there.

FRANCIS BUNNEY, A. M. was inſtalled the 13th of May, 1572. He was the third ſon of Richard Bunney, of Newland, near Wakefield, Eſq born on the 8th of May, 1543; was fellow of Magdalen College, in 1563; chaplain to the earl of Bedford; collated to the archdeaconry of Northumberland, the 20th of October, 1573, which he reſigned for the rectory of Ryton, to which he was inducted the 13th of September, 1578. He died on the 16th of April, 1617, aet. 75, and was interred in Ryton church .

FRANCIS BURGOYNE, D. D. was inſtalled the 6th of May, 1617. He was collated to Biſhop-Weremouth in 1595; was rector of Spofforth, in the county of York; and collated to the archdeaconry of Northumberland, the 13th of September, 1631. He died in 1633 .

ANTHONY MAXTON, A. M. was collated the 23d of May, 1633. He was a Scotchman by birth, and recommended to biſhop Morton, by king Charles I. he took deacon's orders in 1608; and was ordained prieſt in 1609: Was collated to Wolſingham rectory the 21ſt of June, 1614; and inſtituted to the rectory of Middleton [Page 202] in Teeſdale, on the 10th of July, 1619, on the preſentation of Charles, then Prince of Wales. He died about the year 1641, and was interred at Wolſingham *.

JOHN BARWICK, D. D. was collated by biſhop Morton, but never inſtalled, as he reſigned this ſtall for the fourth prebend .

ROBERT GREY, D. D. was collated the 10th of May, 1652, but not inſtalled till the 2d of November, 1660. He was the brother of lord Grey, of Wark; was collated to the rectory of Biſhop-Weremouth, the 15th of March, 1652: His parſonage houſe being greatly injured in the turbulent times, he was obliged to rebuild the front of it. In July, 1660, he was made bachelor of divinity at Cambridge, by mandamus, and in September following, was in like manner created doctor in divinity: He departed this life the 9th of July, 1704, aet. 94, and was buried at Biſhop-Weremouth.

ROBERT OSTLY, A. M. was collated the 28th of July, 1704. He was rector of Abinger, in Surry, was of Trinity College, Cambridge, and many years chaplain to biſhop Crew. He died on the 11th of May, 1743, at his rectory, where he was interred .

JAMES LESLEY, A. M. was inſtalled the 20th of July, 1743. He was a native of Ireland, curate of St. Nicholas', Dublin, married a niece of biſhop Chandler, to whom he was chaplain: Was collated to Wolſingham in 1741, and reſigned it for Sedgefield, to which he was collated in May, 1747, being at that time doctor in divinity, an Iriſh degree of Trinity College, Dublin: Was a man of little learning. He accepted the biſhopric of Limerick, in Ireland, for a reſignation of this ſtall, and the rectory of Sedgefield, in favour of Dr Lowth, then archdeacon of Wincheſter, who declined the biſhopric of Limerick, but had liberty to exchange the appointment for Engliſh preferments. He died at Dublin.

ROBERT LOWTH, D. D. was inſtalled the 29th of October, 1755, on Leſley's reſignation. He was a ſon of William Lowth, prebendary of Wincheſter; educated at Wincheſter ſchool; became ſcholar and fellow of New College; took the degree of maſter of arts, on the 8th of June, 1737; and that of doctor in divinity, by diploma, the 8th of July, 1754. In 1750, he was made archdeacon of Wincheſter, which he reſigned: Was inſtituted to the rectory of Sedgefield, the 23d of October, 1755; was chaplain to lord Huntington, lord-lieutenant of Ireland, and to their majeſties George II. and III. On the 17th of May, 1766, he was conſecrated biſhop of St David's; and tranſlated to Oxford, in 1767, holding this prebend, and his rectory, in commendam. In March, 1777, he reſigned Sedgefield, and was removed to the See of London, where he now ſits.

RICHARD KAYE, LL. D. was inſtalled the 10th of July, 1777, ſub-almoner to his majeſty. He reſigned this ſtall in 1783, on being appointed dean of Lincoln.

[Page 203] CHARLES POYNTZ, D. D. was educated at Chriſt-Church, Oxford, where, he took his maſter of arts degree, the 4th of May, 1759; bachelor in divinity, the 25th of November, 1769; and doctor in divinity, the 7th of December, 1769: Was inſtalled in this prebend the 24th of January, 1784. He holds ſome eccleſiaſtical preferments in Norfolk and Wales.


NICHOLAS MARLEY, B. D. the 12th of May, 1541, by the foundation. He was inſtituted to Pittington vicarage, the 9th of April, 1548; was deprived thereof in 1560, and ſentenced not to come within eight miles of Durham. He was alſo deprived of this ſtall, for recuſancy.

THOMAS HORTON, clerk, was preſented by queen Elizabeth, the 15th of January, 1560, the See being then vacant: It is probable he was never inſtalled, as he reſigned the ſame month .

WILLIAM STEPHENSON, B. D. was preſented by queen Elizabeth, and inſtalled the 28th of January, 1560. The queen appointed him preacher at Berwick, and diſpenſed with his reſidence, allowing him the full profits of his prebend . He was appointed official to the dean and chapter, for Northumberland, the 24th of May, 1561; was vicar of Gainford, and alſo vicar of Hartburn. He died in the year 1575, and was buried before the choir door of this cathedral.

RICHARD FAWCETT, B. D. was inſtalled the 10th of January, 1575. He was inducted to the rectory of Boldon, the 14th of April, 1575. By his will, he ordered his remains to be interred in the chancel of Boldon church §.

GEORGE MOORCROFT, A. M. In a liſt of the prebendaries who anſwered at the viſitation of biſhop James, 1610, it appears he had this ſtall. He was rector of Stanhope and Wolſingham, and died in 1648 .

[Page 204] THOMAS TRIPLETT, D. D. was collated to this prebend the 20th of March, 1648, by biſhop Morton, though not inſtalled till the 2d of November, 1660. He was born at or near Oxford, and was ſtudent in Chriſt-Church; had Whitburn in 1631; was rector of Waſhington in 1640; held a prebend in York cathedral, 1641, and another in Sarum 1645; and within thoſe periods was vicar of Woodhorn, in Northumberland. He exchanged his ſtall in this church with Dr Sancroft, for one at Weſtminſter. Died the 18th of July, 1670, aet. 70, and was buried in Weſtminſter abbey*.

WILLIAM SANCROFT, D. D. was inſtalled the 11th of March, 1661. He was born the 30th of January, 1616, at Freſſingfield, in the county of Suffolk, the family's place of reſidence for three hundred years. At the age of eighteen he was placed at Emanuel College, Cambridge, and matriculated in the year 1634: In 1637, was admitted to the degree of bachelor of arts; and maſter of arts in 1641; the year following, was elected a fellow of his college; and took the degree of bachelor in divinity in 1648, but, refuſing to take the covenant, was ejected from his fellowſhip in the year 1649; upon which he went abroad, and became intimately acquainted with the moſt conſiderable Engliſh loyaliſts then in exile. In 1660, he was choſen one of the univerſity preachers, though it appears he was at Rome when king Charles II. returned to England. Soon after the Reſtoration, Dr Sancroft came home, and biſhop Coſin, who knew him abroad, appointed him one of his chaplains; and on the 7th of December, 1661, he was collated to the rectory of Houghton-le-Spring, in which year he aſſiſted in renewing the liturgy. By mandamus, he was created doctor in divinity in the month of March, 1661-2; and on the 14th of Auguſt following, was elected maſter of Emanuel College, which he governed with great propriety. In the beginning of the year 1663-4, the doctor was promoted to the deanry of York, which he held but a ſhort time, yet long enough to expend 200l. more than the revenue produced, in repairs and other incident charges; during that ſhort period bringing the church accounts into excellent order. On the death of Dr John Barwick, in 1664, he was removed to the deanry of St Paul's, ſoon after which he reſigned Houghton, and the maſterſhip of Emanuel. He now gave much attention to the repairs of his church, till the fire, in 1666, occaſioned all his thoughts to be employed in rebuilding that fabric, to which he contributed 1400l. beſides unwearied endeavours to promote a ſubſcription: He rebuilt the deanry houſe, and improved the revenue thereof, as well as other livings in his gift, as dean. In 1668, he was admitted archdeacon of Canterbury, on the king's preſentation, which he reſigned in 1670. In 1677, being then prolocutor of the convocation, he was advanced by king Charles II. to the archbiſhopric of Canterbury, in which moſt conſpicuous character, ſurrounded with the perils and errors of the times, he conducted himſelf with ſingular prudence, perſpicuity, and religious virtue: His revenues were not diſſipated in luxury and oſtentation, but diſpoſed in works of charity, munificence, [Page 205] and hoſpitality. He reſigned this ſtall in 1674, having rebuilt the prebendal houſe. He attended king Charles II. on his death bed, when it is ſaid, he made ſome remonſtrances, and preſſed ſundry exhortations on the ſovereign, towards which the complexion of the court had warmed his ſpirit. In 1686, the doctor refuſed to act in the commiſſion iſſued by king James II. for eccleſiaſtical affairs; and in 1688, was committed to the Tower, with ſix other biſhops, for preſenting a petition to the king, againſt reading his majeſty's declaration of indulgence. The court pronouncing this petition libellous, on the 29th of June the prelates were tried for a miſdemeanour, but, to the general ſatisfaction of the nation, were acquitted. He engaged his good offices for the diſſenting Proteſtants, foreſeeing the revolution that was approaching. On the 3d of October, accompanied with eight biſhops, he attended the king, who had demanded their counſel, and then, with a freedom virtue only inſpires, urged the moſt ſerious and important advice to his ſovereign, touching the unhappy ſituation of the ſtate. A few days after, though very earneſtly preſſed by his majeſty, he refuſed to ſign a declaration of abhorrence of the Prince of Orange's deſigns; and on the 17th of November, he joined in another petition, for a free parliament. On the king's abdication, he ſigned, and concurred with the lords ſpiritual and temporal, aſſembled at Guildhall, in a declaration to the Prince of Orange for a free parliament, ſecurity of our laws, liberties, and properties, and of the church of England in particular, with a due indulgence to Proteſtant diſſenters: But when that prince and his conſort were declared king and queen, he refuſed to take the oaths to their majeſties, was ſuſpended the 1ſt of Auguſt, 1689, and deprived the 1ſt of February following. The above fact counteracts all the principles he appeared to have adopted, and leaves his character under ſuſpicion, or marked with duplicity, inſincerity, and want of truth. The editor* of the Collectanea Curioſa, embarraſſed at this point, ſays, ‘As for the archbiſhop's character, let it be learned from his actions; for if we go for it to the writers of oppoſite parties, it will appear, in different hands, as different as poſſible. He certainly gave the ſtrongeſt inſtance poſſible of ſincerity, in ſacrificing the higheſt dignities, and other the greateſt advantages, to what he thought truth and honeſty.’ He continued at Lambeth till June, 1691, and then retired to his native place, where he ſpent the remainder of his life in ſtrict retirement, and died on the 24th of November, 1693, aer. 77. The before mentioned editor ſays, ‘His grace left behind him a vaſt multitude of papers and collections in MS. and therein more perhaps wrote with his own hand, than any man either of this or the laſt age ever did write. Upon his deceaſe they came into his nephew's hands, and after his nephew's death, they were purchaſed by the late biſhop Tanner, who gave them, with the reſt of his valuable MSS. to the Bodleian library, Oxford.’

[Page 206] THOMAS HOLDSWORTH, A. M. was inſtalled the 1ſt of June, 1675, on the preſentation of king Charles II. in theſe words, Ad noſtram donacionem ſpectant. virtute prerogativae regiae, racione temporalium ejuſd. epiſcopatus in manibus noſtris exiſtent. He was rector, or dean as he is ſtiled, of Middleham, in the county of York: The time of his death is uncertain*; Willis ſays 1680.

HENRY BAGSHAW, D. D. was inſtalled the 20th of July, 1680. He was born at Broughton, in Northamptonſhire; received his firſt rudiments at Weſtminſter ſchool, from whence he was elected ſtudent of Chriſt-Church in 1651: He was chaplain to Sir Richard Fanſhaw, ambaſſador in Spain and Portugal; after his return was made chaplain to archbiſhop Stern, who gave him the prebend of Southwell, and rectory of Caſtleton, in Synderick: In 1667, he held the prebend of Barneby, in York cathedral; and in 1668, that of Friday Thorp. He took a bachelor of divinity's degree on the 7th of July, 1668; and on the 28th of November, 1671, that of doctor in divinity: In 1672, was made chaplain to the lord-treaſurer Danby, and rector of St Botolph's church, near Biſhopſgate, London, which was exchanged for Houghton-le-Spring, where he departed this life on the 30th of December, 1709, aet. 77, and was interred in the chancel of the church there.

WILLIAM HARTWEL, D. D. was inſtalled the 7th of February, 1709, and removed to the tenth prebend: In 1681, he was inſtituted to the rectory of Whickham; and in 1685, to that of Stanhope, where he made great improvements in his parſonage houſe and gardens. He departed this life on the 1ſt of June, 1725, and was buried at the north end of the middle tranſept in this cathedral §.

[Page 207] THOMAS EDEN, LL. D. was inſtalled the 24th of July, 1711, and was removed to the ſeventh ſtall*.

[Page 208] WILLIAM LUPTON, D. D. was inſtalled the 20th of September, 1715. He was fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford, lecturer of St Dunſtan's, in Fleet-ſtreet, London, morning preacher in Lincoln's Inn, and afternoon lecturer in the Temple: Was vicar of Richmond, in Yorkſhire, for one year, and reſigned in the ſpring, 1706. In a ſermon preached on Prov. iii. 16. he complimented biſhop Crew very highly on the fiftieth anniverſary of his conſecration. He preached lady Moyer's lectures, but an indifferent performance; at his death, he deſired none of his diſcourſes might be publiſhed, acknowledging he was not that great man the world thought him *. On the 1ſt of July, 1700, he took a maſter of arts degree; that of bachelor of divinity the 14th of February, 1708; and doctor in divinity the 13th of February, 1711. He died at Tunbridge Wells the 14th of December, 1726.

JOHN JOHNSON, LL. D. was inſtalled on the 18th of January, 1726. He was curate to Mr Bruce, vicar of Middleton-Tyas, in Yorkſhire, in the year 1700. He had no univerſity education, but on the 13th of January, 1731, was admitted in Brazen-Noſe College, to a degree of bachelor of civil law, by diploma; and on the 16th of June, 1726, to that of doctor in civil law. He profeſſed a knowledge of ſurgery, and attempted many deſperate caſes, in one of which ſucceeding with lady Clayton, one of the maids of honour, by her intereſt at court, was appointed domeſtic chaplain to the lady Caroline, then princeſs of Wales; and by king Geo. II. was preſented to the vicarage of Manfield, in the county of York: He afterwards had Hurworth rectory, by preſentation of Charles Pinkney, Eſq 1714; and died in poſſeſſion of that living, the 14th of October, 1761, aet. 84, where he lies interred.

CHARLES MORGAN, A. M. was inſtalled by proxy, the 25th of February, 1762. Was ſtudent of Chriſt-Church, where he took a degree of maſter of arts on the 24th of March, 1757: Was chaplain to biſhop Trevor, and reſigned this prebend for the rectory of Haughton, near Darlington, into which he was inducted the 9th of June, 1764: He died at Scarborough, on the 26th of the ſame month, aet. 32, and was interred in the porch of his church at Haughton .

CHARLES WESTON, A. M. was inſtalled the 11th of Auguſt, 1764, and removed to the ſixth ſtall §.

JOHN SHARP, D. D. eldeſt ſon of Thomas Sharp, prebendary of the tenth ſtall, vicar of Hartburn, and archdeacon of Northumberland, was inſtalled on the 11th of Auguſt, 1768.


ROBERT BLAKISTON, on the foundation, the 12th of May, 1541. He died in the year 1550.

[Page 209] JOHN RUD, B. D. chaplain in ordinary to king Edward VI. and was preſented by him on the 20th of June, 1550, ex aviſamento & conſenſu privati conſilii ſui, and was inſtalled on the 22d of July following: He was alſo inſtalled a prebendary of Wincheſter, in 1551, but on the acceſſion of queen Mary, was deprived in 1553 *.

GEORGE BULLOCK, D. D. was preſented by queen Mary, and inſtalled on the 9th of May, 1554. On the 12th of May, in the ſame year, he was admitted maſter of St John's College, Cambridge. On the preſentation of Philip and Mary, was inſtituted vicar of St Sepulchre, London, the 11th of February in that year, but reſigned that church before the 2d of October, 1556: In the year 1559, he was deprived, fled beyond ſea, and lived at Antwerp, in the monaſtery of St Michael, where we preſume he died in 1580.

JOHN RUD, reſtored in 1559. He died in the year 1578, and was buried in this cathedral.

HUGH BROUGHTON, A. M. was collated the 13th, and inſtalled the 14th of November, 1578. He was a fellow of Chriſt College, Cambridge, and learned in the Eaſtern languages, but was eſteemed arrogantly opinionative: Was collated to Waſhington rectory the 6th of May, 1580, and reſigned his prebend that year. He died the 4th of Auguſt, 1612 §.

RALPH TUNSTALL, A. M. was inſtalled the 9th of November, 1580. He was domeſtic chaplain to archbiſhop Grindal, prebendary of Knareſbrough, in York cathedral, the 15th of March, 1571; maſter of St Mary Magdalen's hoſpital, at Ripon, the 24th of September, 1572; and collated to the archdeaconry of Northumberland, the 29th of October, 1581. He departed this life in March, 1618 .

AUGUSTIN LINDSELL, D. D. was inſtalled the 8th of April, 1619, and removed to the ſecond ſtall .

[Page 210] DANIEL BIRKHEAD, D. D. was removed from the ſixth prebend *, and inſtalled the 5th of Auguſt, 1620. He died in 1624.

JOHN COSIN, D. D. was collated the 4th of December, 1624, and conſecrated biſhop of Durham, 1660 .

DANIEL BREVINT, A. M. was preſented by king Charles II. ſede vacante, and inſtalled the 15th of March, 1660: Was born in the iſland of Jerſey, and educated at Jeſus College, Oxford, where he was incorporated maſter of arts, and was the firſt fellow of the French fellowſhip, founded by king Charles I. Was made maſter of arts at Saumur, in France, where he was a voluntary exile, miniſter of a church in Normandy, and chaplain to the Prince of Turin. In 1661, he was created doctor in divinity at Oxford; was inſtituted to Brancepeth, the 10th of September, 1662; and was dean of Lincoln, where he died the 5th of May, 1695, and was interred in the cathedral there .

FITZHERBERT ADAMS, D. D. was inſtalled the 8th of June, 1695, being removed from the ſixth ſtall §: He was alſo removed from this ſtall to the eleventh.

WILLIAM HARTWELL, D. D. was inſtalled the 14th of June, 1711, being removed from the ninth ſtall . He died the 1ſt of June, 1725.

GEORGE SAYER, A. M. was inſtalled the 30th of June, 1725. He was the ſon of George Sayer, of Doctor's Commons, and brother of Dr Exton Sayer, ſpiritual chancellor of Durham : This family ſprung from Croft in Yorkſhire. Mr George Sayer, the prebendary, was of Oriel College, where he took a maſter of arts degree, the 14th of December, 1719; and that of doctor in divinity, the 5th of May, 1735. He was chaplain to biſhop Talbot, and married a daughter of archbiſhop Potter: Was collated to the vicarage of Witham, in Eſſex, by biſhop Robinſon, in 1722, which he reſigned in 1732: In 1730, was collated to the archdeaconry of Northumberland, with Eaſington, on which he agreed to reſign this ſtall, but biſhop Talbot's death intervening, it was not ſurrendered till the 26th of September, 1732, to biſhop Chandler, he having applied to the crown for confirmation of the above preferments: He died at Bruſſels in 1761, having retired thither on account of his embarraſſed circumſtances.

THOMAS SHARP, D. D. was inſtalled the 1ſt of December, 1732. He was a younger ſon of archbiſhop Sharp; was admitted of Trinity College, about the year 1708, aet. 15; where he obtained the degree of doctor in divinity, In 1729, and was fellow: He was chaplain to archbiſhop Dawes; and on the 19th of July, 1720, was [Page 211] collated to the rectory of Rothbury, in the county of Northumberland: He held the prebend of Southwell, and afterwards that of Wiſtow, in York cathedral: In 1722, was collated to the archdeaconry of Northumberland; and in 1755, ſucceeded Dr Mangey, in the officialty of the dean and chapter: He departed this life on the 16th of March, 1758, and was interred in this cathedral, in the place called the Gallilee *.

Sir HENRY VANE, Bart. LL. D. was inſtalled the 5th of April, 1758. He was the third ſon of George Vane, Eſq of Long-Newton; educated at Durham ſchool, from whence he was entered of Trinity College, and there had a fellowſhip: Was chaplain to biſhop Trevor, and on the 21ſt of April, 1754, was inducted to Stainton, in this county; on the 7th of July, 1761, was admitted to the degree of doctor of laws: He exchanged Stainton for Long-Newton, which he now enjoys. In 178 was created a baronet.


ROBERT BENNET, a monk, and burſar of this convent at the diſſolution, appointed by the foundation, the 12th of May, 1541. He was inſtituted to the vicarage of Gainford on the 18th of December, 1558, and departed this life in Auguſt, 1558.

ANTHONY SALVIN, B. D. was inſtalled the 12th of October, 1558, being removed from the twelfth ſtall, in which year he was made vicar general on Dr Hyndmers' death: He was a younger ſon of Gerrard Salvyn, of Croxdale, in this county; was collated to a prebend in Norton church, the 10th of May, 1544; maſter of Sherburn hoſpital, in 1552; and held the rectories of Winſton and Ryton, which he reſigned on being collated to Sedgefield, on the 20th of December, in the year 1558; but was ſoon after deprived of all his eccleſiaſtical preferments, and ſentenced not to depart five miles northward of Kirby-moor-ſide, in the county of York, or to go to the city of York: He is noted as a perſon well eſteemed in the country, but a man of mean erudition .

JOHN HENSHAW, or HENNESHEY, clerk, was preſented by queen Elizabeth, ſede vacante, and inſtalled the 29th of November, 1559. He died the next year §.

[Page 212] ADAM HOLYDAY was inſtalled the 3d of January, 1560. He was preſented by queen Elizabeth, ſede vacante, and admitted by Dr Watſon and Dr John Crawforth, who were guardians of the ſpiritualties of this See, by a commiſſion from the chapter of York, that See being then vacant by the deprivation of the archbiſhop, and the dean being abroad in foreign parts. The ſame year the queen preſented him to the rectory of Biſhop-Weremouth; and in 1561, he was appointed by the chapter to collect the queen's tenths *. His ſucceſſor was

CLEMENT COLEMORE, LL.D. who was inſtalled the 9th of May, 1590. He was ordained a deacon by biſhop Barnes, the 22d of December, 1583; and received prieſt's orders the 20th of December, 1584, then being ſpiritual chancellor and vicar general of this dioceſe : He was fellow of Brazen-Noſe College, and proctor in 1578; and on the 5th of July, 1582, was admitted to the degree of doctor of civil law: Was inſtituted to Brancepeth on the 15th of April, 1584; was made prebendary of Gaia Major, in Litchfield church, the 13th of February, 1586; and departed this life on the 18th of June, 1689, aet. 69, and was interred in this cathedral .

FERDINANDO MOORCROFT, A. M. was collated the 14th of July, 1619, being removed from the ſixth ſtall §. He died about the year 1641.

RALPH BROWNRIGG, D. D. ſucceeded about 1641. He was chaplain to biſhop Morton, who gave him the archdeaconry of Coventry, in 1631; was prebendary of Ely, in the fifth ſtall, 1621; rector of Baily, and maſter of the Temple; and elected to the biſhopric of Exeter, the 31ſt of March, 1642. He departed this life on the 7th day of December, 1659, and was buried in the Temple church .

[Page 213] THOMAS WOOD, D. D. was preſented by king Charles II. ſede vacante, the 7th of July, and inſtalled the 10th of December, 1660. He was born at Hackney, and received his firſt rudiments, at Weſtminſter ſchool, from whence he was elected ſtudent of Chriſt-Church, Oxford, in 1627; and was admitted to the degree of doctor in divinity, in 1641: Was made chaplain in ordinary to king Charles I. when he was twenty-eight years of age, and collated to the rectory of Whickham on the 2d of July, 1635. He travelled to Rome during the Rebellion, and ſoon after the Reſtoration was made chaplain to king Charles II. In 1663, was appointed to the deanry of Litchfield; and in 1671, was conſecrated biſhop of that dioceſe, and held this prebend in commendam: He died at Aſtrop Wells, in Northamptonſhire, on the 18th of April, 1692, and was interred at Ufford, in Suffolk *.

JOHN MONTAGUE, D. D. was inſtalled the 3d of June, 1692, being removed from the fourth ſtall .

THEOPHILUS PICKERING, D. D. was inſtalled the 1ſt of February, 1699, being removed from the fourth ſtall. He died the 20th of March, 1710.

FITZHERBERT ADAMS, D. D. was inſtalled on the 14th of April, 1711, being removed from the tenth ſtall §. He died the 12th of June, 1719.

JOHN DOLBEN, D. D. was inſtalled the 18th of July, 1719, being removed from the ſixth ſtall . He died the 21ſt of November, 1756.

WADHAM KNATCHBULL, LL. D. was inſtalled the 8th of January, 1757, being removed from the twelfth ſtall. He was the third ſon of Sir Edward Knatchbull, of Merſhamhatch, in the county of Kent, Bart. a fellow of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and took a degree of doctor of laws in July, 1741; was chaplain to biſhop Chandler; and in 1738, inducted to the family living of Chilham, in Kent. He departed this life [Page 214] on the 27th of December, 1760, and was interred in the Galilee of this cathedral *.

SAMUEL DICKENS, D. D. was inſtalled the 19th of March, 1761, being removed from the twelfth ſtall: Was a ſtudent of Chriſt-Church, Oxford, and chaplain to biſhop Trevor: On the 9th of July, 1743, was admitted to a degree of maſter of arts, and bachelor in divinity, on the 25th of October, 1752; and that of doctor in divinity, the 20th of June, 1753: In the year 1752, he was proctor of the univerſity; and in 1754, was made the king's Greek profeſſor: He was made official to the dean and chapter of Durham, in 1760; and on the 8th of January, 1762, was appointed archdeacon of Durham, with the rectory of Eaſington annexed.


WILLIAM WATSON, a monk of Durham, by the foundation, the 12th of May, 1541: He died in the year 1556.

ANTHONY SALVIN, B. D. was collated the 12th, and inſtalled the 16th of October, 1556, and removed to the eleventh ſtall.

GEORGE CLIFFE, B. D. was collated by queen Mary, the 13th of September, 1558. Was inſtituted to the vicarage of Billingham, the 29th of May, 1560, [Page 215] whereof he was deprived in 1565: Was collated to the rectory of Elwick, the 17th June, 1562; and inſtituted to Brancepeth rectory, the 29th of March, 1571, which he reſigned in 1584; and was again inſtituted to Billingham, the 11th of January, 1684. He died in 1695*.

HENRY EWBANKE, A. M. was inſtalled the 8th of September, 1596; and reſigned the ſame, the 5th of October, 1620: Was collated to Waſhington, the 24th of December, 1583; and to Winſton in 1588; was inſtituted to St Mary's hoſpital in Newcaſtle, the 15th of March, 1585, which he reſigned in 1615: He was prebendary of Gaia Minor, in Litchfield church, in 1581; and was removed to Weeford prebend, in the ſame church, 1586; and reſigned the latter, 1612: Was collated to the rectory of Whickham, on the 5th of September, 1620; and departed this life in 1628.

WILLIAM JAMES, A. M. was inſtalled the 6th of October, 1620. He was nearly related to biſhop James, and was public orator at Oxford, in 1601; was collated to Craike, on the 10th of July, 1614; to Waſhington, on the 12th of September, 1616; to Ryton, in May 1617; and to Merrington, in Auguſt, 1629. He rebuilt his prebendal houſe; was one of the proxies for the chapter, at the convocation at York, 1625; and one of the prebendaries who ſupported the canopy over the head of king Charles I. when at Durham. He died in the month of January, 1659, and was interred in this cathedral.

GUY CARLETON, D. D. was preſented by king Charles II. ſede vacante, and inſtalled the 2d of November, 1660: Was born at Brampton Foot, in Gilſland, in the county of Cumberland, and was educated at Carliſle, from whence he was ſent to Queen's College, Oxford; was fellow thereof, and proctor of the univerſity, in 1635: He held the vicarage of Bucklerſbury, in Berkſhire: Was collated to Wolſingham, in November, 1660, and the ſame year had the deanry of Carliſle: In 1671, was conſecrated biſhop of Briſtol; and, in 1678, was tranſlated to the biſhopric of Chicheſter, holding this prebend in commendam: He departed this life on the 6th of July, 1685, aet. 80, and was buried in his cathedral church §.

JOHN MORTON, D. D. was inſtalled the 18th of July, 1685, being removed from the ſixth ſtall . He died in 1722.

[Page 216] THOMAS RUNDLE, LL. B. was inſtalled the 3d of December, 1722, being removed from the firſt ſtall *. He died in 1743.

WADHAM CHANDLER, A. M. was inſtalled the 21ſt of July, 1735: Was the youngeſt ſon of biſhop Chandler; received his firſt rudiments at Eton ſchool, from whence he was admitted in Clare Hall, Cambridge: Was appointed ſpiritual chancellor of this dioceſe, in September, 1731; collated to Biſhop-Weremouth, in May, 1732: In July, 1733, was inducted to Waſhington; and made maſter of Sherburn hoſpital, in 1735, whereby he vacated his two rectories: He died at Aix, in France, the 2d of June, 1737, and his remains were brought over to be interred in the Gallilee of this cathedral.

WADHAM KNATCHBULL, LL. D. was inſtalled the 17th of June, 1738, and removed to the eleventh ſtall.

SAMUEL DICKENS, D. D. was inſtalled the 8th of January, 1757, and removed to the eleventh ſtall .

THOMAS BURTON, D. D. was inſtalled the 11th of May, 1761, being removed from the third ſtall§. He departed this life in 1767.

EDMUND LAW, D. D. was inſtalled the 8th of Auguſt, 1767: Was of St John's College, Cambridge, but invited to Chriſt's, and choſen a fellow of that ſociety: Was one of the Zodiack, as a ſet of learned and ingenious young men in the univerſity were then called, and diſtinguiſhed himſelf very early by writing on the Being and Attributes of God; and eſpecially in his notes on his tranſlation of archbiſhop King's Origin of Evil; wherein our ideas of ſpace, time, and immenſity, and the ſelf-exiſtence, neceſſary exiſtence, and unity of God, are more accurately enquired into, and diſcuſſed with greater clearneſs and preciſion, than by any writer before or ſince, on ſuch abſtruſe metaphyſical ſubjects. He was alſo principally concerned in publiſhing an excellent edition of Stephens's Theſaurus. In 1739, he accepted the rectory of Grayſtoke, to which he was preſented by the univerſity. When Mr Howard, now duke of Norfolk, ſold the advowſon, he ſtipulated with the purchaſer in favour of Mr Law, for a preſentation from a Proteſtant patron. Mr Law accordingly reſigned this rectory, and had a new preſentation from Dr Aſkew, the purchaſer. This allowed him to remove to Salkeld, the corps of the archdeaconry of Carliſle, a much more healthy ſituation, given him by biſhop Fleming. While in Cumberland, he publiſhed Conſiderations on the Theory of Religion, which has gone through ſeveral editions; Litigiouſneſs repugnant to the Laws of Chriſtianity, an aſſize ſermon, at Carliſle, and a charge on the Nature and Neceſſity of Catechiſing. In 1747, he proceeded to doctor in divinity: The divinity ſchool was unuſually crowded, and the rigidly orthodox were ſo alarmed at his queſtion, that it gave occaſion to much altercation afterwards, in a variety of publications; but he himſelf, unwilling to give further offence, ‘thought it a part of Chriſtian prudence not to be more explicit on the ſubject, till men appear more willing to ſubmit their vain philoſophy to the authority of God's word, and are diſpoſed to examine things with greater attention [Page 217] and impartiality; concluding in the words of honeſt biſhop Taylor, that he had been ſo puſhed at by herds and flocks of people, that follow any body that whiſtles to them, or drives them to paſture, that he was grown afraid of any truth that ſeemed chargeable with ſingularity.’ In 1755, he returned to Cambridge, having been choſen maſter of St Peter's College, when he reſigned the archdeaconry, but kept the rectory. He ſerved the office of vice-chancellor, in 1756, and, having a numerous family, he afterwards accepted the office of principal librarian, and that of caſuiſtical profeſſor; and had alſo the archdeaconry of Stafford, and a ſtall in the church of Lincoln, given him on his promotion to the See of Carliſle, in 1769; he kept the headſhip of his college, and had the rectory of Greyſtoke in commendam.— He publiſhed only two or three ſermons afterwards; but, though advanced to a great age, ſuch was his veneration for the great Mr Locke, and his love for freedom of enquiry, that he ſurpriſed the world with an excellent edition of the works of that great philoſopher in four volumes, folio.—He is ſtill living.

JOHN ROSS, D. D. was inſtalled the 17th of March, 1769. He was born at Roſs, in the county of Hereford, and was fellow of St John's College, Cambridge; was preacher at the Rolls chapel, and private tutor to Thomas viſcount Weymouth, who preſented him to the vicarage of Frome Zalwood, in Somerſetſhire: He was chaplain to the king, by whom he was preſented to this prebend, on the 28th of February, preceding his inſtallation. In 1777, was conſecrated biſhop of Exeter, when he reſigned this ſtall, and was ſucceeded by

THOMAS DAMPIER, D. D. (ſon to the late dean) who was inſtalled the 26th of February, 1778; ſucceeded his father as maſter of Sherburn hoſpital; and is now dean of Rocheſter.


LEOBWIN, or LEOFWYN, ſeems to have been the firſt archdeacon, by whoſe miſconduct the murder of biſhop Walcher was occaſioned. Le Neve ſays, thence ‘the very name of archdeacon grew ſo mighty odious to the people, that the ſucceeding biſhop thought proper at that time to ſink the title, and veſt the power in the prior of Dunholme; but, after ſome time, the memory thereof being pretty much worn away, the title and office were reſumed, and this ſeems to be about the year 1188.’

ALDWIN, who dying the 12th of April, 1087, was ſucceeded by

TURGOT, on whoſe being made biſhop of St Andrew's, in Scotland, in the year 1108,

[Page 218] MICHAEL ſucceeded in biſhop Ralph's time, and reſumed the title and office, as a diſtinct perſon from the prior of Durham*.

ROBERT DE ST AGATHA occurs Ao 1129, and 1131 .

WAROW, or WAZO, ſucceeded in the year 1147. As did

RANNULPH, about 1150§. And

LAWRENCE, D. D. An. 1153. He and Laurence the prior went to Rome, to defend the election of Hugh Pudſey to this See. Obiit 11th of April, 1176. After him occurs

WILLIAM, in the year 1174.

JOHN, ſubjoined by this title as witneſs to a deed of biſhop Hugh's, about 1180.

BURCHARD DE PUDSEY occurs about 1109, and died poſſeſſed of this dignity, the 6th of December, 1196**.

AIMERICK DE TALBOYS, nephew to biſhop Philip de Poictiers, whom I find poſſeſſed in 1198 and 1214, next year after which he is ſaid to be appointed high-ſheriff of Northumberland††.

SYMEON occurs archdeacon of Durham, with Alanus, archdeacon of Northumberland, witneſſes to a grant of biſhop Richard, the 6th of May, 1218.

WILLIAM occurs in 1219. Willis ſays, ‘I take him to be the ſame with William de Lanim, whom I meet with in 1226 and 1236; he died, as I find by a note, An. 1249.’ Le Neve tells us it appears, he ‘Was archdeacon of Dunholme, in 1219, by an ancient inſcription in a window, in the hall of Univerſity College, Oxford:’ He adds, ‘I believe this was the ſame with W. de Lanim, if ſo, I hear of him again 1234‡‡.’

THOMAS DE ANESTY was poſſeſſed in 1250. Le Neve ſays, he was alſo archdeacon of Northumberland §§.

RICHARD or ROBERT DE SANCTA AGATHA, archdeacon of Durham, was collector [Page 219] of the tenths in the dioceſe of Durham, the 7th of September, 1266*; he occurs as witneſs to a charter in 1271, by the name of Robert.

ANTHONY BECK held this dignity in 1275 and 1283, in which latter year he was conſecrated biſhop of Durham, and was ſucceeded by

WILLIAM DE LUDA, anglice Lowth, who held it in 1284; and being made biſhop of Ely, in 1290§, was ſucceeded by

S. DE FARLINGTON, who held it in 1296.

WM DE S. BOTULPHO occurs in 1300 and 1308.

THOMAS DE GOLDESBURGH occurs in 1311: He died in 1333, whereupon the biſhop conferred this dignity on his nephew Aumerick de Bellomonte, but the king diſapproving of this appointment, nominated thereto

ROBERT DE TAUNTON; but whether he enjoyed the office ſeems uncertain, though the king repeated his patent by way of confirmation: He dying in 1335**, the next who occurs is

AUMERICK DE BELLOMONTE, in 1336 and 1338. His ſucceſſor was

THO. DE NEVILL, who occurs in July 1340 and 1356. He died in the year 1362; was prebendary of Bole, in the church of York; a prebendary of Hoveden; and alſo of Darlington, in this dioceſe, and rector of Thorp-Baſſet, in the county of York.

WILLIAM DE WESTLEE next occurs, in 1362; he was temp. chancellor††.

ALEXANDER DE NEVILL occurs the 12th of January, 1370. It ſeems doubtful whether this was the ſame perſon who was preferred to the See of York, in 1374, as Willis tells us;—no ſuch perſon is named by Le Neve‡‡.

GABEVAN is the next on the liſt, a Roman cardinal, noted by Fox in his Martyrs, vol. i. p. 563, who informs us he held the office in 1378: But this is an error of our author, for by the Parliament Rolls, 50 king Edward III. an. 1376, it appears, Communes in Parliamento inter alia regni gravamina queruntur quod Jacobus de Urſinis cardinalis quidam Romanus, archidiaconatum Dunelm. tenuit.

WILLIAM DE BASINSTOKE, otherwiſe called Mundy de Baſingſtoke, was collated the 13th of Auguſt, 1379§§.

[Page 220] AGAPITUS DE COLUMPNA CARDINALIS S. PRISCAE held it in 1380, as we learn from Rym. Foedera, vol vii. p. 276: In which authority

PILEUS Cardinalis S. Praxedis is mentioned the 11th of July, 1381*. He being preſented by the king during a vacancy of the See.

THOMAS DE WESTON, prebendary of Grindal, in the church of York, and one of the prebendaries of Hoveden, held this office in 1393; and dying in the year 1408, was ſucceeded by

ALAN DE NEWARKE, who reſigned on the 15th of February, in the ſame year.

JOHN HOVINGHAM, LL. D. was collated the 16th of February, 1408; and occurs poſſeſſed of this office, the 4th of May, 1416.

JOHN KEMPE ſucceeded the 13th of October, 1417; on whoſe promotion to the See of Rocheſter, an. 1419§,

ROBERT GILBERT was promoted by the crown, and we find him poſſeſſed thereof in 1420. In the year 1436, he was conſecrated biſhop of London, but who ſucceeded him here is uncertain: One Robert Rollinſon is named, but no authority appears.

WILLIAM LE SCROOPE was promoted to this dignity in 1437, and held it twenty-ſix years: He died the 5th of May, 1463, and was buried in York cathedral.

RALPH BOOTH, prebendary of Norton, occurs in 1463: It is probable that biſhop Booth, who was conſecrated in 1457, before his tranſlation to York, collated Ralph to this dignity, as he did to the archdeaconry of York, in 1477: He held both to the time of his death, which happened in 1497: Was temporal chancellor of Durham.

THOMAS COLSTON, LL. B. next occurs; nephew to biſhop Fox, who collated him the 20th of April, 1497. He reſigned, and

ROGER LEYBOURNE ſucceeded the 24th of January, 1499. He Was temporal chancellor of Durham, maſter of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, a prebendary of York, and occurs archdeacon of York, on the 10th of September, 1503; and in the ſucceeding year, was conſecrated biſhop of Carliſle.

JOHN BOERNIUS, a Genoeſe clerk, was obtruded into this dignity by the pope: He reſigned in 1515, but reſerved to himſelf a penſion of 50 l. per ann.

WILLIAM FRANKLEYN, B. D. occurs in 1531. He was both temporal and ſpiritual chancellor to the biſhops Ruthall, Wolſey, and Tunſtall; held the rectory of Houghton, in the fourteenth year of king Henry VIII. In the year 1538, was made dean of Windſor; and about the ſame time rector of Chalfonte, in the county of Bucks: In 1545, being maſter of St Giles's hoſpital, at Keypier, he ſurrendered the ſame into the king's hands, as alſo great part of the revenue of Windſor deanry; but [Page 221] being complained of for concealment, was obliged to ſurrender the entire deanry in 1553, keeping all his other preferments to the time of his death, which happened about the year 1555: The place of his interment is uncertain, but it is probable he was buried obſcurely at St Giles's, Chalfonte*.

BERNARD GILPIN, B. D. ſucceeded in this archdeaconry, in 1556, but quitted it in about four years;— the particulars of his life will be inſerted under the head of Houghton pariſh, in the ſequel.

JOHN EBDEN, B. D. and prebendary of Ely, was appointed by queen Elizabeth, during a vacancy of the See, on the 22d of May, 1560: Was proctor of the univerſity of Cambridge, and had rich benefices in the dioceſe of Ely and Wincheſter, in the latter of which he was archdeacon: Did not hold his office in this church long, for we find

JOHN PILKINGTON, B. D. brother and chaplain to biſhop Pilkington, ſucceeded the 5th of December, 1563. He was interred in this cathedral, without any monument, Ao 1603.

WILLIAM MORTON, B. D. was collated the 19th of November, 1603: Was rector of Long Newton, in 1588; and vicar of St Nicholas' church, in Newcaſtle, where he was interred, the 18th of July, 1620.

GABRIEL CLARKE, D. D. was collated the 9th of September, 1621. Died in 1662, and was buried in this cathedral§.

DENNIS GRANVILLE, D. D. ſucceeded, being collated the 16th of September, 1662: Was deprived in 1691; and ſucceeded by

[Page 222] ROBERT BOOTHE, B. D. the 15th of May, 1691: Was dean of Briſtol, where he died, and was interred the 18th of Auguſt, 1730.

GEORGE SAYER, A. M. ſucceeded on the 3d of November, 1730. He died in 1761*, and was ſucceeded by

SAMUEL DICKENS, D. D. on the 8th of January, 1762.


This dignity, with Howick rectory annexed, was valued, in 1534, at 36l. 13s. 4d.

RANULPH NEPOS E'PI RANULPHI, witneſs to the biſhops charter, ſans date, occurs in 1131.

ROBERT held this office in 1140, as did

RALPH, in the year 1141 and 1153, and

WILLIAM, 1160.

DURAND enjoyed it in 1174§; we have then a great vacancy, for the firſt nominee that occurs is

RICHARD DE MARISCO, archdeacon of Richmond, and afterwards biſhop of Durham, and lord chancellor, an. 4 Joh. regis, 1212; occurs again in 1223. He adminiſtered the oath to king John, which the ſovereign took to the pope.

ALAN DE LENN is the next that occurs, in 1219.

THOMAS DE ANESTY was preferred thereto by the king, during the vacancy of the See, the 5th of April, 1248; and quitted it for the archdeaconry of Durham, in 1250.

THOMAS DE HEREFORD died poſſeſſed of the office, in Auguſt, 1253**; and the next we find is

RICHARD DE MIDDLETON, the 23d of September, 1270; and after him

ROGER DE HERTBURN, in 1288; and

NICHOLAS DE WELLS, in 1310, and 1311††.

ROBERT DE PICKERING, on the 12th of June, 1312: Was made dean of York‡‡, and it is probable quitted the archdeaconry in 1314, in favour of

THOMAS CHARLTON, LL. D. who was conſecrated biſhop of Hereford, in 1327§§, upon whoſe reſignation

[Page 223] JOHN DE CHARLETON was preſented by the king, the 16th of February, 1328*.

EDMUND HOWARD occurs in the year 1343; and

WILLIAM DE SHREWSBURY, in 1353 and 1355: Was prebendary of Longden, and archdeacon of Salop, in Litchfield cathedral.

JOHN DE BAMBURGH occurs in 1361; and was ſucceeded by

RICHARD DE BARNARDCASTLE, who was collated the 10th of September, 1362: Was temporal chancellor of this palatine, and ſeems to be the ſame perſon that erected the ſhrine of St Bede, and was interred near thereto. He reſigned for the deanry of Auckland, in 1369.

THOMAS DUFFIELD was collated the 19th of Auguſt, 1369.

WILLIAM DE BEVERLEY ſucceeded by exchange, in January, 1369: Was prebendary of Stillington, in York cathedral.

JOHN DE DERBY was preſented by king Edward III. during a vacancy of the See, the 9th of February, 1370, and William de Beverley was ejected§.

JOHN REFAME occurs in 1386 and 1397.

JOHN DE DALTON, in 1409.

JOHN RICHARDSON reſigned in 1410.

HENRY ELTON ſucceeded, and ſoon after reſigned** to

JOHN RICKENGALE, who poſſeſſed it a very ſhort time; for we find he reſigned it in favour of

JOHN AKUM, in 1411; and on his reſignation

JOHN RICKENGALE again had this office: Was made biſhop of Cheſter††, 1426.

ROBERT BURTON, D. D. occurs in 1421‡‡.

MARMADUKE LUMLEY occurs in 1422 and 1427: Was precentor of Lincoln, rector of Stepney, in Middleſex, and of Charius, in Kent: In 1430, was conſecrated biſhop of Carliſle; and in 1450, was tranſlated to the biſhopric of Lincoln. He died in 1451§§.

ROBERT BURTON occurs again in 1427, on the reſignation of Lumley‖‖; and

WILLIAM GRAY occurs in 1448¶¶.

JOHN BURNE occurs in 1464.

ROBERT MASON, LL. D. occurs in 1481. He was precentor of Lincoln, maſter of Trinity Hall, Cambridge**, and prebendary of Farendon; was alſo one of the [Page 224] prebendaries of Norton in this county; died poſſeſſed of this dignity in 1493, and was interred in Lincoln cathedral*.

RALPH SCROPE inſtituted the 23d of February, 1493: Was prebendary of North Kelſey, or Aileſbury, or perhaps both ſucceſſively, in Lincoln cathedral, and rector of Hambledon, in Bucks: Was ſucceeded by

ROBERT DAVELL, or DOVELL, LL. D. who appears poſſeſſed of this dignity in 1518 and 1541: Was a canon of Exeter, and had Holm prebend, in York, the 29th of May, 1541. He died in the year 1557.

WILLIAM CARTER, D. D. was collated the 3d of November, 1558: He was deprived, and ſentenced to remain at Thirſk, or within ten miles, on account of his recuſancy: Died at Mechlin, in Brabant, in the year 1578.

WILLIAM KINGE, B. D. of King's College, Cambridge: Was preſented by queen Elizabeth, the 1ſt of January, 1560, being her chaplain§: Was prebendary of Canterbury and Windſor, at the latter of which places he died, and was interred the 23d of September, 1590: Was deprived of this archdeaconry for non-reſidence, ſome time before his death.

RALPH LEVER, A. M. was collated the 21ſt of October, 1566: Was a prebendary in the firſt ſtall of this church, reſigned this dignity in the year 1573, and was ſucceeded by

FRANCIS BUNNEY, A. M. who was collated the 20th of October, 1573; reſigned on being inducted to the rectory of Ryton.

JAMES BOLD, D. D. was collated the 25th of September, 1578: Was of Corpus-Chriſti College, Oxford, and admitted to the degree of doctor in divinity, in April, 1576: He reſigned in 1581; and was ſucceeded by

RALPH TUNSTALL, A. M. who was collated the 29th of October, 1581: Was rector of Croft, in Yorkſhire, and prebendary of this church, in the tenth ſtall**.

JOHN CRADOCK, A. M. vicar of Gainford: Was collated in 1619, and reſigned on being appointed to the fifth ſtall in this church††.

GABRIEL CLARKE, D. D. was collated the 7th of Auguſt, 1619. In September, [Page 225] 1621, was appointed archdeacon of Durham, and reſigned Northumberland. He was alſo prebendary of this church.

FRANCIS BURGOINE, D. D. was collated the 13th of September, 1621: Held the eighth ſtall in this church, and died in 1633.

JOSEPH NAYLOR, D. D. rector of Sedgefield: Was collated the 25th of February, 1633: Held the ſecond prebend in this church.

WILLIAM FEATHERS, B. D. was collated the 24th of November, 1636, on the reſignation of Naylor: Was chaplain to biſhop Morton.

EVERARD GOWER, B. D. was collated the 9th of May, 1638. In 1640, was vicar of Norton; in 1641, rector of Stanhope, and chaplain to biſhop Morton*.

ISAAC BASIRE, B. D. his ſucceſſor, was collated the 24th of Auguſt, 1644: Was a prebendary of this church, in the ſeventh ſtall. Died in 1676; and

WILLIAM TURNER, D. D. ſucceeded, the 30th of October, 1676: Was rector of Stanhope: Departed this life at Oxford, the 20th of April, 1685, aet. 45, and was interred in St Giles's church there.

JOHN MORTON, B. D. ſucceeded the 5th of October, 1685: Was a prebendary of this church in the 12th ſtall, and died in 1722.

THOMAS SHARP, A. M. was collated the 27th of February, 1722. A prebendary of this church, in the tenth ſtall: Died in 1758; and was ſucceeded by

THOMAS ROBINSON, D. D. who was collated in Auguſt, 1758: Was prebendary of Peterborough and Landaff, and vicar of Ponteland, in Northumberland. Died in 1761 .

JOHN SHARP, D. D. was collated the 21ſt of April, 1762. Inducted to the vicarage of Hexham, in Northumberland, the 1ſt of January, 1749-50; collated to the ninth ſtall in 1768; and nominated to the perpetual curacy of Bamborough, in 1773.


AFTER a tedious arrangement of the ſeveral eccleſiaſtics who ſat in this church, the reader's attention is required to a deſcription of the ſacred edifices, with a comparative view of their ancient ſtate and ornaments.

The traveller is conducted to this cathedral by the Place or Place-Green, where the whole north front lies open to the view. The ſituation is ſingularly grand and noble, the building ſtretching along the crown of an eminence, about eighty feet perpendicular from the ſurface of the river, which waſhes its baſe; on the eaſt ſide [Page 226] the Bailey intervenes between the church and the brink of the hill; and on the weſt this venerable pile riſes on the points of rocks, which ſhew themſelves on the ſummit of the mount, and almoſt overhangs the ſtream: On this elevated ground the whole edifice has the moſt ſtriking and auguſt appearance. The towers to the weſt were anciently crowned with ſpires, covered with lead; the windows of the nave are under circular arches, of the original model; in the other parts (excepting the upper tier of the choir) moſt of them are of a different form and age. This front is now under repair, the ſtones being all chiſſeled over, and the decayed parts reſtored; the towers will receive new decorations, very different from the ancient ones, and the niches be ſupplied with new ſculptures; the expence is eſtimated at thirty thouſand pounds, to be paid out of the Chapter's treaſury:—A diſtinguiſhed act of public munificence!

As the propoſed changes will effectually remove from the traveller's eye the ancient appearance of this edifice, it was thought expedient to preſent the public with a repreſentation of the church in the ſtate it was before the repairs began; and notwithſtanding the elegance of the preſent deſign, it is apprehended ſome of the ornaments might have been choſen with greater propriety: Above the great window of the middle tranſept, in two roundels, were the figures of Benedictine monks, cut in relief; by the mode of the ſculpture, expreſſive of the age of the building. They led the judicious eye immediately to the aera, and gave an example of the ſtate of that art: Theſe roundels are now ſupplied with two fine new figures—the one a prior, ſeated in his inſtallation chair; the other, an effigy of biſhop Pudſey, cut from the figure on his epiſcopal ſeal, as given in the plate of his charter to the city of Durham *. A century after this the figures will betray the ſpectator into an error, and lead him to determine, that this part of the ſtructure was erected, or at leaſt rebuilt, by that prelate. On the weſt corner tower of the eaſt tranſept, were the effigies of thoſe perſonages who attended the propitious cow, by which the monks diſcovered this ſeat of eaſe and magnificence; the cut ſhews the receſs and ſculptures in their decayed ſtate, the figures being now reſtored and finiſhed with much
[Page 227] art. The great tower of the church, as remarked in the preceding part of this work, is much more modern than the reſt, being built as high as the gallery, by prior Melſanby, who acceded in the year 1233, and his ſucceſſor, prior Middleton: Prior Hugh, of Darlington, who was elected in 1258, finiſhed the work, by building the belfrey or upper tower. The tabernacle work, pointed arches, and ornament on the outſides of the building, confirm thoſe dates; for then the Gothic ſtile was in general acceptation: The buttreſſes of the tower are graced with niches canopied and finiſhed with tabernacle work, in which are ſtatues repreſenting the great patrons of the See, in tolerable ſculpture. The height of this tower, Willis ſays, is two hundred and twenty-three feet, deſcribing the lanthern to be one hundred and ſixty-two feet, and the belfrey ſixty-one feet; but Mr Nicholſon's admeaſurement, which is moſt to be depended upon, makes the whole height two hundred and fourteen feet, that is, the dome or lanthern one hundred and ſixty, and the belfrey fifty-four feet.

It appears that the Place-Green, before prior Algar's time, in 1109, was crowded with houſes, and to him we owe that great elegance of an open area between the cathedral and caſtle, giving the two edifices at once to the ſpectator's view; he having cauſed the buildings to be removed, and the ground to be reduced to a plain. The entrance to the church was by a portico, of much more modern work than the reſt of the building, formed by pilaſters and circular arches, the upper ſtructure ſupported by flanking buttreſſes, from whence ſprung a pointed arch, the whole terminating at a point in the center: The arms of queen Elizabeth, in ſtucco work, were placed on the diviſion of two circular arches, where formerly were the windows of a ſmall chapel: The portico, during the late repairs, was rebuilt and highly ornamented: There were anciently two chambers above the north door, where perſons were lodged to hear the call of ſuch as came to claim ſanctuary, and who rang the bell to give notice thereof; after which the fugitive was ſecure from ſecular authority*. There was alſo an ancient chapel, dedicated to the holy croſs, in this place; and in prior Kerneck's time, viz. 1214, we find an aſſignment of twenty ſhillings yearly out of the mills of Browney, or Bruna, given to the houſe by Alan and Henry de Melſanby, with fifty acres of land in Pitenden, for a chaplain to celebrate maſs for the ſoul of Alan de Melſanby, which chaplain was allowed his corrody [Page 228] in the houſe*. The entrance down into the church is by three ſhallow ſteps.

It is unneceſſary to preſent to the reader a diſſertation on the ancient modes of architecture, to elucidate a deſcription of the work, in the various parts of this edifice; the age of it is known, and the alterations made therein are almoſt critically aſcertained: What we commonly call the Saxon architecture in ſuch edifices, is in fact Roman; for thoſe who conſtructed the religious buildings which aroſe in the earlieſt aera of the Norman acceſſion, formed them after the models of workmen procured from the continent, (ſpoken of by Richard, prior of Hexham, l. i. cha. 3.) and came over to conſtruct our capital buildings, expreſsly "according to the Roman manner." This ſtile prevailed till about the concluſion of king Henry the Firſt's reign, when, what we now call Gothic was inſtroduced into Britain, ſo that in this church we find ſome ſtrokes of the improved ſtile; for as the building was begun in 1093, ſo it was many years before it was completed: The walls were leſt unrooſed by biſhop Flambard at his death; and the reader will recollect that biſhop William brought the deſign with him from Normandy. The ingenious traveller Mr Pennant, ſays, "In the inſide is preſerved much of the clumſy, yet venerable magnificence of the early Norman ſtile." The gateway, which is ten feet wide, is ornamented within on each hand with pilaſters; the inner one, or that neareſt the gate, very richly emboſſed with foliage, and figures in a light and elegant ſtile; the other plain: The inclining arches are ſemi-circular; the inner members carved in the zig-zag figure; the outward one embatteled or dentelled. The venerable pile ſtrikes the viſitor on his entrance with an awful ſolemnity not to be expreſſed; the ſtately and maſſive columns, the long extended ailes, the gloom which ſhadows the ſucceſſion of arches, all contribute to affect the mind with an attention beſt known by being experienced: Ideas ariſe replete with the diſtant antiquity of the place, the piety of thoſe from whom the ſtructure had its origin, and the devotion which warmed the breaſts of the religious whoſe characteriſtic virtues ſhone forth in the holy places. The plan or deſign of this building is more regular than generally to be found in ſtructures of the like age: The length of the whole church within, excluſive of the gallilee, is four hundred and eleven feet; that of the nave, from the weſt window to the center of the columns which ſupport the tower, is two hundred feet, and its width ſeventy-four feet, of which the center aile, from baſe to baſe of the pillars, is twenty-eight feet. The ſuperſtructure is ſupported on two rows of columns. Mr Pennant ſays, the pillars are vaſt cylinders twenty-three feet in circumference: The two extreme columns to the weſt riſe from baſes of the form of a complicated croſs, having pointed projections from the interior angles; the dimenſions of each baſe are fifteen feet every way, being exactly ſimilar [Page 229] to thoſe which ſupport the columns of the tower and dome, vulgarly called the lanthern; the pillars are cluſtered, having three ſemi-circular pilaſters in each front, divided by an angular projection: The next column eaſtward riſes from a baſe of the form of a croſs, twelve feet each way, ſupporting a cluſtered pillar, the pilaſters of which, towards the center aile, run up to the roof through the facia, between the upper windows; the next riſes from a ſquare baſe of eight feet, and is richly fluted, terminating with a plain capital, which ſupports the gallery above the ſide aile: Each intermediate pillar is cluſtered like thoſe deſcribed in the ſecond place, ſtretching up to the roof, and thoſe in the intervals are circular, making the ſucceſſion conſiſt of a cluſtered pillar, and a round one alternately; the firſt round pillar is fluted as before deſcribed, the ſecond covered with the zig-zag figure, and the third grooved with the figure of a net. The pillars oppoſite to each other are exactly ſimilar in ornaments and dimenſions: It is alſo to be obſerved, the cluſtered and round pillars through all the building have their baſes of the dimenſions before ſet forth: All the ſide walls are decorated with pilaſters oppoſite to the columns, and the interior ſpaces under the windows are filled with double pilaſters and interſecting round arches throughout the whole building, except only in the eaſt tranſept. The arches between the great columns are all ſemi-circular, the outward members dentelled, the interiors zig-zag'd: The under gallery opens to the middle aile, with one round arch divided within into two arches, ſupported on a center pillar. There is an upper gallery of ſingle arches. At the weſt end of the nave is a ſhort croſs aile or tranſcept, in length ninety feet, and eighteen feet wide from the centers of the columns, over the ends of which riſe the weſt towers; according to Willis, one hundred and fifty-eight feet in height, but by Nicholſon's admeaſurement only one hundred and thirty-eight feet. At the end of each ſide aile is a gateway, which opens into the gallilee. The ancient ornaments of the north aile are pointed out to the reader in the notes*. There are ſix large windows to give light [Page 230] to this aile, but all the old painted glaſs is deſtroyed. The vaultings of the ſide ailes are ſemi-circular, and croſſed with groined arches in plain rolls, interſecting each other in the center. The middle aile of the nave is ſixty-nine and a half feet in height; the roof was vaulted with ſtone about the year 1242, by prior Melſonby; the ribs interſect each other in pointed arches, ornamented with zig-zag workin the fillets: There are ſeven upper windows to the north, and ſix to the ſouth. At the eaſt end of the nave, between the pillars which ſupport the great tower, anciently ſtood Jeſus's altar, with all its decorations, no traces of which remain *. Behind the [Page 231] altar, and between the two round pillars, were interred priors Aukland and Caſtell, and nearer to the font prior Burnaby *. In the center of the four weſt pillars, is the font, an elegant marble baſon, over which is a fine piece of tabernacle work in red oak, of an octagon form, richly ornamented, and of excellent workmanſhip, ſupported by four columns about eight feet in height, the whole being about thirty feet high, terminating in a pinnacle, and decorated with a dove extending her wings. To the eaſt of the font, between pillar and pillar, is a croſs of black marble laid in the pavement, beyond which women were ſtrictly prohibited advancing towards St Cuthbert's ſhrine . In the middle of the ſouth aile, oppoſite to the ſecond pillar [Page 232] from the cloiſter door, was the tomb of biſhop Nevil; between the ſecond and third pillar ſtands an altar tomb of John lord Nevil, and between the next adjoining pillars, the tomb of Ralph lord Nevil. Ralph lord Nevil died in the year 1347, and, as I obſerved before, was the firſt layman ſuffered to be buried within the walls of this church. His remains were brought in a chariot drawn by ſeven horſes, as far as the gates of the church-yard, and then borne on the ſhoulders of his knights into the church: The abbot of St Mary's, of York, performed the funeral offices, and he was interred before the altar of the holy croſs, where he obtained a maſs to be daily ſaid: His wife Alicia was afterwards buried near him. It was then a cuſtom to make offerings at the interment of great men, and eight horſes, four for war, with four men armed and capariſoned, and four for peace, were on this occaſion the holy gift; together with three veſtments of cloth of gold, interwoven with flowers. His ſon, John Nevil, redeemed four horſes by the payment of one hundred mares: But Mr Pennant obſerves, ‘This favour was not done gratis by the holy men of the place: Ralph had preſented them with a veſtment of red velvet, richly embroidered with gold, ſilk, great pearls, and images of ſaints, dedicated to St Cuthbert *. His widow alſo ſent to the ſacriſt one hundred and twenty pounds of ſilver, for the repairs of the cathedral, and ſeveral rich veſtments for the performance of the ſacred offices . This was the nobleman who was ſo inſtrumental [Page 233] in gaining the victory of Nevil's Croſs;’ or the Red Hills. The tomb of John, his ſon, is alſo an evidence of the convent's favour obtained by rich gifts. Theſe monuments were ornamented with the recumbent effigies of the great perſonages there interred, and ſurrounded with ſmall figures of eccleſiaſtics in alabaſter, finely wrought, but now mutilated and almoſt totally defaced: When the general diſregard for religious edifices took place of old veneration, this church was thought the propereſt place of confinement and ſecurity for the Scotch priſoners after the battle of Dunbar; and they pillaged and deſtroyed every thing within their reach,—fulfilling the ſcriptures literally, making this holy place, in truth, a den of thieves *. At the north end of the weſt tranſept was St Saviour's altar; and at the ſouth end, the grate, on which thoſe who were under ſanctuary lay; the remains of all which, with the Lady of Pity's altar, and the holy water baſons, are totally effaced. In the ſouth aile are ſix windows, in which are ſome broken remains of painted glaſs . Over the two gates of the gallilee are ſhields of arms of [Page 234] biſhop Langley. The weſt window of ſeven lights, was made in prior Foſſour's time, by John Tickhill, under which are the monuments of Sir George Wheeler, Dr Knatchbull, and Dr Watts *. There is a little door by which the officiating prieſt paſſed to the altar of the virgin in the gallilee. The fine paintings in the weſt windows are all defaced . In the ſouth aile, oppoſite to the north entrance, is a large gateway into the cloiſter, highly wrought and decorated, with a range of three inclining pilaſters, ſupporting ſemi-circular arches; the pilaſters are variouſly cut in ſquares and circles, emboſſed with flowers, figures of animals, and the zig-zag ornaments: Their capitals are finiſhed with figures of animals; and the outward arch is decorated with groteſque figures in circles. At the eaſt end of this aile is another gateway into the cloiſter, but not ſo large as the laſt deſcribed, forming a portico in the thickneſs of the wall, by inclining pilaſters and arches; the outward bow is ornamented with a band of thorns, the ſecond a rich cordage, the third embattled or dentelled, the next a fillet of roſes, and the laſt a double zig-zag.

The great croſs aile, or middle tranſept of this church, has an aile towards the eaſt at both ends; the entrance into the choir, projecting in the center, equal thereto. This tranſept is one hundred and ſeventy feet in length, and fifty-ſeven feet in width, including the aile; without which it is only forty feet from the centers of the great columns which ſupport the dome. The clock anciently ſtood behind Jeſus's altar, in the middle of the nave, fronting the choir door, but is now placed at the ſouth end of the tranſept, and was built in its preſent elegant form, in 1632, in dean Hunt's time. The body of this tranſept is ſeparated from its ailes at each end by two round pillars, and one cluſtered one; one of the round pillars is grooved in a [Page 235] ſpiral form, and the other in the zig-zag figure: Thoſe ailes are now incloſed with a wood ſcreen; that on the ſouth end being fitted up for the morning ſervice at ſix o'clock; the other to the north not of preſent uſe: Each aile is lighted by three windows to the eaſt, and one at the end, and anciently had three altars: In the ſouth limb, Howell's, or the altar of the holy virgin, next to the choir; the lady of Boulton's altar, alſo dedicated to the holy virgin, and the altar of St Fides, and St Thomas the Apoſtle, the laſt: Before Howell's altar, prior John de Hemingburg was interred, and the priors William de Ebcheſter, and Robert de Ebcheſter, before the lady of Boulton's altar *. In the north limb, St Benedict's altar ſtood next the choir; the [Page 236] next St Gregory's; and the altar of St Nicholas and St Giles the laſt to the north: Before St Benedict's altar were interred priors Berrington and Weſſington; and prior Foſſour before the altar of St Nicholas and St Giles, he being the firſt prior buried within the walls of this church. The windows of this tranſept were elegantly glazed with painted glaſs, of which little remains. The picture of St Bede, an elegant figure in a blue habit, is yet perfect, and part of the repreſentation of the crucifixion, as deſcribed in the notes *. The north window was made by the munificent prior Foſſour, under a pointed arch, as alſo three windows in the aile; but the [Page 237] great window going ſoon after to decay, was reſtored by prior Caſtell, who acceded in 1494, and ornamented it with much painting: There is a large window on the weſt ſide of the tranſept, near the end. The ſouth window, before deſcribed in the notes, is called the Te Deum window. The choir is now incloſed with a ſcreen of oak, covered in a bold ſtile with feſtoons of fruits and flowers, and an entablature of a rich foliage pattern. This takes place of the old pannelled work, on which were painted the images of the great patrons and benefactors of this church; under each of which was an hiſtorical inſcriptions in letters of gold *. (The ſcreen at Hexham, deſcribed in the View of Northumberland, and by Mr Pennant, gives an idea of what our cathedral paintings were.) The ailes are incloſed by handſome gates, [Page 238] carved with foliage and open work: Above the ſcreen, ſtands an excellent organ *, richly ornamented . There are brackets for ſtatues againſt the pillars of the tranſept, on each ſide of the entrance into the choir. In the center of this tranſept is the great dome or lanthern, ſupported on four cluſtered pillars, from the floor to the center of the roof one hundred and ſixty feet in height. This being built [Page 239] in the beginning of the thirteenth century, has many marks of a refined taſte: Round the bottom of the dome is a hanging gallery ſupported on corbles, each intermediate one ſculptured with a human figure; the breaſt work or battlement of the gallery is formed in open roſe work: The ſuperſtructure is ornamented in pannels with pilaſters, terminating in tabernacle work: There are two long windows in each front, ſeparated by a round pilaſter, whoſe capital is pierced in flowers and foliage; pilaſters of the ſame order are placed in the angles, and from the eight pilaſters ſpring the groins of the arched roof or vault of the dome, which are braced at intervals, and finiſhed with a circle in the center, in a light and beautiful taſte.

The aſcent from the tranſept is by two marble ſteps to the choir, entering which, the viſitor is ſtruck with the magnificence and ſolemnity of the ſcene. The choir is one hundred and twenty feet in length, and in width equal to the center aile of the nave, the chief pillars running parallel through the whole building. The ſide ailes are not ſo wide as thoſe of the nave, the width of the choir being only ſeventy-ſix feet. The floor is laid with black and white marble*. The ſtalls are elegant; the [Page 240] biſhop's ſtall being on the right-hand ſide of the entrance, the dean's on the other; [Page 241] one for the temporal chancellor on the dean's left-hand, and thoſe of the prebendaries [Page 242] and archdeacons in ſucceſſion; the minor canons next; one at the extremity [Page 243] towards the eaſt on the ſouth ſide, for the vicar-general of the dioceſe; and others on both ſides, for the reception of the judges of aſſize, ſheriff, mayor, and corporation of the city, &c. on ſuch accuſtomed days as they attend divine ſervice there; the whole finiſhed in a magnificent ſtile with tabernacle work. Beneath the ſtalls are ſeats for the lay-ſingers, choriſters, almſhouſe-men, and ſcholars of the foundation. Advancing towards the altar, where the ſtalls terminate, the pavement is elevated one ſtep, and on the right-hand is the biſhop's throne, erected by biſhop Hatfield, over the vault prepared for his own monument, and built in a ſtile conſiſtent with the proud idea he held of the dignity of his mitre. Mr Pennant ſpeaking of it, ſays, ‘In the choir is the biſhop's throne, elevated to an uncommon height, erected in times of the triumph of ſuperſtition. A painful aſcent to the preſent prelate, whoſe wiſh is directed more to diſtinguiſh himſelf by benevolence and ſincerity, than any exterior trappings or badges of dignity.’ The aſcent to the throne is by many ſteps; in the center is a chair of ſtate, richly ornamented, and canopied over head with tabernacle work, coloured and gilt; on each ſide, the throne is lined with tapeſtry, and otherwiſe handſomely furniſhed, large enough to receive the chief temporal officers, with the ſervants who are about the prelate's perſon: The biſhop, when he goes to his throne, is always preceded by a perſon [Page 244] bearing a maſſy gilded mace, in diſtinction of his ſecular power. Chambrè tells us, Novum ad auſtralem partem chori...juxta ſtallos monachorum curioſum opus conſtruxit, in medio cujus ſtallum epiſcopale, imaginibus ſubtiliter ſculptis, ſumptibus copioſis in operarios largiſſime impenſis, honorifice circumſeptum, fecit & decenter ordinavit *. The images are all removed. Below the throne are ſtalls for the prebendaries' ladies: On the oppoſite ſide of the choir, where biſhop Skirlaw's tomb was, are other ſtalls for the ladies of the biſhops, and dean's families and others; and cloſe adjoining is the pulpit, finely ornamented with inlaid figures in the Italian ſtile, repreſenting ſome of the apoſtles, the ground Swediſh oak; the figures are almoſt as large as life, ſo artfully ſhadowed as to appear like a delicate painting in bronze: The ſounding board is ſupported by one column. The opening into the ſide ailes to which you deſcend by five marble ſteps, is by a gate, and two ſide lights of open tracery work, in wood, finely executed and finiſhed above with tabernacle work. The choir comprehends four pillars on each ſide, two of them cluſtered, and two round, the round ones cut in the ſpiral figure: The double gallery above the ſide ailes is formed of circular arches, each of the lower openings divided by a ſingle column. The roof was repaired, or rather new vaulted by prior Hotoun, who acceded in 1289; it is of elegant Gothic work, the ribs of the arches terminating in points ornamented with roſes, the fillets pierced in roſes and croſſes: Some of the decorations of the center roſes are ſingular; one next to the organ contains a human figure, with three round balls in an apron, not unuſual among the heathen emblematical effigies. From the altar rails eaſtward, the whole work appears nearly of the ſame date, and by the architecture of this part of the edifice, we are led to conclude that the building originally terminated here, and was opened further eaſtward to form a connection with the eaſt tranſept: The columns which riſe at the altar rail, are little more than the plain facing of a common wall, ornamented with long ſmall round pilaſters, ſingle and belted in the middle, their capitals pierced, decorated with figures of animals, and finiſhed above with tabernacle work; the whole appearing like ornaments placed occaſionally there: The opening of the gallery in this part is different from the reſt of the church, conſiſting of three pointed arches, ſupported by columns whoſe capitals are richly pierced, and the fillets of the arches are pierced and highly decorated; there is alſo an interior pillar ſupporting a groined vaulting. Here the building appears to have been broken off and the eaſt wall removed. The vaulting of the roof is continued, and over the altar table finiſhes with a fine pointed arch, ſupported on cluſtered pillars, ranging with the ſide of the eaſt tranſept; the capitals and the fillets or mouldings of the arch are highly finiſhed with pierced work, and bear no degree of ſimilitude to any of the more weſtern parts of this edifice. Within the altar rails eaſtward, from the plain columns before deſcribed, are four ſeats on each ſide of the altar table, for the officiating prieſts to reſt, formed of pillars, ſupporting pinnacle work, of the ſame materials and deſign as the work behind the altar, and moſt probably erected at the ſame time: Theſe ſeats are cloſed from the ailes behind with a wall, which proves the occaſionality, by [Page 245] being diſſimilar to the reſt of the aile*. The altar ſcreen, which is very beautiful, is thus ſpoken of by Chambrè: ‘The marble tomb for St Cuthbert's feretory being finiſhed, at the like inſtance of the prior and monks, lord John Nevil gave to the church the work above the altar, called lavadoſe, which coſt him ſix hundred marks, and was encloſed in caſes, and ſent from London by ſhipping.’ This ſcreen is in pinnacle work, of plaſter of Paris, with pedeſtals for ſtatues, richly canopied: Was put up at the expence of the convent, and finiſhed by prior John Berrington, of Walworth, in the year 1380, when the high altar was dedicated with much ſolemnity.

[Page 246] By a door at each end of the table, you enter into St Cuthbert's feretory, thus ſpoken of by Mr Pennant, ‘Behind the altar ſtood the ſhrine of St Cuthbert, once the richeſt in Great-Britain: The marks of pilgrims' feet in the worn floor ſtill evince the multitude of votaries: At the diſſolution his body was taken out of the tomb, and interred beneath.’ It is now ſtripped of every ornament; is thirty-ſeven feet in length, and twenty-ſix in width, eaſtward from the altar ſcreen; raiſed with ſtone work about eight feet high, and ſurrounded with wainſcot, in which no great elegance appears; it is formed with apertures divided by columns, and ornamented with an entablature: The pillars are finiſhed with light pinnacles of tabernacle work: In ancient times it is preſumed the wainſcot was covered within with rich hangings. The marble monument which John lord Nevil gave to incloſe St Cuthbert's remains, is no more; a large blue ſtone is placed in the floor, where his bones reſt, and it is preſumed have long teſtified their corruptibility*. In the choir biſhop Beaumont and biſhop Pilkington were interred.

[Page 247] The ailes of the choir are vaulted like the ailes of the nave. In the north aile, [Page 248] oppoſite to biſhop Skirlaw's tomb, is a ſtone ſeat with the ſhields of his arms. There St Blaſe's altar ſtood. What is ſaid in the ancient deſcriptions of this church, touching a porch called the anchorage, of which no remains is to be traced, or of the ſtairs deſcribed to adjoin to the north door of St Cuthbert's feretory, confirms our judgment that the whole eaſt end of this edifice was altered in the thirteenth century; and it is to be obſerved, that the columns at the ends of the ailes are [Page 261]
  • A Johannes de Neville, dus Latim. ob. ſ. p. 9 Hen. VI.
  • A Matilda, fil Tho. I [...]ni Clifford.
  • Matilda,
  • Alicia,
  • Philippa,
  • Margareta,
  • Anna,
  • Margeria,
  • et Elizabetha.
  • B Elizab.
  • C Radulphus N co. Weſtmer. obiit 4 Hen. VI.
  • Margareta, fil. Hugonis co. Stafford, ux. 1ma.
  • Radulphus, ob 21 Oct. an. 1426, 5 Hen. VI.
  • Maria, fil. Tho. Ferrers, de Overſley.
  • Johannes, ob. 2 Hen. VI vivo patre.
  • Elizabetha. fil. Tho. Holland com. Cant.
  • Johannes Caeſus in Praelio de Towton, 1 Ed. IV.
  • Anna, relicto Johannis Nepotis ſui.
  • Radulfus, co. Weſt.
  • Margareta, fil. R. Booth de Barton, co. Lanc. mil.
  • Anna, ux. Will. Coniers, mil.
  • Radulfus ob. vivo patre.
  • Editha, fil. W. Sands.
  • Radulfus, com. Weſtmerl. ob. 15 Hen. VIII. Regiſt. Antiq. Dec. et cap. Dunelm. vol. V. p. 131.
  • Catharina fil. Edw. Dux, Buckingham.
  • Eleanora,
  • Maria,
  • Th. Danby, mil.
  • Dorothea,
  • Johi, com. Oxon.
  • Johanna.
  • Margareta,
  • Hen com. Rut.
  • Elizabetha,
  • Tho d'Dacre.
  • Eleanora,
  • Brianus Stapilton, mil.
  • Anna.
  • Fulco Greville, mil.
  • Urſula.
  • Henricus, co. Weſtmer. ob. 5 Elizabetha.
  • Jana, fil. Tho. com. Rutland.
  • Carolus, co. Weſtm. attinctus 13 Eliza.
  • Anna, fil. Henrici, co. Surriae.
  • Catharina,
  • Tho. Gray, de Chillingham, mil.
  • 1 Eleanora, ux. Williel. Polham, mil.
  • Eleanora, ob. innupta.
  • Margareta,
  • Nich. Pudſey.
  • Anna, David Engleby.
  • 2 Catharina, ux. Johannis Conſtable, mil.
  • 3 Maria.
  • 4 Adelina.
  • Margareta, fil. R. Chomley, mil. relicta Hen. Gaſcoin, mil ux. 2d.
  • Margareta.
  • Elizabetha.
  • Thomas.
  • Edwardus.
  • Chriſtopher.
  • Radulphus.
  • Cuthbertus.
  • Radulfus. co. Weſtm. ob. 2 Rich. III.
  • Elizabeth, fil. H. Perci Hotſpur dicti.
  • Johannes, ob. 29 Hen. VI. S. P. Anna, ux. P. Walliae, et Rich. D. Glouceſt.
  • Johanna, fil. Johan Ganda [...]. D. Lan. ux. 2d.
  • 1 Ricardus com. Sarum.
  • 2 Wilielmus das Falconbridge.
  • 4 Edwardus dus Bergavenniae.
  • 5 Robertus Epiſcopus Dunel.
  • 6 Cuthbertus.
  • 7 Henricus.
  • 8 Thomas.
  • 3 Georgius dus Latimer, ob. 9 Hen. IV.
  • Elizab. fil. Rich. de Bello Campo, co. Warwick.
  • Henricus Neville Caeſus in Praelio de Edgcote, 9 Ed. IV. vivo patre.
  • **** fil. Domini Berners.
  • Ricardus, N. dus Latimer, ob. 22 Hen. VIII.
  • Anna, fil. Humf. Stafford. de Grafton, co. Wig.
  • Johan. N. Dus Latimer.
  • Catharina, fil. T. Parr, de Kendall, mil. relicta, Hen. VIII. ux. 2d.
  • Margareta.
  • Johannes, D. Latimer.
  • Lucia, fil. Hen. co Wigorn.
  • 1 Catharina, ux. Henr. com. Northumb.
  • 2 Dorothea, ux. Tho. com. Oxon.
  • 3 Lucia, ux. Will. Coruroallis, mil.
  • 4 **** ux. Johannes Danvers, mil.
  • Dorothea, ſoror et cohaeres, Johan. com. Oxon, ux. 1ſt.
  • [Page] Illuſtriſſimum Nevillorum genus hoſpes eſt in Hiſtoria Anglicana qui non novit? et ſi longa proavorum ſeries tam a regio ſanguine Saxonum quam a primoribus Normannorum deducta, ſummiſque cum honoribus tum et opibus per multa retro ſecula clareſcens quenquam nobilitare poſſit palmam omnibus fere regni proceribus familia haec merito praeripere audeat. Nulla equidem plures aut vegetiores Stirps ramos unquam protruſit: hinc etenim Comites Weſtmerlandiae, Sariſburiae, et Warwici; hinc Marchio Montiſacuti; hinc Dux Bedfordiae; hinc Barones Furnivallis, Latimeri, Falcon-bridgiae, et Bergavenniae Germinarunt; cum vero Richmondiae limitibus excedere noſtri non ſit inſtituti ſtemmata ſolum Comitum Weſtmerlandiae et Baronum Latinerorum hujus erunt loci.
  • Waltheof.
  • Uctredus, Comes Northumbriae.
  • Crinan
  • Maldred.
  • Coſpatricus, fil. Maldredi.
  • Coſpatricus, (vid. Sym. Dun. p. 79, 80.)
  • Waltheof.
  • Dolphin, fil. Maldredi.
  • Robertus, fil. Maldredi dus de Raby.
  • Iſabella, fil. unica et haeres.
  • Galfridus de Neville dus de Raby.
  • Galfridus de Neville, ob. 13 Ed. I.
  • Margareta, fil. et haeres Johannis de Longvillers.
  • Johannes.
  • Robertus, ob. 10 Ed. I.
  • Ida, Rob. Bertram, vid.
  • * Robertus de Neville, junr. ob. vivo patre 55 Hen. III. June 6th, 1427.
  • Maria, fil. et una coh. Radulphi fil. Ranulphi.
  • Radulphus de Neville, ob. 5 Ed. III.
  • Eufemia, fil. John Clavering, ux. 1ſt.
  • Robertus Pavo Septentrionis, ob. vivo patre.
  • Margeria, fil. Marmaduci Thweng, ux. 2d.
  • Radulfus de Neville, Dus de Middleham, ob. 41 Ed. III.
  • Alicia, fil. Hugonis de Audley.
  • Johannes de Neville, ob. 12 Rich. II.
  • Elizabetha fil. et h. dui Latimer de Danby, ux. 2d.
  • A
  • Matilda Perci, uxor ejus 1.
  • B
  • Elgiva, fil. Ethelredi, regis Angl.
  • Aldgitha.
  • Gilbertus de Neville, Normanus.
  • Galfridus de Neville.
  • Galfridus de Neville, ob. 5 Rich. I.
  • Emma, fil. et haer. Bertram de Bulmer, Dus de Brancepeth.
  • Iſabella, fil. unica et haeres.
  • Henricus, ob. ſ. p. 11 H. III.
[Page 249] cluſtered, of various ſmall pilaſters, like thoſe of the whole eaſt tranſept: The arches are pointed, and with the capitals of the columns richly wrought in pierced work like thoſe of the high altar: This aile is lighted by four windows, three of which are of pointed arches, and two made by John Tickhill, in prior Foſſour's time. At the eaſt end of the ſouth aile, was alſo an ancient porch, deſcribed to be ſimilar to that on the north where the rood of Scotland was placed; of which there are no remains: Under the laſt window the wall is ornamented with pilaſters and tabernacle work, and there is a door-way (now ſhut up) which led into the cemetery garth*. [Page 250] In this aile are the ſacriſtaria and veſtry rooms built by prior Hotoun, and oppoſite thereto the tomb of biſhop Hatfield, ‘who died in 1381, ornamented with as many coats of arms as would ſerve any German prince*.’ Under the vaulting is a recumbent effigy of the biſhop in his epiſcopal attire, of white marble, the work [Page 251] around it gaudily ornamented with gilding and green, and every where covered with blazonings of arms *; of which we have given remarks in the notes to that prelate's life. A corner of this ſuperb monument reſts on an ancient tombſtone, and has preſerved it from the general deſtruction which ſwept away the monumental inſcriptions, when the new pavement was laid: A miſtaken zeal in all reformations has preſſed the parties headlong into an extreme, in many points as reprehenſible as that which they tried to eſcape; for a vehement deſire of eradicating ſuperſtition, urged ſacrilegious hands againſt the monuments of thoſe whoſe memories were dear to the learned, whoſe examples and virtues were worthy the emulation of ſucceeding ages, and with a contempt that was at once irreligious and brutal, reformiſts ruſhed forward to deface memorials which they had not merit to purchaſe. To ſweep away from the eye the mementos of monks, priors, and prelates of the condemned church, the tombſtones were torn up, leſt they ſhould reproach the living with remembrance of the excellencies of the dead: A new pavement was laid down in the beginning of the laſt century. The monument which prompted this digreſſion, ſo far as the inſcription is legible, covers the remains of Emery de Lomley, prior of the cell of Lathom, in Lancaſhire, dependant on this church; who was one that voted Robert de Grayſtanes might have the See of Durham . Two windows in this aile were made in prior Foſſour's time by the feretory.

At the eaſt end of the ſide ailes are gates leading into the eaſt tranſept, commonly called the Nine Altars , the deſcent into which is by ſeveral ſteps: It is one hundred and thirty feet in length, and in width from the ſcreen of the high altar fifty-one feet, making the whole length of the church four hundred and eleven feet. St Cuthbert's feretory projects twenty-ſeven feet into the tranſept, and is elevated [Page 252] about eight feet above the pavement. This tranſept is lighted by one large window [Page 253] at each end, under pointed arches, with much tracery, in the glaſs of one of which [Page 254] was depicted the hiſtory of St Cuthbert, and in the other the hiſtory of Joſeph, both now totally defaced: To the eaſt it is lighted by a double range of windows, the lower tier conſiſting of nine long windows; in the center of the upper tier is a large circular window, called St Catherine's window, having three long windows on each ſide, the arches of which are all pointed. By the engraving given from Mr Nicholſon's drawing and admeaſurement of the whole eaſt end of the church, the reader will diſtinguiſh the ſimilarity of ſtile in this tranſept and the tower; and, we hope, will be convinced that the obſervation as to their date is not ill grounded: On the projections of this front are two effigies, in the printed deſcriptions of the church ſaid to repreſent biſhop William on the ſouth, who began the preſent edifice; and on the north biſhop Flambard, who tranſlated St Cuthbert's body to the ſhrine prepared for him therein; the firſt attired in his mitre and epiſcopal inſignia, the other having his head uncovered: But it is more probable they are the effigies of biſhop Farnham*, and his contemporary prior Thomas of Melſonby, for biſhop Anthony Beke, who died in 1310, was interred near the altar of St Michael, and the wall was broken through to admit his remains; which is a proof this part of the edifice and its altars were then made. We will conclude theſe obſervations by ſaying, it is preſumed this moſt elegant part of the edifice was finiſhed by prior Richard de Hotoun, who, it is certain, roofed the choir, and acceded to the priory in 1289. The pilaſters of this tranſept, from whence riſe the groins of the roof, are of an angular projection, light and elegant: On each ſide of the great window the pilaſters conſiſt of a cluſter of ſmall circular columns, one of larger dimenſion in front, and ſix on each ſide to form the projecting angle, belted in two places at intervals, with a triple roll, the capitals pierced in flowers; the pilaſters between each window are compoſed of a front column, and four on each ſide, in an angler projection, belted and capitalled as the larger ones; every other column is of black marble, the intermediate ones of white free ſtone, which had a beautiful effect before they were, from the miſtaken zeal of reformation, daubed over and concealed as they now remain, with waſhing and oker. Under each tier of windows a gallery runs the whole length of the tranſept: The nine altars were placed one under each window to the eaſt, the wall ornamented with ſhort pilaſters and open niches in the roſe figure, exactly ſimilar to the gallery of the dome: The vaulted roof is ribbed, the ribs meet on three circles; the ſilletings of the ribs are pierced like thoſe of the choir, with roſes and croſſes: The circles are beautifully ornamented, the moſt northern one being pierced with a rich garland of flowers; that in the center is ſculptured with four figures finely relieved, repreſenting the evangeliſts [Page 255] kneeling, with their proper emblems: The ſouthern circle is of elegant ſculpture, exhibiting the revelation of Chriſt's nativity.

The gallilee at the weſt end of the church, as was obſerved before, was by ancient authors ſaid to be appropriated by biſhop Pudſey, for the reception of women, being originally deſigned for the ſervice of proceſſions: It is in breadth from eaſt to weſt fifty feet, and from north to ſouth eighty feet; divided into five ailes, by four rows of pillars, running eaſt and weſt; three pillars and two pilaſters, in each range; the pillars formed of four ſmall round columns placed together, whoſe baſe is only two feet ſquare; the pilaſters conſiſt of two round columns, detached from the walls, their capitals ornamented with a leaf and mouldings; the arches are circular, and cut underneath and on the ſides with the zig-zag figure; the roof is not vaulted *: It is lighted with three large windows to the weſt, with flat or elliptic arches, and one ſmaller window at each extremity under pointed arches; to the ſouth, four windows with pointed arches; the north ſide is built up, and uſed for the regiſter's office: The old entrance was from the north, by a ſmall yard adjoining to the church-yard, ſo that the women need not come within the gates of the church: The door circular, with pilaſters and mouldings, greatly decayed. The gallilee on the ſouth ſide is now ſtalled and benched for the biſhop's conſiſtory court. In the center of the eaſt wall was an altar dedicated to the [Page 256] [Page 257] [Page 258] holy virgin *; to the ſouth of which lies the marble ſtone which covers the remains [Page 259] of Venerable Bede *; his altar being immediately behind Sir Geo. Wheler's monument: Adjoining to the altar of the holy Virgin is the tomb of cardinal Langley . From the mode of architecture obſerved in this place, together with [Page 260] the circumſtance of the arms above the entrances, we are led to conjecture that the gallilee in the preſent form is to be attributed to cardinal Langley, in the beginning of the fifteenth century, who, as was before obſerved, expended in reparations and additional works therein, 499l. 6s. 7d. The form of the pillars, and the center windows, with the various fragments of ornaments which appear in the outward wall to the weſt, ſtrengthen the ſuppoſition that the preſent edifice was the cardinal's. Bede died at Jarrow monaſtery in 734; was tranſlated to this church by biſhop Pudſey; and in 1340, found his final reſting place under the care of Richard de Barnardcaſtle in the gallilee, who was interred near the remains *: The like veneration induced cardinal Langley to repair and embelliſh this edifice, as he choſe to have his body depoſited near the ſaint: The cardinal alſo founded a chantry in the gallilee, to the honour of the bleſſed Virgin, and "glorious confeſſor St Cuthbert ." Biſhop Nevil granted a licence for erecting a guild or fraternity to the honour of St Cuthbert, in the gallilee, with a power to purchaſe lands not exceeding ten pounds a year .

[Page 261] The cloiſter* on the north ſide of the church is a quadrangle of one hundred [Page 262] and forty-ſeven feet, having eleven windows on each front, which it is ſaid were [Page 263] glazed, but are now open; the mullions and tracery were lately repaired in a neat Gothic ſtile. Entering by the weſt door from the church, the ſtairs leading to the dormitory are immediately on your right-hand, extending the whole length of the weſt cloiſter, forty feet wide, ill lighted, and a melancholy manſion: The center is flagged about ſix feet wide, the ſides having been boarded and encloſed for the monks cells: Under the dormitory was the ſong-ſchool and treaſury*. The common-houſe, [Page 264] the infirmary, the gueſt-hall, and other offices, in uſe before the diſſolution, are now converted to other purpoſes, for the convenience of the prebendaries.

The cloiſters were erected at the expence of biſhop Skirlaw and cardinal Langley, the former giving thereto 600l. and the latter 238l. 17s. 6d. *: They are ceiled in pannels with Iriſh oak, ornamented, particularly in the eaſt walk, with ſhields of the arms of various illuſtrious perſonages, patrons of the church, blazoned in colours, moſt of which, from being expoſed to the air, are now greatly defaced. In the [Page 265] north walk of the cloiſters were caſes for books for the uſe of the monks: In the [Page 266] eaſt walk was the old library, now converted into offices for the regiſter, a council chamber, and other conveniencies for the chapter's buſineſs: In this walk is the chapter-houſe, in length ſeventy-five feet, and thirty-five in breadth, a neat building, in the form of a theatre, vaulted with ſtone, without any pillars; the ſide walls are ornamented with pilaſters and interſecting arches, like the church: It is lighted by five windows at the ſemicircular end to the eaſt, two ſide lights, and one to the weſt: The groins of the vault ſpring from corbles ſupported by human figures, in the manner Atlas is uſually repreſented; the mouldings of the ribs are cut with the zig-zag figure: three rows of ſtone benches, one above another, run round the building: To the eaſtward of the center is a ſtone chair, with much carved work, the biſhop's ſeat in old times when he viſited, and wherein the prelates are inſtalled. Adjoining to the chapter-houſe, on the ſouth, was a priſon for offending monks; and at the ſouth end of the cloiſter there is a paſſage into the cemetery garth. The building of the chapter-houſe was originally the work of biſhop Rufus, about the year 1136, but it was afterwards vaulted and embelliſhed by ſucceeding prelates, particularly by biſhop Skirlaw, to whom much of the preſent edifice is aſcribed. In this place were interred at the eaſt end, biſhop Robt de Inſula, and biſhop Kellow; further to the weſt, biſhops Rufus, William de Sancta Barbara, and biſhop Flambard; near to thoſe biſhop Pudſey, and Philip of Poictiers; weſtward of thoſe, biſhops Richard de Mariſco, Aldune, Walcher, Turgot the prior, and biſhop Stichill; and on each ſide of the entrance, biſhops Walter de Kirkham, and Richard de Farnham: Robert de Grayſtanes was alſo interred here. Davies and the old roll place ſome other biſhops in the chapter-houſe, but are the only authorities we find. The monks were buried in the cemetery-garth, and there ſtood that venerable monument Ethelwold's ſtone croſs, which was removed from [Page 267] Lindisfarn: Leland ſaw it there*: It ſhared the ſacrilegious deſtruction which deans Horn and Whittingham impiouſly committed on our religious antiquities. The ſouth walk of the cloiſter has the library, begun by dean Sudbury, on the ſcite of the old frater-houſe, and finiſhed by his ſucceſſor, towards which he charged his executors with a ſufficient ſum: It is an elegant room, adorned with ſome tolerable
[Page 268] portraits of biſhops, and ſtored with an excellent collection of books: Here are depoſited many Roman inſcriptions, and other remains found in this and the adjoining county of Northumberland. Such as relate to this county will be noted in the ſequel, in their due place*. The cloiſter-yard once contained, in a temporary erection, the remains of St Cuthbert, before his laſt tranſlation into the feretory of the preſent church: His ſtatue was afterwards erected in the ſame place. [Page 269] The whole ſquare of the cloiſter is vaulted underneath, ſupported on ſhort columns, and totally dark, in its various ailes like a labyrinth, from whence the return is not eaſily found; a melancholy receſs for religious ſeverity, penitence, or puniſhment! It is formed of excellent maſon work, and did it not ſtrike the viſitor with horrible ideas of miſtaken auſterity, is as admirable as many other parts of the ſacred edifices. The only entrance is a narrow and low arched way under the library, opening into the deanry kitchen court. Hegge ſays, ‘The ſubterraneous paſſages under this church (as in other abbies) are manie; but what end theſe ſubſtructions under ground, ſhould have in the makers intent, whether to conceal their treaſures in tyme of invaſion, or for worſe purpoſes, I cannot determine. One of which cavernes (where ſometime ſtood Ethelwold's croſſe) covered with a round ſtone, leadeth to the caſtle.’

At the ſouth-eaſt corner of the cloiſter is a paſſage into the ſpacious oblong ſquare of prebendal houſes, about one hundred and forty paces in length, and ninety in width: It is much broken into by the deanry garden, which ſpoils its appearance. There is a fountain of water at the upper end, for the ſupply of all the families, [Page 270] brought in pipes from Elvet-moor, the diſtance of a mile*; and alſo a pump well in the ſquare. The prior's hall in the deanry is not altogether in the ancient ſtate, but yet large enough to receive two hundred perſons at ſupper, on a late entertainment given by the preſent dean: The ancient ſouth window remains: The gateway into the Bailey-ſtreet ſtands in its original form, built by prior Caſtel a ſhort time before the diſſolution, as before-mentioned : The kitchen is curious, being of an octagonal form, vaulted, with a cupola light, the chimnies concealed, and in other particulars greatly ſimilar to the abbot's kitchen at Glaſtonbury.

Adjoining to the college or ſquare is a terrace walk, one hundred and ſixty paces long, raiſed on arches, commanding a pleaſant view of the river and its delightful banks: This, like other munificent works of the chapter, is open at all times for the recreation and pleaſure of the public.

1.3. The Pariſh of St Mary-le-Bow, or the Great; commonly called the North-Bailey.

Leaving the cathedral church by the north door, you paſs to the Place-Green, through a ſpacious burial ground . and at the weſt end thereof, facing the church, [Page 271] is the grammar-ſchool and maſter's houſe. On the eaſt ſide of the Place-Green, which is a ſquare of near one hundred paces, are the ſchool-houſes, firſt erected by biſhop Langley *, and afterwards reſtored by biſhop Cofin ; with an hoſpital in the center, founded by biſhop Langley, and particularly noticed in the ſequel. On the oppoſite ſide are the ſeſſions-houſes, to the building of which biſhop Cofin greatly contributed; we are told he gave 1000l. towards public erections, and among them the ſeſſions-houſe and exchequer are named, which latter contains the hall where the chancery-court is held, and offices for the auditor, curſitor, prothonotary, county-clerk, and regiſter, originally built by biſhop Nevill . Before the new ſeſſions-houſes were erected, the adjoining building was uſed for the law courts, under which are ſtables; the upper chamber is a mean and melancholy place for ſo important a purpoſe: The ornaments of the ſeat of juſtice were removed from thence in 1649 §. Near to the old ſeſſions-houſe is the library, founded and ſtocked [Page 272] with books by biſhop Cofin; adjoining is the exchequer, which cloſes that ſide of the ſquare up to the gates entering into the outward court of the caſtle. At the north eaſt corner of the Green, Queen's-ſtreet, anciently called Owen or Ounſgate, deſcends to the north gate, now the gaol; and at the ſouth-eaſt corner Sidgate, vulgarly called Dun Cow-lane, leads to King's-gate, croſſing the North-Bailey: On the north ſide of the ſquare is the caſtle: There are few diſtinct remains of the wall which defended this part, between the caſtle and the church; the name of the broken walls being the chief memorial of that fortification.

The Place-Green, as before noted, we apprehend was the ground where criminals were executed; it being the ancient cuſtom to perform ſuch acts of juſtice before the walls of caſtles, and not to carry offenders from their priſons to diſtant places, or to delay execution after ſentence. In the conventions entered into between the biſhop and prior in the thirteenth century, and ratified in 1553, are theſe words Vel cum aliquis in ead. judicatus fuerit &c. executio judicii fiet. per ballivos pr. libere & ſine impedimento ad Placeam, &c. In other records it is called Virid. Placea, or the Green-Place: A grant to William de Orchard, 1365, of a garden, ſup' Placeam *: In 1367, a grant of waſte ground, ſup' Placeam, with many more: 1454, to Robert Sotheron, parte orient. Placei, Dun. boundering to the ſouth, on a ground called Coneyor-Garth, where the mint-maſter had his tenements: In 1395, one Ward took of the lord a houſe ſuper Placeam, within the caſtle of Durham, called the moneyer's houſe, together with a chamber on the other ſide of the gate, called Owenſzate, to hold the ſame until ſome mint-maſter ſhould come, who would carry on his buſineſs of coining therein . We would not have multiplied theſe proofs, but to deduce from thence the following obſervations: It has been apprehended that the mintage of our prelates was carried on in ſome ſtrong place within the gates of the caſtle; or as others would have it, in Silver-ſtreet, from its name; whereas the records prove the mint-maſter's houſe was on the Place-Green; which was ſtiled to be in the caſtle, as being within the ballium and fortifications thereof.

There were anciently belonging to the monaſtery two ſchools, one in the cloiſter where the novices were taught, in a wainſcotted hall oppoſite to the treaſury door. The maſter was one of the oldeſt and moſt learned of the monks, and the ſtudents were ſupplied, upon his report, with neceſſaries from the chamberlain of the houſe; for they had no appointed ſalary. If any of them ſhewed a particular genius and love of literature, he was ſent to Oxford; thoſe of meaner capacities purſued their [Page 273] ſtudies under the diſcipline of the houſe, were taught to perform the ſervice of the choir, and in the end admitted to ſing maſs; at which ſtage they had twenty ſhillings a year as wages: They had commons at a table at the eaſt end of the frater-houſe, and during the meſs one of them read a portion of the holy ſcriptures. Their lodging was at the ſouth end of the dormitory. The other ſchool was in the infirmary out of the abbey gates, where the boys of the almery were taught; they meſſed after the novices, and had the remains of their table: Their maſter had eccleſiaſtical duty, ſaying maſs twice a week at St Mary Magdalen's chapel, near Kepier, once a week at Kimbleſworth, and every holiday and Friday in the infirmary chapel, where four women conſtantly attended, who dwelt in the infirmary, to take care of the ſick, and were ſupplied with proviſions from the priors table*. Theſe appointments, with the reſt of the monaſtic diſpoſitions, were extinguiſhed by the diſſolution, and perhaps occaſioned the inſtitution of the other ſchools after the ſettlement of the chapter. John Newton, maſter of St Edmond's hoſpital, in Gateſhead, and John Thoralby, rector of Gateſhead, and afterwards of Whitburn, clerks, by biſhop Langley's licence, dated the 14th of June, 1414, founded two chanteries at the altars of the bleſſed Virgin and St Cuthbert, in the gallilee, and appointed two chaplains, one of whom was to teach poor boys grammar, and the other ſinging, in ſuch place as that prelate or his executors ſhould appoint: Their ſtipend of forty ſhillings yearly each, iſſued out of lands in Hardwick, nigh Norton, Ryton, Boldon, Caſſop, and Owengate, in the North-Bailey. The boys, it is preſumed, from the inſtrument of confirmation by the prior and convent were to conſiſt of thirty of the monaſtery almery: The ſong-maſter, with ſome of his ſcholars, were to come to church on the principal feſtivals in a ſurplice, and ſing; the others to be preſent on the like occaſions; and no women were to be permitted among them: The chantry clerks were not ſuffered to lie a night out of their houſe, without licence of the biſhop, or his ſpiritual chancellor, under the penalty of forfeiting the chantry; neither might they, (with any licence) be abſent above forty days conjunctim aut diviſim in a whole year, and then to have a ſubſtitute. They could not be admitted without licence of the biſhop, or during the vacancy of the prior and chapter, in which expreſs mention was to be made of their taking the oath of reſidence. The biſhop had power to add to or detract from the articles of foundation, to appoint ſtatutes, or alter and explain them at pleaſure .

There appears ſome confuſion touching theſe chantries; whether only one was founded by Newton and Thoralby, and the other was the act of biſhop Langley; for in the nomination of ſome of the clerks, one of them is called biſhop Langley's chantry. Biſhop Nevil, in the firſt year of his epiſcopacy, granted licence to the executors of biſhop Langley, to purchaſe lands of forty pounds per annum value, for maintenance of theſe chantry clerks . Mr Thomas Rud, who was maſter of the chapter ſchool in the church-yard, had much occaſion to look into thoſe matters, and was of opinion, that Newton and Thoralby were in fact the original [Page 274] founders, giving ſtipends of forty ſhillings each; but that biſhop Langley afterwards greatly enlarging the foundation, the chantries took his name*. The biſhop's executors purchaſed the manor of Kaverdley, in Lancaſhire, out of which they allotted 16l. 13s. 4d. in ſtipends to two maſters, and which was reſerved to them by the ſtatute thirty-ſeventh of king Henry VIII. c. 4, and confirmed the firſt of king Edward VI. by virtue whereof the endowment ſurvived the diſſolution of chantries, and the ſchools were from thenceforth called king Edward's foundation, though he did nothing further relative thereto than ſave them from the general wreck. After the diſſolution, it is to be apprehended, things of this nature remained ſome time in confuſion; two new ſchools were inſtituted in the ſecond year of queen Mary, under the protection of the dean and chapter; and the queen appointed ſtipends to be paid thereto, out of the revenues of the church: And though it doth not appear the dean and chapter had any right to intermeddle with the money iſſuing out of Kaverdley, in Lancaſhire, yet certain it is, a cuſtom aroſe in the beginning of queen Elizabeth's reign, to pay one half of the ſtipend that belonged to one of biſhop Langley's ſchools, to the maſter of the new grammar-ſchool, and the ſame hath been regularly paid by the king's auditor. One reaſon for this diviſion might be, that from the time of the foundation of the new ſchool, where the Latin tongue was to be taught, that language was diſuſed in the other, and it was appropriated for Engliſh rudiments and writing. Biſhop Langley's ſong-ſchool hath long fallen into diſuſe; the patentee pays no attention to the inſtitution, and it has become a beneficial ſinecure to ſome of the biſhop's domeſtics.

King Henry VIII. appointed commiſſioners to ſet out dwelling-houſes for the maſter and uſher of the new grammar-ſchool; and thoſe, with biſhop Langley's ſchool-houſes, in times of public calamity and confuſion, were ſuffered to fall into decay; or, as others ſay, were deſtroyed by the Scotch in 1640: After the Reſtoration, the dean and chapter rebuilt their ſchool-houſe; and as was obſerved before, biſhop Coſin rebuilt biſhop Langley's houſes, or made new ones adjoining to the hoſpital, which he founded on the Place-Green: Unwilling to arrogate to himſelf even the appearance of having founded thoſe ſchools, or to lead poſterity into any error touching them, over the doors of the wings or ſchool-houſes he placed biſhop Langley's arms, and over the center door his own.

1.3.1. The Biſhop's Alms-Houſe, and Schools on the Green.

[Page 275]

Biſhop Coſin's deed of foundation of the alms-houſes on the Place-Green, and re-eſtabliſhment of the ſchools there, is to the following effect:

"John, by God's grace and permiſſion, biſhop of Durham: To all the faithful ſons of Chriſt and holy mother church, that may ſee or hear theſe preſent letters, or this public inſtrument, health and bleſſing. For as much, as among other works of piety and exerciſes of Chriſtian religion, which appertain to the office of a biſhop, we were diligently to provide and take care, that our epiſcopal caſtles, and in them eſpecially our chapels, and ſome other places and buildings adjoining, deſtined for public uſes, (all which indeed we found almoſt quite deſtroyed either by the violence of the times, or the neglect and malice of men) might be duly repaired as ſoon as poſſible, and where neceſſary rebuilt. Know ye, therefore, that we have not only repaired, and brought into better form, in every part, our foreſaid epiſcopal caſtles, and the ſacred chapels therein, at our own proper charges, but alſo have built anew two ſchool-houſes, anciently erected by the appointment of the moſt reverend prelate and lord, lord Thomas Langley, our predeceſſor, on the biſhop's palace-green, in [Page 276] Durham, on the eaſt ſide of the ſaid green; (lately almoſt fallen and left waſte by the violence of the times and neglect of men) the one of which ſchools was deſigned for inſtructing boys in the rudiments of learning, unto the Latin and Greek grammar; and the other to inſtruct boys in the art of writing and plain ſongs; with a ſtipend of 8l. 6s. 8d. annexed, for the maſter of each ſchool, to be paid yearly by the king's officers; and with a penſion in like manner of forty ſhillings, to be paid by the officers of us and our ſucceſſors, viz. our auditor and receiver, yearly to the ſame maſter; which we have thought good, as much as in us lies, ſhould be ratified and confirmed. Know ye, furthermore, that we the biſhop aforeſaid, have built and placed between the ſame ſchools, another building or alms-houſe, containing in it eight chambers for the entertainment and dwelling of ſo many poor people, viz. four men and four women. And now for the due maintenance and ſupport of the ſame poor men and women, and the repairs of the houſes aforeſaid, when ſuch ſhall be needful, we make known unto all, that by this our charter, we give and grant an annuity of ſeventy pounds, to iſſue out of the manor or lands of Great-Chilton, in the county of Durham, lately bought with our own proper monies, to be diſtributed among the ſame poor men and women, and duly to be paid yearly, at four quarters of the year, according to an indenture made between us on the one part, and the honourable Charles lord Gerard, baron of Brandon, together with Sir Henage Finch, knight and baronet, the king's ſolicitor, Sir Gilbert Gerard, knight and baronet, our high-ſheriff in the county palatine of Durham, Sir Nicholas Cole, of Kepier, in the county of Durham, knight and baronet, and George Davenport, clerk, rector of Houghton-le-Spring, in the county of Durham aforeſaid, our truſtees on the other part; and bearing date the 12th day of Auguſt preſent, as it may appear more fully by the ſaid indenture. Therefore we will and ordain by this our charter, that the aforeſaid ſum of ſeventy pounds, for the maintenance and ſupport of eight poor people, living in our hoſpital or alms-houſe aforeſaid, and for the repairs thereof, be diſtributed and paid yearly in this manner as followeth. Firſt of all, ſhall be paid to each of the eight poor people aforeſaid, by the biſhop's auditor and receiver, the yearly penſion of 6l. 13s. 4d. at four feaſts of the year, ſpecified in the aforeſaid indenture, by equal portions: Secondly, that to each of the ſaid poor people be given yearly, by the ſaid auditor and receiver, at the feaſt of St Bartholomew, 15s. for buying coals or fuel, and repairing their chamber windows, as oft as need ſhall require: Thirdly, that the ſum of 5l. every year be retained in the hands of the ſaid auditor and receiver of the biſhop of Durham for the time being, for buying gowns (called liveries) for the ſaid poor men and women, [Page 277] every third year: Fourthly, that the ſum of 20s. in like manner be placed in the hands of the ſaid auditor and receiver, for repairing the ſaid houſes when it may be needful: Fifthly, that the ſum of 4l. in like manner, be paid duly at the feaſts aforeſaid, by equal portions, unto ſome honeſt woman, to be named by us and our ſucceſſors, biſhops of Durham, that may daily attend upon the aforeſaid poor people, in their ſickneſs and other neceſſity: Laſtly, that the aforeſaid auditor and receiver reſerve in their hands yearly 13s. 4d. to purchaſe gloves, as a token for their attention and care. Furthermore, we will and ordain, that all ſuch poor people, being bachelors or widowers and widows, be of honeſt repute and good converſation, and ſixty, or at leaſt fifty years of age; whereof three men and ſo many women ſhall be natives, or at leaſt inhabitants of Durham, by the ſpace of twenty years: But the other two, that is, one man and one woman, ſhall be choſen out of the village or pariſh of Brancepeth: The cure of which church we anciently had; to be nominated by us during our life, but after our death by our beloved daughters the lady Mary Gerard, the lady Elizabeth Burton, Mrs Frances Gerard, alias Blakeſton, and Mrs Anne Greenvile, in their turns after the order of their ages, and by the longer livers and longer liver of them: And after the death of them all, by our ſucceſſors, the biſhops of Durham in a full See; but by the dean and chapter of our cathedral church of Durham, in a vacancy, from time to time as often as any place of the ſaid poor men and women ſhall happen to be void, for ever. And that this pious and charitable intention of ours may take better effect, we have choſen, named, aſſigned, and conſtituted, and by theſe preſents for us and our ſucceſſors, do chooſe, name, aſſign, and conſtitute our beloved in Chriſt, William Unthanke, William Widdrington, Robert Blunt, and Charles Calvert, and our beloved Grace Hutchinſon, Jane Cummin, Eleanor Pearſon, and Mary Atkinſon, to be the firſt poor men and women of the ſame hoſpital or alms-houſe, there to remain to be maintained and relieved during their natural lives; unleſs in the meanwhile they be removed, or that it ſhall happen that any one of them be removed thence for ſome reaſonable cauſe, by us and our ſucceſſors. We will alſo, and ordain, that all ſuch poor people, and their ſucceſſors, ſhall reſide and lodge in their own chambers. Furthermore, we appoint that the poor men and women ſhall duely ſay not only the private prayers aſſigned to them, by us, in their own chambers; but alſo frequent the prayers morning and evening, in the choir of our cathedral church in Durham, unleſs they be detained at home by ſome real ſickneſs: That they all go to church, two by two, both men and women, in their gowns, modeſtly, decently, and in order: That they ſhall ſit next after the king's beadſmen, ſounded in the ſame cathedral church; and there demean themſelves humbly and devoutly. Laſtly, we will and conſtitute, that all ſuch poor people be ſubject as well to the ordinary juriſdiction of us and our ſucceſſors, as to all decrees, commands, and ſtatutes, duely and lawfully to be eſtabliſhed and ordained by us and our ſucceſſors, biſhops of Durham. And we do hereby declare, as well the ſaid ſchools, reſtored and built by us, as alſo our new and peculiar foundation of the ſaid alms-houſe, ſhall be eſtabliſhed for ever. We put up our moſt humble thanks to the Omnipotent and Gracious Divinity, who hath vouchſafed to grant unto us, whilſt we ſojourn in this [Page 278] mortal life, and look for his bleſſed eternity in Heaven, ability to provide for, and perfect theſe our works of piety and charity, which we truſt will be acceptable to him. In teſtimony, &c. we have cauſed theſe our letters to be made patent, and thereto have put our ſeals, both epiſcopal and palatine. Witneſs, Sir Francis Goodrick, knight, our temporal chancellor. Given at our caſtle at Durham, on the thirty-firſt of Auguſt, in the year of the reign of our ſovereign lord Charles the Second, by the grace of God, king of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, defender of the faith, the twentieth, and of our conſecration the eighth, and in the year of Chriſt 1668."

Biſhop Coſin's library * is mentioned in his will to this effect, ‘That a great number of his books valued at above one thouſand pounds he had given to the public library of St Peter's College, in Cambridge; the reſt of his books, according to a catalogue ſigned by him, he, by a ſpecial deed, gave to a public uſe in a new library that he had built upon the Palace-Green in Durham, for the common benefit of the clergy and others that ſhould reſort thereto, the whole collection having coſt him near three thouſand pounds, and the care of near fifty-five years together.’ He, by deed, dated the 20th of September, 1669, granted a ſtipend for a librarian, with ordinances therein touching his office .

In the exchequer are depoſited the biſhop's evidences, of which archbiſhop Sancroft, a prebendary in the ninth ſtall of our cathedral, obtained liſts or [Page 279] ſchedules, which have lately been publiſhed from the Clarendon Preſs in Oxford, with other miſcellaneous tracts, entitled Collectanea Curioſa. They might not be eſteemed of ſufficient importance to take up ſo many pages in this work as their inſertion would neceſſarily require, therefore we muſt refer the reader to that publication, No x. vol. ii. p. 93, &c.

The traveller approaching

1.3.2. THE CASTLE *

enters by the gateway built by biſhop Tunſtall.

Before we proceed in the deſcription of the preſent edifice, it is neceſſary to make ſome few obſervations on the form and conſtruction of fortreſſes of the like date. We remarked, that it was probable there was a place of ſtrength and defence on the caſtle hill, before the Conqueror, returning from his Scotch expedition, thought it expedient in this province, which was ſo neceſſary and natural a barrier againſt the more northern powers, to erect a caſtle . The caſtle upon Tyne was a work of near the ſame period of time , but the form of that edifice in no wiſe correſponds with any part of the fortreſs now under conſideration, and indeed it is difficult to determine what part of the preſent caſtle owes its origin to William the Conqueror. Towers of an octagonal form, we conceive, were not uncommon with the Normans; yet we do not apprehend the preſent tower was of Norman architecture: The lofty mount moſt probably attracted the founder's attention: But we have met with very little evidence to ſupport ſuch a poſition. The ingenious Mr Groſe ſays §, [Page 280] ‘The materials of which caſtles were built, varied, according to the places of their erection; but the manner of their conſtruction ſeems to have been pretty uniform. The outſides of the walls were generally built with the ſtones neareſt at hand, laid as regularly as their ſhapes would admit; the inſides were filled with the like materials, mixed with a great quantity of fluid mortar, which was called by the workmen grout-work: A very ancient method of building uſed by the Romans, and quoted by Palladio, and all the writers on architecture. The angles were always coigned, and the arches turned with ſquared ſtone, brought from Caen, in Normandy, with which the whole outſide was now and then eaſed. Sometimes inſtead of ſtone the inſides of the walls were formed with ſquared chalk, as is the caſtle of Guildford. When the Normans found the ruins of an ancient building on the ſcite of their intended ſtructure, they either endeavoured to incorporate it into their work, or made uſe of the materials; as may be ſeen by many buildings of known Norman conſtruction, wherein are fragments of Saxon architecture, or large quantities of Roman bricks, which has cauſed them often to be miſtaken for Roman or Saxon edifices. The general ſhape or plan of theſe caſtles depended entirely on the caprice of the architects, or the form of the ground intended to be occupied; neither do they ſeem to have confined themſelves to any particular figure in their towers, ſquare, round, and poligonal, oftentimes occuring in the original parts of the ſame building. The ſituations commonly choſen were ſteep rocks, cliffs, eminences, or the banks of rivers.’ To this obſervation we muſt add, that the fortifications on the ground now under conſideration, occupied or encloſed the whole ſummit of the hill; the outward wall running along the very brink of the eminence, and forming an oval figure; at the northern extremity of which the caſtle ſtands, on the neck of land, where the ground deſcends ſwiftly to the lower town, called the borough; the river runs almoſt round the whole walled or fortified eminence, except at that part where Claypath or Cluerport gate ſtands; at which point, the eaſtern or weſtern channels drawing neareſt together, give the walled or fortified part of the town the figure of a horſe ſhoe, ſo that the river to thoſe fortifications ſerved in lieu of a moat: The natural aſcent from the river to the foot of ſome parts of the city wall, is upwards of eighty perpendicular feet. ‘In towns (Mr Groſe ſays, p. 9) the appellation of ballium was given to any work fenced with paliſades, and ſome times maſonry, covering the ſuburbs; but in caſtles [Page 281] was the ſpace immediately within the outer wall. When there was a double enceinte of walls, the areas next each wall were ſtiled the outer and inner ballia. The manner in which theſe are mentioned in the ſiege of Bedford caſtle, ſufficiently juſtify this poſition: The caſtle was taken by four aſſaults; in the firſt was taken the barbican, in the ſecond the outer ballia, at the third attack the wall by the old tower was thrown down by the miners, where, with great danger they poſſeſſed themſelves of the inner ballia, through a chink; at the fourth aſſault the miners ſet fire to the tower, ſo that the ſmoke burſt out, and the tower itſelf was cloven to that degree, as to ſhew viſibly ſome broad chinks, whereupon the enemy ſurrendered.— This receives further confirmation from the enumeration of the lands belonging to Colcheſter caſtle, wherein are ſpecified "the upper bailey, in which the caſtle ſtands, and the nether bailey, &c." The wall of the ballium in caſtles was commonly high, flanked with towers, and had a parapet, embattled, crenellated, or garretted for the mounting of it. There were flights of ſteps at convenient diſtances; and the parapet often had the merlons pierced with long chinks, ending in round holes, called oillets.’ Whether, at Durham, there was an inner and outer ballium, is uncertain; the two ſtreets now called the Baileys, are ſometimes diſtinguiſhed by the names of the high and low Bailey, and north and ſouth Bailey, and prompt an idea, that ſuch might be the original form of the fortification; but when the preſent cathedral church was built, the diſtinction and interior wall perhaps was removed, as no remains thereof now appear.

Within the ballium were lodgings or barracks, for thoſe whoſe ſervice it was to defend the caſtle perſonally, either as principals or ſubſtitutes; ſo in the Baileys the houſes were anciently held in capite by the ſervice of caſtle ward, and many chief perſonages had tenements therein for greater ſecurity in times of public danger *: Beſides the cathedral church and monaſtery, there were included in the ballium, two pariſh churches, St Mary the Great or Le-Bow, and St Mary the Leſs.— ‘The entrance into the ballium was commonly through a ſtrong machicolated and embattled gate, between two towers, ſecured by a herſe or portcullis; over this gate were rooms originally intended for the porter of the caſtle: The towers ſerved for the corps de garde. On an eminence, in the center commonly, though not always, ſtood the keep or dungeon, ſometimes, as in the ſiege of Bedford caſtle, emphatically called the tower; it was the citadel or laſt retreat of the garriſon, often ſurrounded by a ditch, with a draw bridge and machicolated gate, and occaſionally with an outer wall, garniſhed with ſmall towers: In large caſtles it was generally a high ſquare tower, of four or five ſtories, having turrets [Page 282] at each angle; in theſe turrets were the ſtaircaſes, and frequently as in Dover and Rocheſter caſtles, a well. If inſtead of a ſquare, the keep or dungeon happened to be round, it was called a juliet, from a vulgar opinion that large round towers were built by Julius Caeſar*.’ We find mention made of five gates to the ballium: The great north gate, which flanked the keep to the eaſt, and filled up the ſpace between it and the wall, which led down into the borough: This was of the greateſt ſtrength, as it commanded the moſt important and leaſt guarded approach: When it was rebuilt by biſhop Langley, he thought it neceſſary to make it as ſtrong as the art of fortification could then render it, not only as a defence to the fortreſs and monaſtery, but as a priſon for criminals and captives, without lodging them in the cells and vaults of the great tower; to thoſe ends he conſtructed the gateway , with double gates towards the Bailey, an outward gate towards the city, with a portcullis, an open wall or receſs between the gates, with ſalliports and upper galleries for the annoyance of aſſailants who might force the firſt gate. What the ancient gateway and tower were, we are ignorant; but it ſeems that keeping it was a poſt of honour, ſought after by perſons of the firſt diſtinction in antiquity for heroiſm and family. By the record preſented to the reader, it appears that the lord Thomas Gray, in biſhop Hatfield's time, was poſſeſſed of the lodge or chamber in the tower, and the gate is deſcribed as leading ad hoſpicium Dureſmi, to the Durham inn, a place, by the application, apparently of as much note in 1353, as the north gate of the ballium . The ancient gate was ſtrengthened with a ſalliport or poſtern gate, not now known, and a round tower at the end of the moat, which is ſtill in being; it is [...]o deſcribed in biſhop Skirlaw's time §.

The ſecond gate was called King's gate, now totally removed, which commanded the ford over the river into Elvet : The third gate was called Owen gate, where [Page 283] Queen-ſtreet now is; but it is apprehended this was an inner gate, and led into the Placea or Place-Green: The fourth gate was called Sidgate, now Duncow-lane: The fifth gate, called the Water gate, was anciently ſtiled La Porte du Bayle *, or the Bailey gate, and was the gate of the outward ballium, if the fortifications had that diſtinction, commanding another fording place over the river. This gate ſtood, till late years, in its ancient form. Biſhop Nevil, in the twelfth year of his epiſcopacy, (1449) granted to Robert Rodes and his heirs, liberty to annex this gate to his manſion-houſe, with the power of cloſing and opening the ſame at pleaſure : This grant was an open violation of the articles of convention before ſtated, by which all the biſhop's liege people were decreed to have the privilege of paſſing that way to and from the ſhrine of St Cuthbert, except in time of war, when the exigencies of ſtate required the gate to be cloſed for ſecurity of the city; the gate was conſtantly cloſed at night by the owner of the adjacent tenement, and no carriages were at any time ſuffered to paſs that way; until the Rev. Henry Egerton, one of the preſent prebendaries of Durham, having purchaſed the adjacent grounds, widened the ſtreet, and promoted the building of a ſpacious arch, of Roman architecture, without gates, in the place of the old gateway: This would have proved little more than an ornament to the city, had not the dean and chapter, with a munificence which diſtinguiſhes that worſhipful body in all their public works, laid it open for the uſe of gentlemen's families; whoſe carriages only are permitted to paſs along the elegant new bridge, lately erected by them: A bounty reſerved to this age.

At this gate the ancient wall of the ballium appears, ſtretching along the brink of the hill towards the church of St Mary-le-Bow, where King's-gate anciently ſtood. The wall is defended at intervals with ſquare projecting turrets or baſtions; but few of them retain ſo much of their original figure as to furniſh a probable conjecture touching their ſtrength, when in a perfect ſtate: The wall ſhews evident marks of a parapet and breaſt wall or embrazure.

In the firſt volume, page 113, we offered ſome conjectures relative to the caſtle: It is pretty well eſtabliſhed that William the Conqueror ordered a fortreſs to be erected here; and it is probable, the works which then defended the mount, attracted the attention of the Norman; whether thoſe works merited the name of a caſtle is not eaſy to determine, or what they really were; though from the mode of the Saxons, we may preſume they conſiſted of breaſt works or circumvallations, of which the preſent terraces may be ſome remains. Huntingdon's language, touching the ſovereigns erecting a caſtle here de Novo, prompts an idea, that ſome conſiderable edifice ſtood on this ground before the Norman times .

[Page 284] About the year 1177, the caſtle of Durham conſiſted chiefly of a tower; in the note referred to *, it is only called Turrim de Dunelm, and alſo in biſhop Hatfield's time in the preceding note, relative to the north gate, in which it is deſcribed as leading to the tower; and indeed many judicious perſons, with great probability, have conjectured, the original fortreſs was no more than a tower, and was afterwards ſtrengthened with a ballium on the ſide oppoſite to Framwellgate bridge, garniſhed with baſtions and ſquare towers; where the wall was built on the edge of rocks riſing almoſt perpendicular from the river: On this ſide ſeveral ancient towers yet remain, of little uſe to the preſent manſion . When Framwellgate bridge was built by biſhop Flambard, in the opening of the twelfth century, he carried on a ſtrong wall between the caſtle and the church; and it is probable he built the laſt mentioned towers to command the paſs: The bridge had alſo a ſtrong gateway and tower: Building this bridge neceſſarily occaſioned a paſſage to be made from thence into the borough; and on that account, biſhop Flambard ſtrengthened that ſide of the caſtle, between the bridge and the north gate before ſpoken of, with a moat; which, from the example before given, was undoubtedly fortified with round towers or baſtions. ‘The method of attack and defence of fortified places practiſed by our anceſtors before, and even ſome time after the invention of gunpowder, was much after the manner of the Romans; moſt of the ſame machines being made uſe of, though ſome of them under different names: They had their engines for throwing ſtones and darts of different weights and ſizes: For approaching the walls they had moveable towers .’ So that the more lofty the fortification, conſequently it was more difficult of aſſault by the machines uſed in ſieges. "Of the vaſt force" of the engines, ‘ſurpriſing ſtories are related; no wall, however thick, was able to reſiſt their ſtroke; and in the field they ſwept away the deepeſt files of armed men; with them were thrown not only large milſtones, but ſometimes the carcaſes of dead horſes, and even living men §.’

Many of the keeps or dungeons, in the ancient caſtles, are placed in the ſame ſituation of the ballium, as the caſtle of Durham, as Conniſborough caſtle, Tickhill, Portcheſter, Cambridge, Oxford, Tunbridge, and ſeveral others. The mount on which Durham tower ſtands is near forty-four perpendicular feet in height, from the level of the Place-Green, to the foot of the building, and it appears to [Page 285] have been forced from the level; to the above eminence add the natural height of the whole hill from the level of the river, and it will be upwards of one hundred and thirty perpendicular feet. It is the opinion of a ſkilful architect *, that the foundation of this tower goes down to the rock; and by the falling in of ſome arches, we diſcover that the whole erection is vaulted underneath; but as thoſe vaults, from their apparent depth, do not occupy above a fourth part of the height of the mount, we are left to conjecture in what manner the reſt of the eminence was forced or ſupported: It is apprehended, that after the Norman tower was built, the mount did not remain cut out into terraces agreeable to the preſent form, but that the ſides were regularly ſloped from the building to the plain, to render it as difficult to be climbed as poſſible, forming a regular glacis or talus round the tower; and that the approach to the gate of the tower was by a long ſlight of ſteps, from the inner court, ſo narrow that two perſons only could paſs at a time; and ſo open on each ſide that an aſſailant oppoſed might be tumbled headlong to the bottom. Mr King, deſcribing Coningſborough caſtle in the 6th volume of the Archaeologia, ſays, ‘The firſt thing that ſtrikes the eye is a very remarkable ſloping part of the foundation walls, riſing to a great height like a mount, and having in many parts, in conſequence of its being covered with earth and moſs, the appearance of a ſmall hill exactly of the ſame dimenſions as the caſtle itſelf; the bottom of this ſloping part appears almoſt circular, but higher up are ſeen more fully, ſix vaſt projecting buttreſſes, aſcending in a ſtill more ſteep direction, to prop and ſupport the building. Immediately above this ſloping part the tower riſes perpendicularly to a great height: Its inſide forms a compleat circle; but on the outſide appear ſix additional ſquare turrets, which are, however, merely the continuation upwards of the buttreſſes juſt mentioned.’ Before the preſent terraces of our tower were formed, perhaps the ribs of the foundation appeared ſupporting the buttreſſes of each angle; and by ſuch a baſe, mining, which was much practiſed in antiquity, would be impeded or rendered impracticable: The tower of Coningſborough caſtle forms an hexagon; Durham tower an ill-formed octagon of irregular ſides; ſome of the fronts exceeding others in breadth ſeveral feet; the angles are ſupported by buttreſſes, and a parapet has run round the ſummit of the whole building, with a breaſt wall and embrazure: The diameter of this tower in the wideſt part is ſixty-three feet ſix inches, and in the narroweſt ſixty-one feet: It has contained four ſtories or tiers of apartments, excluſive of the vaults: The great entrance is on the weſt ſide: There is nothing now left of this edifice but the mount, vaults, and outſide ſhell; which latter, from its noble appearance, and the great ornament [Page 286] it is to the city, has been an object of attention of many of the prelates.— Chambrè tells us biſhop Hatfield built a tower to the caſtle; In caſtello Dunelm. aedificiae quae antiquitate & vetuſtate conſumpta et debilitata fuerant, renovavit; & autam epiſcopalem & aulam conſtabulari cum aliis aedificiis in eodem de novo conſtruxit. Urbem Dun. licet hanc natura & muri ſatis munierunt, turre tamen fortiori ſumptibus ſuis in caſtello conſtructa, ipſe reddidit fortiorem. Indeed from the whole mode of architecture, the roſes which ornament the ſummits of the buttreſſes, and the form of the windows, we are led to conceive that the preſent ſhell was the work of biſhop Hatfield, and repaired and kept ſtanding by his ſucceſſors *. The tower was only lined round the outward wall with apartments, ſo as to leave an inner area or wall from top to bottom, by which the engines of war, and neceſſaries in time of danger and attack, were drawn up and diſtributed to the ſeveral parts of the building: Thoſe apartments have been approached by five different ſtaircaſes or turnpikes in the angles, the remains of which are yet viſible, ſo that the parapet could be mounted, the galleries lined with armed men, and the apartments guarded in a very ſhort time, and equally as quick the garriſon could deſcend, and be ready for a ſally. At preſent the mount, as we obſerved before, is formed into terraces, as well for ornament as recreation: The uppermoſt terrace is ten feet wide, and laid with gravel, commanding a proſpect not only of the whole city and its beautiful environs, but alſo an extenſive view of the country as far as Gateſhead-fell, Penſhaw, Newbottle, Warden Law, and Quarrington, with the nearer objects, Newton-hall, Pittington, Sherburn, Aykley-heads, and other places of note: Between this and the lower terrace is a graſs ſlope, ſupported by a breaſt wall, and you deſcend by twenty-three ſteps; the ſecond terrace is of equal breadth with the other, and laid with gravel, and is in like manner ſeparated from the loweſt terrace by a graſs ſlope and breaſt wall, to which you deſcend by twenty-one ſteps; this terrace is of like width and form as the others, and is twenty-two ſteps above the level of the garden below.

Biſhop Pudſey, who acceded to the biſhopric in 1153, reſtored ſome part of the caſtle, which had ſuffered by fire. To this prelate we are induced to attribute the building of the firſt hall to the palace; but with other parts of the caſtle going to decay, the preſent hall, with the conſtable's-hall, were afterwards erected by biſhop Hatfield: This prelate's works were magnificent; an improved taſte prevailed in his time, and much ornament was introduced in buildings of this kind: The hall erected by him, we are told, was near one hundred and twenty yards in length, of a proportionable height and width, and lighted on every ſide; the roof of wood was ornamented in every rafter, and other decorations were given to this ſpacious room. It is deſcribed as having two princely [...]eats, one at each end: There were pulpits or galleries on each ſide, wherein the trumpeters or wind muſic uſed to ſtand to play [Page 287] while meat was uſhered in *. On the day biſhop Bury was enthroned, A. D. 1333, he entertained in the hall the king and queen of England, the queen dowager of England, the king of Scotland, the two Metropolitans, and five other biſhops, ſeven earls, with their ladies, all the nobility north of Trent, with a vaſt concourſe of knights, eſquires, and other people of diſtinction, among whom were many abbots, priors, and other religious. Biſhop Fox found it too expenſive to keep this ſpacious hall in repair, or it was too large for his neceſſary purpoſes, and therefore he reduced it conſiderably; he took away the ſeat at the ſouth end, and converted that part into a kitchen and ſteward's apartments, ſo that it was leſſened at leaſt one-third of its original ſize; yet there remained room enough for the entertainment of the princeſs Margaret, and her attendants, in her way to Scotland; on that occaſion, we read, that all the nobility and people of diſtinction of the northern parts, as well ſpirituals as temporals, were preſent, and the ſervices conſiſted of that gorgeous diſplay of proviſions, called by the writers of that time double dinners. This prelate began to repair the great tower, and built a hall, kitchen, and ſome other apartments therein, but before his plan was far advanced, he was tranſlated, and no further progreſs was made in that work: We ſee his arms in the partition wall of the great hall. Biſhop Tunſtall made great repairs to the caſtle, he built the preſent gateway and tower, and flanked it with a ſtrong wall on either hand: He brought water to the palace in pipes, it being ſupplied before by wells and reſervoirs; he erected the preſent gallery, and made a new approach to the apartments there; he alſo built a beautiful little chapel, which has received improvements from ſucceeding prelates, as the arms of Coſin and Talbot placed therein denote. We ſhould not omit to remark in this place, that on the facing of the entrance into the ſtalls, at the weſt end, is a ſtriking mark of Wolſey's arrogance; on the oak are carved the cardinal's arms, taking the dexter ſide againſt the arms of his principality and See of Durham. Biſhop Barnes and Neile made great repairs: The latter enlarged the windows, and thereby gave the apartments a new degree of elegance.

The great tower became an object of incumbrance ſoon after the Reformation; and at length, in biſhop Morton's time, it was one of thoſe erections for which the biſhops were decreed to be diſcharged from future dilapidations, ſo that nothing but the love of ornament, and the ſolemn grace it added to the aſpect of the caſtle in particular, and to this beautiful city in general, has ſince that period for a century and a half ſaved it from utter demolition and ruin.

Biſhop Morton had the honour of a royal viſit at his caſtle of Durham, and then diſplayed the ancient hoſpitality and magnificence of the prelates of this See; he entertained king Charles I. and all his retinue in the hall of this palace, when he [Page 288] made his tour into Scotland, expending, as it is ſaid, no leſs a ſum than fifteen hundred pounds a day on the occaſion. Biſhop Coſin, whoſe memory is dear to thoſe that venerate the ancient ſeats of our prelates, put the caſtle of Durham into repair, made a new entrance into the hall, renewed the fountain, added many apartments, and gave much ornament to the exterior parts; he again reduced the hall, by taking off an audience room at the north end, at the foot of the great ſtaircaſe; and put a ſcreen of wainſcot at the ſouth end, to conceal the paſſages to the kitchen and offices; he alſo wainſcotted the hall round about. In its preſent ſtate the hall is one hundred and eighty feet in length, thirty-ſix feet in width, and about fifty feet in height to the rafters; is lighted by three large windows to the weſt, and two to the eaſt. Since biſhop Coſin's time, ſucceeding prelates have made improvements, which, as well as the work of more remote ages, are diſtinguiſhed by the arms placed on various parts of the building. Biſhop Trevor did a great deal, particularly to the north front, which opens upon a terrace eighty paces long above the moat, terminated by the round tower before ſpoken of: He improved many of the apartments by putting in chimney-pieces of ſtone-work, highly wrought in the Gothic ſtile, and well adapted to the figure of the rooms, making very large ſaſh windows in the ſame order, and ſtuccoing the walls and ceilings, in which work he employed the ableſt maſters *.

The church of Saint Mary-le-Bow is ſaid to ſtand upon the ground where St Cuthbert's remains were firſt lodged, in a tabernacle of boughs and wands, before a proper receptacle was formed, within the limits of the preſent cathedral: It is within the deanry of Eaſington, and under the patronage of the archdeacon of Northumberland .

[Page 289] In the beginning of the laſt century this church became very ruinous, and on the 10th of December, 1637, the following agreement was entered into, and written in the pariſh regiſter: ‘The Bow church at Durham was agreed to be pulled down, being very ruinous, and to be rebuilt by the pariſhioners; Mr John Heath giving that piece of ground which is now the church-yard, and there was gathered by way of contribution, towards the rebuilding of the ſaid church, 117l. 14s*. Concluded and agreed upon by the miniſter, church-wardens, and others the pariſhioners, that the church being partly fallen down, and the reſidue that ſtands being ſo decayed and rotten, that it cannot long continue without imminent danger, ſhall be pulled down and re-edified, and that ſufficient ceſſments ſhall be laid on to that purpoſe.’

The rector's income was anciently very trivial, as it aroſe by fluctuating circumſtances; but by virtue of lord Crewe's will, ten pounds a year was annexed to it for ever §.

It appears that thoſe direful years of anarchy and confuſion, which ſoon after ſucceeded the date of the above reſolution, prevented the repairs proceeding; for [Page 290] it was not till the year 1685, the new church was opened for divine ſervice; and in a note of Randal's, it is ſaid, ‘This was done leaſt the Papiſts ſhould get poſſeſſion of this empty church by ſome grant from the crown.’ In the year 1722, the living was augmented by queen Anne's bounty, and ſubſcriptions to the amount of 170l. were obtained for that purpoſe*.

[Page 291] This church is built of hewn ſtone, in a very neat ſtile, uniform, and without ailes, and is well lighted. The entrance from the ſtreet is at the weſt end, under the tower; the ceiling is flat, unſupported by pillars, and is ſtuccoed in ſquares: It is regularly pewed, and wainſcotted round, with a gallery at the weſt end *.

1.4. The Pariſh of St Mary the Leſs, in the South Bailey.

This church is but a mean edifice, conſidering its antiquity, and that it is ſituated within the walls of the ancient city: It is in the deanry of Eaſington. The advowſon being part of the poſſeſſions of the earl of Weſtmoreland, on his attainder came to the crown .

[Page 292] The two Bailies are inhabited by people of the firſt fortune; the houſes on the eaſt ſide of the ſtreet command a beautiful view of the river, and the romantic ſcenes on its borders; on the weſt ſide the tenements receive ſome equivalent for their loſs of proſpect, by having an eaſy paſſage to the Place-green, Cathedral, College, and Caſtle.

1.5. The Pariſh of St Nicholas, in Durham.

[Page 293]

From the Gaol-gates to the Market-place, you paſs down Sadler-ſtreet, having Elvet-bridge on the right-hand. This ſtreet, or ſome conſiderable part of it, was anciently called the Fleſhewer-raw, and is ſtill occupied by butchers. We are led to lament that want of police in the city which ſhould correct the brutal ſpectacle of ſlaughtering animals in the ſtreet; ſhocking to travellers, who inſtantly turn aſide with diſguſt, and paſs to other places, not only with prejudice of mind againſt the whole place, but with cenſures on its inhabitants: They look back on the magnificent buildings, and whilſt they recollect the royal rights of the powerful prelate, the learned body of men who ſit in the chapter-houſe, the re-infranchiſed body corporate of the city, and the opulent and polite inhabitants in general, they exclaim, ‘In this ſeat of learning, the epiſcopal capital, and center of the provincial law, hitherto common decency has not drawn a ſkreen before the execution of the ſlaughtering knife that ſerves their luxury.’

Elvet bridge was built by biſhop Pudſey, who alſo reſtored the borough of Elvet, after the deſtruction made by Cumin's followers. ‘As Framwel-gate bridge, built by biſhop Flambard, was called the Old bridge, ſo Elvet bridge, built by Hugh Puſar, or Pudſey, was called the New bridge. There were on it formerly two chapels, one dedicated to St James, built by Lewinus Burgenſis in the reign of king Henry III. and ſince converted to a priſon for the houſe of correction: The other, dedicated to St Andrew *, founded by William, ſon of Abſolam, Robert de Inſula, biſhop, Edw. I. king .’ In biſhop Fox's time this bridge was become ruinous, whereupon he granted an indulgence to thoſe who ſhould contribute to its repairs . It has ſeveral land arches, conſtructed for the purpoſe of bringing up a gradual aſcent from Elvet to Sadler-ſtreet, and we obſerve it became a cuſtom ſo early as biſhop Skirlaw's time, to grant out thoſe arches for ſtore-houſes and other purpoſes §."

[Page 294] The Market-place is a ſpacious ſquare, well built; at the [...]oot of which ſtands the church of St Nicholas, occupying almoſt the whole of that ſide: Sadler-ſtreet enters the ſquare at the ſouth-eaſt corner, Silver-ſtreet at the ſouth-weſt, Claypethgate is ſituate at the north-eaſt corner, and a flight of ſteps leading by the New-place to the factory-houſe, on the north-weſt: Theſe are the ſtairs by which the archbiſhop of York eſcaped the fury of the mob, when he came to Durham to exerciſe his pretended juriſdiction during the vacancy of the See, after the demiſe of biſhop Robert de Inſula*.

In this ſquare is a fluent fountain of excellent water, which ſupplies the greateſt part of the town: The reſervoir is built up in an elegant form, and ornamented with a fine ſtatue of Neptune. In the year 1450, Tho. Billingham, eſq granted to the city for ever, a ſpring of water in his manor of Sidgate, with liberty to convey the ſame by pipes, &c. to a reſervoir in the Market-place for the public uſe, at thirteen-pence a year rent, payable at the feaſt of St Martin; and in default for forty days, the grantor and his aſſigns have power to break up the aqueduct head, and divert the ſtream into its ancient courſe: With a prohibitory clauſe againſt any perſon's making an aqueduct from the fountain, except the grantor and his heirs, to whom power was reſerved to lay a ſtring pipe from the reſervoir to ſupply his own houſe in the Market-place. This grant was afterwards confirmed by the biſhop, who granted liberty to break his ſoil for the aqueducts .

There ſtood near the fountain a large market croſs, which incumbered the ſquare very much: It was lately taken down, and a handſome piazza built at the foot of the Market-place, to anſwer the ſame purpoſes §.

On the weſt ſide of the ſquare is the Town-hall, with commodious apartments for public feſtivals and other uſes, lately rebuilt on a modern plan. The old hall was erected and given to the city by biſhop Tunſtal, ornamented with a large cupola in the center, and in other reſpects exhibiting the elegance which was introduced to theſe northern parts in that prelate's age: Whether before biſhop Tunſtal's time there was a Common-hall for the burgeſſes, is not well aſcertained; but there [Page 295] was a Toll-booth in the middle of the ſquare, as in other ancient places for the weights and meaſures: As Chambrè tells us, ‘A beautiful marble croſs which ſtood in the upper part of the ſtreet of Gilly-gate, in a place there called the Maid's-harbour, was given to William Wright, of Durham, merchant, at his petition, by Maſter Ormſtrang Scot, lord of Keepyere, to be ſet up in Durham market-place. That on that occaſion the figures of the twelve apoſtles, of curious workmanſhip in ſtone, were repaired and ſumptuouſly gilt; three figures on each ſide of the croſs in a ſquare. At this time Thomas Spark, elected ſuffragan biſhop by biſhop Tunſtal, was biſhop of Berwick, maſter of Holy Iſland, and cuſtos and maſter of Gretham-hoſpital; at his charge the croſs was erected in the Market-place where Old Toll-booth ſtood, in which work he expended eight pounds *.’

Adjoining the Town-hall is the houſe called the New-place, and in ſome records the Bull's-head: It was part of the poſſeſſions of Charles earl of Weſtmoreland, and tradition ſays was his palace; perhaps his creſt was figured on the building, which occaſioned it to be denoted by the Bull's-head, or Black-bull. It was purchaſed by the citizens for their factory-houſe §; and now is uſed as a work-houſe and charity-ſchool.

Behind this edifice, by the river, ſide, are the work-houſes, dye-houſes, and other offices for the city factory .

The church is very plain and meanly built, being conſtructed of ſmall and periſhable ſtones, ſo that from frequent pointing it is now almoſt covered with mortar. It varies greatly from the ſituation of other churches, evidently to ſuit the ground whereon it ſtands, which ſerves to ſupport the opinion we before gave, that anciently, by a ſluice, the city was here occaſionally inſulated, by bringing in the ſtreams of the Were. The north wall is very ſtrong and lofty, ſupported by ſquare buttreſſes, or rather baſtions. This church hath two ſide ailes, that to the north running the whole length of the building; the ſouth aile is ſhortened by the tower ſtanding on the ſouth-weſt angle. The nave and two ſide ailes are twenty paces in width, and to the chancel the nave is twenty-ſix paces in length: The ſouth aile is formed by one ſmall octagonal column of conſiderable height, ſupporting blunt pointed arches: The north aile hath two ſhort octagonal columns, with wide and lofty blunt pointed arches, riſing from brackets at the extremities. The chancel opens with a pointed arch in the center, to the ſouth a ſmall column with a pointed arch, to the [Page 296] north a ſhort round column, and irregular circular arches: The chancel is in length ſix paces to the ſteps, and the receſs for the altar is ſix paces wide. At the opening of the chancel are the ſeats for the mercers company and body corporate, neatly fitted up. The roof of the north aile is ſupported by three half-arches, riſing from octagonal brackets. The gates have circular arches: The ſouth windows are modern and ſaſhed; the north windows irregular, and ſome under pointed arches. This fabric hath been conſtructed at various times; the north aile bears marks of remote antiquity; but no records afford us further light therein, than that we find Galfrid de Elimer rector in 1133; though by the mode of architecture we ſhould be led to give this church a cotemporary date with the firſt ſettlement of the Saxons at Durham.

There were four chantries in this church; one dedicated to St Mary*, another to St James , another to the Holy Trinity, and a fourth to St John the Baptiſt, and St John the Evangeliſt§. The chapels on Elvet-bridge are noted as chantries under this church. There was alſo a guild eſtabliſhed in this church, called the Corpus-Chriſti guild, by virtue of the licence of biſhop Langley, which was the ancient mode of eſtabliſhing a fraternity of merchants before the plan of enchartering was adopted . This church is in the deanry of Eaſington, and was a rectory appropriated [Page 297] to the hoſpital of Kepier, by Robert Nevill, biſhop of Durham, the 5th of June, 1443; and ſo continued till its ſuppreſſion: After which it remained in the crown ſome conſiderable time, till granted out among other poſſeſſions to William Paget, knight. King Edward VI. in the ſixth year of his reign, gave the advowſon, and alſo that of St Giles, to John Cockburne, lord of Ormeſton: From him they came to John Heath, by purchaſe, and now are the property of John Tempeſt, eſq It appears that Mr Tempeſt's anceſtor married Elizabeth the only daughter of John Heath, eſq the 27th of October, 1649; in whoſe deſcendant the patronage now remains.

Near adjoining to the church is the old city gateway, called Claypeth-gate; a weak edifice, nearly ſimilar to that which lately ſtood in the South-Bailey, called the Water-gate, having no machicolation, and only the appearance of a ſingle pair of gates, built with irregular ſtones and much mortar; the preſent remains of the city wall ſhew it was of ſimilar conſtruction, remarked by Leland to be of mean maſonry: This gate has a foot paſſage at the eaſt ſide. Why this gateway now appears ſo weak, may be owing to the out-works being totally defaced; and here, in particular, if there was a water-ſluice, with a draw-bridge, as we preſume there was, leſs ſtrength was required in the gateway *.

[Page 298] In the ſtreet of Claypeth was an ancient chapel, dedicated to St Thomas the Martyr; but where it ſtood has not been pointed out to us. It is thus mentioned in Randal's MSS. ‘It was in Clayport, in the city of Durham, on the ſouth ſide of the ſaid ſtreet, in St Nicholas' pariſh. I meet with no account of the foundation of this chapel, but find it was placed in a chapel-yard, and had an encloſed way to it from the ſtreet *.’

1.6. The Pariſh of St Egidius, vulgarly called St Giles.

[Page 299]

The ſtreet of St Giles, anciently called the borough of St Egidius, and vulgarly Gillygate, aſcends ſwiftly from Claypeth in a curvature, bending to the right, almoſt a mile in length. It ſtands on the ridge of a hill, the ground inclining towards the river on each ſide, in ſome parts with a very ſteep deſcent, having Old Durham to the ſouth, and Kepier to the north.


to which this borough belonged, was firſt founded in the year 1112, by Ralph Flambard, biſhop of Durham, who (acceeded to this See A. D. 1099) for a maſter and brethren, and dedicated the ſame to St Giles: He endowed it with the vill of Caldecotes, and a mill upon Milburne, with two ſheaves of corn from his demeſne lands in the vills of Newbotel, Houghton, Weremouth, Ryhope, Eaſington, Sedgefield, Shirburn, Querrington, Newton, Cheſter, Weſhington, Boldon, Cleadon, Whickham, and Ryton *

In the reign of king Stephen, when Cumin contended for the biſhopric, his retainers burnt the hoſpital and church of St Giles, and laid the whole borough in aſhes: In this ſtate it remained till Hugh Pudſey came to the See, who confirmed his predeceſſors foundation and endowment, reſtored the edifices, augmented the houſe, and granted ordinances for its government; appointing, that the fraternity ſhould conſiſt of thirteen, with a maſter, of which number ſix ſhould be chaplains, to officiate in the chapel of the hoſpital, one of whom was to be confeſſor, and the [Page 300] others to hold domeſtic offices*. By another charter he granted to the hoſpital a free borough in the ſtreet called St Giles, exempted of in-toll and out-toll, aids, cuſtoms, ſervices, and other exactions, and gave them paſturage ad averia ſua, Hayam & extra; focale, & maeremium, and pannage in his foreſt. He alſo gave them a toft in each of the townſhips of Houghton, Ryhope, Eaſington, Darlington, Sedgefield, Boldon, and Whickham, where they had tithes of his demeſnes. Biſhop Pudſey, by the other deed noted by Stevens' Mon. vol. ii. p. 265, grants them Quitteleys and Swyneleys, in Weredale, by boundaries; alſo granted a lead mine, ad cooperendum eccleſiam St'ae Mariae & omnium ſanctorum & infirmatorium hoſpitalis praedicti; and alſo an iron mine in Rokehope, for their carriages, &c. paſturage for all cattle within the limits, et pedes canum eorum non ſint ibi neq. ad Wacheriam in Weredale, tuneati ſed paſtores decant eos ligatos proferis ad averia ſua ſenanda pro Lupis. A toft called Laundene, tithes of the lands of Bradwode and Beſanſkeldes, uſq. ad Wycheles & unam travam bladi, from each carucate in Weredale, tithes of all aſſarts or new cultivations, for which he then took money payments, or kirſete, (Kirkſeed).

[Page 301] After the reſtoration of this hoſpital, we hear of no misfortune interrupting the tranquillity of the ſociety till the diſſolution. In the 26th king Henry VIII. the revenue was eſtimated at 186l. 10d. in the whole, and 167l. 2s. 11d. a year clear. It was ſurrendered the 14th of January, 36th king Henry VIII. 1545, and granted that ſame year to Sir William Paget.

In biſhop Nevill's time, the ſeveral evidences belonging to this hoſpital were exemplified and confirmed, from copies or other muniments, the originals having been deſtroyed in the reign of king Stephen, in 1146, when the houſe was burnt*.

Kepier came into the poſſeſſion of the family of Heath, by purchaſe from the Cockburnes, in the time of biſhop Pilkington, and continued in that family till the year 1658, when they ſold it to Ra. Cole, Eſq whoſe ſon, Sir Nicholas Cole, ſold it in parcels to the families of Tempeſt, Carr, and Muſgrave, the preſent owners. [Page 302] And Tempeſt, by an intermarriage with the heireſs of the Heaths*, gained the other poſſeſſions of that family, and again united it with Old Durham.

Kepier houſe ſtands in a very low ſituation, not a mile from the city, on the banks of the river, and commanding a very ſhort proſpect. Of the hoſpital nothing remains but the gateway; part of the ſuperſtructure of which appears much more modern than the arching of the gate: There are two ſhields of arms on the front, one on the dexter ſide appears to be the arms of Tinmouth monaſtery, the other ſo much effaced by time that the bearings cannot be perfectly aſcertained; but how Tinmouth came to have any authority or intereſt here, we have not diſcovered; and indeed the exact ſucceſſion of maſters is not known.

The borough tenure is of a mixed nature, the tenements being aliened by deed for ninety-nine years, which conveyance muſt be attended with an admittance from the lord, or his court-holder; and from admittance of alienee or heir, the widow has her frankbank.


[Page 303]

The church of St Giles has marks of diſtant antiquity; it has no ailes, and much reſembles the old church at Jarrow, being narrow, long, and very lofty: It is thirty paces in length, and only ſeven wide; the rafters of the roof are ſupported on brackets; it is lighted to the ſouth by ſix irregular windows, and two to the north; the tower riſes from a pointed arch. The arch which ſeparated the chancel from the nave is broken down: The chancel is ten paces long, and of equal width with the reſt of the church; has a modern window to the eaſt, two windows under pointed arches to the ſouth with pilaſters, and one ſimilar to the north. The font is a large uncouth cauldron. There is a recumbent effigy cut in wood, in the chancel; tradition ſays it belonged to the tomb of one of the Heaths, pourtrayed in a complete ſuit of armour, his ſword ſheathed, the hands elevated, and head reſted on a helmet, with a bear's paw for the creſt; at the feet theſe words Hodie Michi *.— Probably this was the effigy of John Heath, who was buried in the chancel, in the year 1591.

[Page 304] The traveller who is conducted to this church, ſhould be admitted at the north door, and depart from the ſouth door, where a noble proſpect opens to the view, too extenſive for a picture, and too rich for deſcription. The inadequate ideas which language can convey, are to be lamented by the reader who has a taſte for rural beauties, and the elegance of landſcape. The church of St Giles ſtands upon very elevated ground, open to the ſouth where the view is unobſtructed. In front the meadow grounds form a ſteep deſcent to the river; on one wing cloſed by the wood called Pelaw Wood, on the other by the buildings of the ſtreet. At the foot of the hill the river Were forms a beautiful canal, almoſt a mile in length, terminated by Elvet bridge to the right, and by the wooded incloſures of Old Durham on the left. On the oppoſite ſhore is the race ground, conſiſting of an extended tract of level meads, from whence, by a gradual aſcent, riſe the two Elvets; the ſtreet of Old Elvet running parallel, the other obliquely, bordered with gardens, and terminated by Elvet church; a handſome ſtructure. The channel of the river lying between New Elvet and the Bailies, affords an agreeable break or change in the objects; the ſloping gardens being ſeen over the buildings of Elvet, ſoftened to the eye with that pleaſing teint which the diſtance produces. On the brink of the aſcent ſtand the Bailies, object riſing gradually above object, guarded with the remains of the town wall, and crowned with the cathedral church, which in this view preſents the north and eaſt fronts, like the mitre which binds the temples of its prelate; giving the nobleſt ſupreme ornament to the capital of the principality. To the right Elvet bridge, with ſeven arches, receives the ſtream, and intercepts a further view of the progreſs of the river: Over it, tier above tier, riſe the buildings of Sadler-ſtreet, the gloomy and ſolemn towers of the gaol, and the battlement and octagonal tower of the caſtle; the trophies of civil juriſdiction wearing the aſpect of old ſecular authority, and the frowns of feudal power. Between the chief objects, the cathedral and caſtle, on the nearer back ground, South-ſtreet, with its hanging gardens, makes a fine curvature; behind which Brandon Mount, with a ſpit of high land extending towards Auckland, form the horizon. Further to the right, [Page 305] from the banks of the river, riſe the buildings of the Market-place, crouding the tower of the church, from whence the ſtreets of Claypeth and Gillygate extend. Thus far deſcription has proceeded without much faultering, but in the other diviſions of the ſcene it is faint and totally inadequate: Whoever would know the reſt muſt come and view it *. Over the meadows, in the center, a precipice riſes near one hundred perpendicular feet in height, called MAIDEN CASTLE, fear, or cliff; the ſteep ſides of the hill to the right and left are covered with a foreſt of old oaks, and the foot of the cliff is waſhed by the river, whoſe ſtream appears again at this point. The lofty ridge of hills cloathed with oaks, ſtretching away, forms a ziz-zag figure; at the moſt diſtant point of which, the great ſouthern road, up the new incloſed grounds of Elvet moor, is ſeen climbing the hill, for near a mile, beyond which very diſtant eminences form a blue-tinged horizon. To the left of Maiden caſtle cliff you look upon a rich valley, highly cultivated, extending nearly five miles in length and two in width, bending to the ſouth-weſt, through which the river winds its ſilver ſtream, in the figure of an S: Hanging woods ſhut in each ſide of the nearer vale, where are finely diſpoſed, the pleaſant village of Shincliff, the bridge of three arches, the villa of William Rudd, eſq and Hough-hall houſe: The extreme part of the valley is cloſed by the woods of Shincliff, Butterby, and Croxdale, forming an elegant amphitheatre; over theſe riſe diſtant hills, lined out with incloſures, giving the yellow and brown teint to the landſcape over the richer coloured woods. The whole finiſhed with an elevated horizon, on the wings of which are ſcattered the villages of Ferryhill and Merrington; the tower of Merrington church forming a beautiful and lofty obeliſk. One of the greateſt excellencies of this landſcape is, that the ground riſes gradually before you, and juſt ſuch a diſtance is maintained as preſerves all the objects diſtinct; not like the landſcapes painted by the Flemiſh and Dutch maſters. To the left you look down upon Old Durham houſe, its terraces and hanging gardens, with a fine bend of cultivated country ſtretching away through another opening of the hills towards the eaſt, bounded by the high grounds of Quarrington, and the cliffs of Coxhoe Limekilns; more ruſtic than the other views, and being in a ſimpler nature, affords a pleaſing variety to the eye of the man of taſte, who ſtands (if we may be allowed the extravagant expreſſion) on this enchanted ground .

Old Durham houſe is gone to decay, nothing now remaining but apartments for a farmer: It was anciently the ſeat of the Booths, afterwards of the Cockburns, lords of Ormſton, and in more modern times became the eſtate of the Tempeſts, to which latter family it paſſed by intermarriage with the heireſs of the Heaths. The gardens are formed into terraces of a conſiderable length. This ſweet retirement is become a place of public reſort, where concerts of muſic have frequently been performed in the ſummer evenings, and the company regaled with fruit, tea, &c. The gardens are open all ſummer for rural recreation. The terraces command the elegant valley proſpect before deſcribed.

[Page 306] At the corner of the garden ſome few years ago were the remains of a very ancient building, with a circular window, and other appearances of the chapel form. When the Scots burnt the hoſpital of Sherburn, it is probable they deſtroyed the camera here. Of Poulton, Grainge, Ramſide, and Ravensflat, mentioned in the book of rates to lie in this pariſh, there is nothing remarkable*.

[Page 307] Magdalen chapel ſtood on the north ſide of Gillygate, in an adjacent field, the ruins of which ſhew it was a little mean edifice.

On a flat plot of ground, between the roads leading to Sunderland on the one hand, and Sherburn hoſpital on the other, a little before they unite, is a ſquare platform raiſed above the common level, which was anciently called the Maiden's Bower, where the fine croſs ſtood which was removed into Durham market-place at the inſtance of William Wright, as before mentioned. Mr Cade, in the tract particularly noted in the next page, ſays, ‘The ground plot and ramparts of the watch tower which ſerved for ſignals to (a ſtation placed by him at Old Durham) Maiden Caſtle, are viſible and almoſt entire at the entrance of Gillygate moor, and exactly correſpond in form with thoſe on the Roman wall in Northumberland.’ For want of diſtinguiſhing what entrance to the moor theſe remains (deſcribed by Mr Cade) lie near, we have not been able to diſcover this piece of antiquity, and know of no other veſtigia of old work than the ground work of the old croſs.

1.7. The Pariſh of ST OSWALD.

[Page 308]

Part of the pariſh of St Oſwald lies in the ward of Eaſington, and part in Cheſter ward. This pariſh includes the chapelries of St Margaret in Croſſgate, and Croxdale.

In our account of the chantries in the church of St Nicholas, we ſhewed by a record in biſhop Langley's time, that a tenement belonging to the chantry of St Mary was deſcribed to be in the old borough of Durham: In vet'i burgo Dun. ſup. finem pontis novi * ex p'te auſtrali. ten. Pr. Dun. &c. which, with other records of the like nature, prove, that the old borough of Durham was ſituated in the pariſh of St Oſwald, and ſo all the ancient muniments tend to confirm. It is conjectured, when the biſhop erected a new free borough for merchants in Elvet, the diſtinctions of the borough of Elvet, and the old borough of Durham firſt aroſe. Was there not much evidence to ſhew, there were diſtinct places called the old and new borough, out of the bounds of the city, and in the limits of St Oſwald's pariſh, we ſhould not have inſiſted on the poſition ſo poſitively. When the old borough of Durham had its riſe, from whence, or what were its privileges, we remain ignorant; but the evidence we ſhall produce leads us to judge the old borough of Durham comprehended the whole pariſh of St Oſwald, ſubſtracted from Croxdale, and that on the inſtitution of the borough of Elvet, limits and bounds were ſet to the new borough, and the reſt remained to the old borough; admitting this conjecture, it will follow, that the old borough comprehended Croſſgate, South-ſtreet, &c. now St Margaret's chapelry, and in fact circumſcribed the new borough, It is not material to preſs this ſubject further than to ſupport our firſt poſition, that Old Durham, and the old borough of Durham, were the firſt ſettlements of the Saxons here, before they built their church on the ſummit of the hill; and from thence thoſe places derived their preſent name.

On the cliff before deſcribed, in the view from Gillygate church, is the platform now called Maiden Caſtle , inacceſſible from the river by reaſon of the ſteepneſs of [Page 309] the cliff, which is almoſt perpendicular, and about one hundred feet in height. —On the right and left the ſteep ſides of the mount are covered with a thick foreſt of oaks: The crown of the mount conſiſts of a level area or plain, forty paces wide on the ſummit of the ſcar, in the front or north eaſt ſide, one hundred and ſixty paces long on the left-hand ſide, and one hundred and ſeventy paces on the right. The approach is eaſy on the land ſide, from the ſouth-weſt, fortified with a ditch and breaſt work: The entrance or paſſage over the ditch is not in the middle, but made to correſpond with the natural riſe of the outward ground; probably this entrance was guarded by a draw-bridge: The ditch is twelve paces wide, and runs with a little curvature to each edge of the ſlope, now covered with wood as before noted; on one hand being fifty paces in length, on the other eighty paces. After paſſing the ditch there is a level parade or platform, [Page 310] twenty paces wide, and then a high earth fence, now nine feet perpendicular, which, as in moſt places of the like kind, it is apprehended, was faced with maſon-work: A breaſt work has run from the earth fence on each hand along the brink of the hill, to the edge of the cliff or ſcar. The earth fence cloſes the whole neck of land, and is in length one hundred paces, forming the ſouth-weſt ſide of the area. Theſe particulars are illuſtrated by the annexed plate. It is moſt probable this was the vetus burgus Dunelmenſis noted in the records; it is at a little diſtance from the head of the ſtreet called Old Elvet, in a direct line therewith, and oppoſite to Old Durham, the river dividing it from the latter place, and almoſt filling up the intervening ſpace: It was ſupported anciently, as is preſumed, by another fortreſs called the Peel, erected on the oppoſite eminence, which now bears the name of Peel Law. Many places in the northern counties retain the name of Peel and Law, implying caſtle and hill, whoſe antiquity may be traced back to the Saxon times. We preſumed to offer an opinion, in the preceding pages, that in the valley overlooked by this fortreſs, the wandering Saxons ſat down with the remains of Saint Cuthbert; and we ſubmit to the candour of the reader, whether that idea is altogether vague and improbable. The name of maiden applied to a caſtle is now become indefinite; whether it imples beautiful, or a fortreſs which never has been conquered, has not been determined: Our beſt antiquaries give preference to the diſtinction fair or beautiful. The old fort, on Stainmore, in Weſtmoreland, is called Maiden Caſtle, and the adjoining incloſures bear the name of Peel-yard.

Biſhop Carilepho, on his bringing in the canons regular, granted to the convent, Elvet as a free borough, that they might have forty merchants there, exempted from all dues and duties to him and his ſucceſſors *.

[Page 311] In the reign of king Stephen, Cumin's ſoldiers burnt the borough of Elvet; at the ſame time they burnt St Giles's. Biſhop Pudſey reſtored the borough, and confirmed it to the convent, with all its ancient privileges *. In the convention entered into between biſhop Poore and the convent, for quieting their privileges, we find Elvet thus mentioned. Conſuetudines et emendationes de bracinis et falſe pane, &c. de hoib's prior. apud Elvet & apud vetus burgum Dunelm. remanebunt, &c. P'dci autem hoi'es prioris de Elvet & de veteri burgo Dunelm. utantur eiſdem menſuris & ponderibus quibus hoi'es ep'i utuntur in burgo ſuo Dunelm. This convention was ratified and exemplified by biſhop Hatfield . That prelate, in 1379, made a confirmatory grant of tenements, given to the priory by biſhop Bury, wherein they are diſtinctly deſcribed, "Un. meſſ. & quatuor cot. cum p'tin. in Elvet in Dun. &c. un. gardinu et tres acras prati cum pertin. in vet'i burgo Dun. &c. "—In a licence from biſhop Dudley, 1483, to the convent, to put lands in mortmain, Elvet is thus mentioned: Baronia de Elvet juxta Dun. burgo de Elvet juxta Dun.— Vet'i burgo Dun.—Vic. Sc'i Egidii juxta Dun,—Burgo Dun.—& ballio auſtrale Dun §. Here we ſee the barony of Elvet, the borough of Elvet, the old borough of Durham, and the borough of Durham: The reader will immediately draw the diſtinction, and with it, we preſume, this inference, that the borough of Elvet, the borough of Durham, and the old borough of Durham, are ſeveral; the name of the borough of Durham being ſolely applied to the preſent city .

Having treſpaſſed much on the reader's patience, we proceed with the pariſh of St Oſwald. There are two ſtreets, the one called Old Elvet, the other New Elvet; from New Elvet branches out a ſtreet, called Hallgarth-ſtreet; from the prior's hall, named in the records Elvet Hall, the manor and barony houſe ſtanding therein . [Page 312] At the end of this ſtreet is a lofty hill of a conical figure, called Mont'joye, riſing from the plain or valley, (but on the oppoſite ſide of the river to Old Durham) where we have preſumed the Saxons ſat down with the remains of St Cuthbert. In French hiſtory we find a definition of this hiſtorical title, for there the name of Mont-joye is given to heaps of ſtones laid together by pilgrims, on which croſſes are erected, when they come within view of the end of their journey; and ſo betwixt St Dennis, in France, and Paris, they are called St Dennis's mont-joyes. When the travellers, bearing St Cuthbert's remains, arrived here, they would view the whole ground of their deſtination; and it lies in the exact line in which we preſume they made their progreſs from Ripon. The extremity of New Elvet bears the name of Church-ſtreet.

The church ſtands in a fine elevated ſituation, on the brink of the river. Much conjecture ariſes in etymologies; perhaps the ſituation gave the name to Elvet, derived from the French elevè, lofty, ſublime. The ſtreet of Old Elvet is very broad, excellently paved, and well built *: New Elvet is narrower, riſes with a ſteep aſcent, and has many ancient buildings. The gardens of each are beautiful; thoſe of the former inclining to the race-ground, having a view of Pelaw wood, the river, and St Giles's: The others hanging on the banks of the river, and its principal edifices.

The church ſtands in the center of a very large yard or burial ground, and having been built of ſtone ſubject to decay, is in moſt parts covered with rough-caſt [Page 313] and lime: It is of ſuch antiquity, that we find one Dolfinus mentioned as prieſt [Page 314] there in 1156. This is a regular edifice, having two ſide ailes of a ſimilar form: The length of the nave is twenty-nine paces, the middle aile is eight paces wide, and the ſide ailes ſix paces each: It is ſupported on pillars, five in each row, three to the eaſt are round, and two to the weſt octagonal, light, and of a good height; the capitals ornamented with rolls: The arches are circular: The arch which ſupports the tower, and that which opens the chancel, are pointed: The upper windows of the nave are regular, five on each ſide, with elliptic arches: The ſout haile is lighted by five ſide windows, three are eaſt of the door, and two to the weſt, and there is a window at each end, all with pointed arches: The north aile has but three ſide windows, two to the eaſt of the door, with elliptic arches, and one to the weſt, and a window at each end with pointed arches. Thoſe variances ſhew, at different periods, material alterations have been made in this fabric. The pulpit is placed againſt the firſt ſouth pillar *. In the ſouth wall, under the windows, are four arches for tombs, but no effigies or inſcription; neither is there any tradition for whom they were made. The font is a large ſtone baſon, and there is a gallery over it which fills the whole weſt end of the nave. The roof is of wood, in the vault form, of excellent workmanſhip, jointed with roſe knots, the rafters ſupported [Page 315] on brackets, ornamented with cherubs bearing ſhields, but without blazoning of arms. One of the knots, in the center of the arch, is painted blue, with an inſcription in a circle in letters of gold, of the old black character: Orate p' A. W. Catten, vicr. We preſume Catten cauſed the roof to be conſtructed in its preſent beautiful form, and find a Will. de Catten vicar in 1411. The church is well ſtalled, the chancel remarkably neat, and kept with that pious decency which is neceſſary to the ſolemnities of divine worſhip: It is 12 paces in length to the ſteps of the altar rails, and ſix wide: The altar is elevated ſix ſteps, and the ſpace within the rails is upwards of 12 feet: The eaſt window conſiſts of four lights, under a pointed arch; there are three windows on the north ſide, and four on the ſouth, ſome of which are modern: Behind the table, and on each ſide, it is wainſcotted, painted, and gilded; and below the rails, the chancel is regularly ſtalled in the cathedral form with oak, having a large ſeat at each ſide of the entrance gate. The roof is flat and ſtuccoed. The veſtry room is alſo very neat. There is much broken painted glaſs in the windows, but no figure perfect. Againſt the ſecond pillar, chained to a deſk, is "The defence of the apology of the church of England," with the ſermon preached at Paul's croſs, by the biſhop of Sarum, 1560, and other curious tracts. In the tower is a ſet of ſix muſical bells. The vicarage houſe is ſweetly ſituated at the north entrance into the church-yard, on the banks of the river.

The pariſh of St Oſwald * lies in the deanry of Cheſter, from which it is diſtant about ſeven miles; being a Peculiar belonging to the dean and chapter of Durham, it pays no procurations to their official, or to the archdeacon of Durham: Since the year 1660, no churches exempt from archidiaconial juriſdiction, and ſubordinate to the dean and chapter of Durham, have paid any procurations to the official. This church is dedicated to the royal Saint Oſwald.

There were two chantries in this church: One dedicated to St John the Baptiſt and St John the Evangeliſt, annual value 12l. 9s. 4d. was founded by Rich. de Elvet, cl. John de Elvet, cl. and Gilbert de Elvet. Walter, biſhop of Durham, granted them licence, dated the 5th of June, 1402, to erect a chantry of one chaplain, at the altar of St John the Baptiſt and St John the Evangeliſt, that they, their [Page 316] anceſtors and heirs, might be prayed for, and that lands and rents of the annual income of ten marks might be given to the chaplain and his ſucceſſors for ever: Accordingly the manor of Edderacres * with its appurtenances, a meſſuage in Fleſhewergate in the borough of Durham, two meſſuages in the borough of Elvet, and one meſſuage in Old Elvet deſcribed to be near the cemetery of St Oſwald, all which were of the real value of 6l. 10s. were conveyed over to the chaplain and his ſuceſſors for ever, by the biſhop's conſent, the 26th of April, 1403 . The other chantry was dedicated to St Mary the Virgin , annual value 4l. Walter, biſhop of Durham, granted his licence, dated the 20th of September, 1392, to John Sharp and Wm de Middleton, chaplains, to give two meſſuages with their appurtenances in Elvet, of the yearly value of 12s. to Alan Hayden, chaplain, cuſtos of the bleſſed Mary's chantry in this church, to be held by him and his ſucceſſors for ever, for their better ſupport and maintenance §.

There was an hoſpital dedicated to St Leonard, in this pariſh; but who was the founder, what was the conſtitution, or the time of its building, remain unknown: It is not named in the Monaſticon, or any other authorities before us, ſave thoſe of the church of Durham. We are led to conjecture that this hoſpital ſtood at Beautrove or Butterby, as that manor is tithe-free, and ſituated near the medicinal ſprings hereafter noted.

Adjoining to the ſouth wall of the church-yard, is a field, called the Anchorage, (or Anchoritage, Hermitage, or Hermit's cloſe) and adjoining thereto is a field called the Palmer's (or Mendicant's) cloſe; but we have met with no evidence relative to a hermitage here.

From the ſouth-weſt corner of the church-yard you enter upon thoſe beautiful natural ſcenes which border the river. A walk is laid open, and kept in order for the recreation of the public, at the charge of the dean and chapter, whoſe benevolence on this and various other occaſions, demands the warmeſt acknowledgments. Mr Pennant, ſpeaking of the banks, ſays, they ‘are covered with wood, through which are cut numbers of walks, contrived with judgment, and happy in the moſt beautiful and ſolemn ſcenery. They impend over the water, and receive a moſt venerable improvement from the caſtle and ancient cathedral, which tower far above.’ The banks are ſteep, and cloathed with foreſt trees; [Page 317] in ſeveral parts the rocks break forth, where venerable oaks are ſuſpended: The river, with a pure and tranquil ſtream, glides at the bottom of the hill, reflecting the noble objects which crown her banks: Here the opening valley pours forth a rivulet, and there the ſolemn dell, with Nature's wildeſt beauties, yawns with broken rocks, which yield the living fountain from their lips, whilſt each brow is crowded with bending oaks, whoſe naked talons and twiſted arms rival each other in groteſque figure. You ſee the towers of the cathedral riſing ſublimely from the wood, and lifting their ſolemn battlements to the clouds; and beyond thoſe the turrets of the caſtle, on their rocky baſe; whilſt on the other hand, the houſes of South-ſtreet are ſtretched along the ſummits of hanging gardens: In front is an elegant new bridge of three arches, through the bows of which, at the firſt diſtance, are ſeen a fine canal of ſtill water, with a mill; at the ſecond diſtance, Framwelgate bridge, of two elliptic arches; and through the bows of the ſecond bridge, the pleaſant villa of Crook Hall *, with the riſing grounds behind it. This proſpect, perhaps, is not to be equalled in the environs of any city in the known world. On turning about, you have a view not leſs pleaſing for its ſimplicity; you command the walk before noted, with a fine bend of the river, forming a creſcent; the banks richly cloathed with wood, and crowned with the church of St Oſwald. This walk is much frequented, and deſervedly has the applauſe of every traveller. We preſent to the reader two plates of thoſe favourite views on the banks.

The New Bridge was erected in 1781, at the expence of the dean and chapter, by Mr Nicholſon their architect: It is upon a beautiful modern plan, the arches ſemicircular, with a baluſtraded battlement. There was formerly a narrow bridge near this place for horſes to paſs, which was carried away by the floods in 1771 : The accident proved fortunate for the public, as it occaſioned the preſent handſome ſtructure to be erected, which being of a ſuitable width, the chapter permit gentlemen's carriages to paſs thereon, without toll.

FRAMWELGATE BRIDGE, ſeen upon this view, has one pier and two elliptic arches, of ninety feet ſpan, ſo flat as to be conſtructed on the quarter ſection of a circle, calculated to ſuit the low ſhores on each ſide: The maſonry is plain, but excellent, as is proved by its age; it was built by biſhop Flambard, has ſtood near ſeven hundred years, and is perhaps the fineſt model of bridge-building, of that antiquity, in Britain. A gateway tower which ſtood on the city end of the bridge, was removed of late years for the conveniency of carriages, which have encreaſed amazingly in number within this century. Biſhop Bainbrigg granted to prior Caſtel and the convent, all the waſte land between this bridge and Elvet bridge, [Page 318] reſerving certain privileges to him and his ſucceſſors and their tenants*; and biſhop Kellow granted them the fiſhery.

CROOK HALL, which we mentioned in the preceding page, took its name from a family of Crook who ſettled there in the times of king Edward II. and III. they having diſuſed the name of Sidgate manor, its ancient title. In the time of Edward III. it became the poſſeſſion of Billingham, of Billingham, who held it for many ages; and we find by the proceedings on an elegit, in 1651, this was the eſtate of Thomas Billingham, and therein it is mentioned as being the capital houſe of the manor of Sidgate. The dean and chapter have a yearly payment out of the lands of Crook hall of 53s. 4d. for tithes .

Park-keepers have been appointed by patent for Frankleyn for many ages §.

At the diſtance of half a mile from Crook Hall is NEWTON HALL, one of the ſeats of Sir Henry George Liddell, bart. The ſituation is lofty and beautiful, commanding a fine proſpect of the city and adjacent country: It is a handſome modern houſe, ſheltered with plantations, and environed with rich meadow lands. Newton is named among thoſe tenements, which, the monaſtic writers tell us, the biſhops yielded up to the earls of Northumberland, to enable them by their iſſues, the better to proſecute the wars of thoſe times; which, when once ſevered from the church, were refuſed to be reſtored, and in time became lay fees: But afterwards, when the See was ſettled at Durham, the church was reinſtated in all its ancient [Page 219] poſſeſſions. By the Boldon book * we learn the abbot of Peterborough had Newton by agreement and free alms of the biſhop; and that Radulphus Clericus held certain lands there, as well the eſtate of Robert Tit, as what he had of the biſhop, in exchange for lands in Middleham. Biſhop Pudſey granted Newton to Roger de Reding, (who afterwards appears to have taken the name of Roger de Newton) under a reſerved rent of eight marks of ſilver: It ſoon afterwards was part of the poſſeſſions of the ancient family of Bowes, for biſhop Bury, by his deed, dated in 1337, rehearſing ſeveral conveyances, confirms to Adam de Boughes the ſeveral lands therein named, for the twentieth part of a knight's fee, and 20s. 1d. rent payable at the biſhop's exchequer. In 1345, biſhop Hatfield alſo confirms the ſame; and in 1447, biſhop Nevil, by inſpeximus of all the former inſtruments, confirms the ſeveral premiſſes to William Bowes. In biſhop Bury's time we ſee Nicholas Scriptor in poſſeſſion of ſixty acres inter Petariam de Newton & Aldnewton, held in capite by ſervice and fealty, and 5s. rent payable at the biſhop's exchequer in Durham, and 13s. 4d. to John de Akeley, and 6s. to Alice, the widow of Rich. de Belle, for life. By biſhop Hatfield's ſurvey it is ſtated, that John Heron, eſq was in poſſeſſion of Newton per ſervic. forin §, and cvjs. viijd. rent. The heirs of William de Kirkenny had x acres called Kyowlawe, rendering a pound of cumin: And of the lands there termed lands of the exchequer, William Bowes, eſq held 40 acres of freehold, formerly the right of the ſcribe called Fyngall, rendering 5s. beſides him ſundry other perſons held lands of that tenure. By an inquiſition taken on the death of Elizabeth the widow of Robert Bowes, it appears that ſhe had dower aſſigned at Newton. On the death of her heir Sir William del Bowes, we find he died ſeiſed int. al's of the capital meſſuage of Newton, with [Page 320] two hundred acres of land there, of the gift of the biſhop*. This eſtate continued in the family of Bowes till the fifth year of biſhop Pilkington, when Geo. Bowes, eſq obtained a licence to alien to Anth. Middleton. It afterwards became the eſtate of Thomas Blakiſton, eſq who conveyed it to Marmaduke Blakiſton, clerk, one of the prebendaries of Durham, in the ſeventh year of biſhop James; and he ſold it to the family of Liddell.

At the diſtance of two ſhort miles from Newton ſtands

1.7.1. FINCHALE,

on the banks of the river Were. It was a place of ſome conſequence in the early ages of the Britiſh church, for we hear of a ſynod being held here in the year 792, in the time of Higbald, biſhop of Lindisfarn, for the purpoſe of regulating church diſcipline and manners: And it ſeems another ſynod was held here in the year 810§.

In the beginning of the twelfth century, St Godric, a hermit, ſought this ſecluded ſituation for his devotions, mortifications, and ſeverities, where he lived ſixty-ſix years, and died in the year 1170. Soon after the hermit ſettled here, biſhop Flambard granted to the monaſtery of Durham, in free alms, the hermitage of Finchale, with its waters, fiſhings, rights, and privileges, ſubject to Godric's life, who ſhould hold of them; and after his death, that it might be the habitation of ſuch of their brethren as they ſhould appoint. Gul. Neubrigenſis, gives a particular account of this man. In cibo et potu, in verbo et geſtu, homo ſimpliciſſimus, decente cum gravitate ſervare modum ſtuduit. velox ad audiendum, tardus autem ad loquendum, & in ipſa locutione parciſſimus. The hermit erected a ſmall chapel here, and dedicated it to St John the Baptiſt: Though he died in great agonies, this writer deſcribes him in vultu autem ejus mira quedam dignitas et decus inſolitum viſebatur . As to
[Page 321] his way of life, take the ſame author, Quem tandem poſt multam luſtrationem inveniens, ibidem, cum ſorore paupercula primum, & ea defuncta ſolus, multo tempore habitavit.

About the year 1180, biſhop Pudſey granted a foundation charter for a cell at Finchale *, by which it appears two monks of Durham, Reginald and Henry, had poſſeſſed themſelves of Godric's hermitage, and had ſome allowances made them for their ſupport. Henry, the biſhop's ſon, was about to found a religious houſe at Backſtanford , which the convent of Durham did not approve, being eſteemed an intruſion on their rights; an agreement ſoon took place on the following terms; the convent granted to Henry, Finchale, with its appurtenances, to the intent that he ſhould build a church there, and inſtitute a convent of monks; thus he was induced to transfer his works of piety to this retirement, where he erected proper accommodations for a colony of Benedictines, choſen out of the convent of Durham, over whom was placed Thomas the ſacriſt, as prior, in the year 1196. This houſe received conſiderable augmentations by various pious donations .

When the church and other edifices at Finchale were erected, the remains of which are yet ſtanding, it is not poſſible to determine with preciſion, no evidence thereof being found in the archives of the dean and chapter: From the order of building ſeen in ſome parts of the ruins, much may be attributed to Henry the biſhop's ſon; but other parts appear of older date. The ſolemn remains are [Page 322] ſituated in a very deep vale, on the banks of the river, where the ſtream making a ſweep, forms a little level plot, which is almoſt covered with the buildings; ſheltered to the north by the lofty rocks and hanging woods of Cocken, and on every other ſide by ſteep hills. The river flows ſwiftly over a rocky channel; and the murmuring of the waterfalls is re-echoed from the groves and cliffs. The preſent buildings are much diſunited, ſo that it is impoſſible to trace all the ancient offices of this religious manſion.

At the entrance into the church, at the weſt end, on the right-hand, is a ſquare vault, the roof of which is groined from the angles and the ſide walls, and ſupported in the center by a ſhort octagonal pillar: There was an aqueduct to this place, and it had an upper apartment. The church, though ſmall, is in the form of a croſs; the gateway, at the weſt end, has a pointed arch of ſeveral members, riſing from ſmall round columns or pilaſters, with plain capitals: The nave is twenty-eight paces in length, and ſeven in width. In the center of the croſs it appears there has been a tower or ſpire, ſupported on four circular pillars, very ſhort and heavy, exceeding even part of Durham cathedral for diſproportion: The pillars are ſo maſſive, that one of them contains a turpike ſtaircaſe, which led to the ſuperſtructure; they form a ſquare of equal ſides, twenty-one feet from pillar to pillar, the capitals of an octagonal form: The center had a dome or vaulted roof, with interſecting ribs, and on the eaſt ſide one pointed arch remains. In the etching given in Stevens' Monaſticon, drawn by King, a ſhort octagonal ſpire of ſtone is placed on the tower. On the north ſide of the nave, are four pillars ſupporting pointed arches; the pillars round, with capitals formed of double rolls, conſtructed of a durable ſtone, and entire; the ſouth ſide is cloſe, a long cloiſter or paſſage running on the outſide to communicate with the ſouth limb of the croſs. The north and ſouth limbs of the croſs are exactly equal in length and width, being twelve paces long and ſeven broad: They are very ill lighted; one great window in the ſouth limb, towards the eaſt, being the chief: Indeed it appears that thoſe parts have been added to the original ſtructure, or rebuilt; as they are in no wiſe ſimilar to the other parts in maſonry or materials. The choir is remarkable; from the eaſt window, ten paces in length, it is incloſed with high dark walls, and from thence to the croſs, being nine paces, (the whole nineteen paces long) are two round columns on each ſide, ſimilar to thoſe in the nave, bearing three pointed arches: The eaſt window has been ſive paces wide, (as appears from the meaſurement of the ſole, for all the reſt is gone) with outward buttreſſes, ornamented with ſtone pinnacles, one of which on the ſouth ſide ſtill remains. It is very ſingular that windows of a modern date have been placed between the pillars, to fill up the arches, formed of a yellow and periſhable kind of ſtone; which work now ſeparates itſelf from the arches: The yellow ſtone has been won from the bed of the river, and is of the ſame kind with thoſe of which the out-buildings are conſtructed; the columns and arches are of a bluer nature, and in no wiſe injured by time; they ſeem to be of the Normandy ſtone, much like the columns and caſtings of ſeveral of the ancient caſtles. Allowing this obſervation to be juſt, we ſhould be apt to conjecture theſe columns and arches originally divided the center from a ſide aile; but [Page 323] on ſtrict ſearch, no foundations or other work was diſcovered which could encourage this idea: If there were no ſide ailes, then this was a fabric of ſingular conſtruction; for it will follow, that the nave and part of the choir were open to the air on the ſides, like a cloiſter: There is ſomething ſimilar in the abbey of Furneſs, in Lancaſhire, where a part on the north ſide is open. The founder, in imitation of the ſeverities of St Godric, might think it expedient to deprive the monks of indulgence, and leave the church open to the air; but in after ages, when the religious profeſſed more outſide ſhew than real zeal, yielded to the faſcinations of luxury, and ſtudied gratifications and ſoftneſs, they cloſed the arches with windows, made covered paſſages, and transformed this building to its preſent model: As its ſolenm beauties are much admired, if the windows were diſplaced, and the columns and arches laid open, it would greatly improve its appearance, and render it ſtill a finer objet from the walks of Cocken.

The reſt of the monaſtic buildings are very ragged and ruinous: In one part a bow window is projected from a pilaſter in the wall, and ſeems to have appertained to ſome chief apartment. The hall or refectory has been a handſome edifice; it ſtands on the ſouth ſide of a court, nearly of equal ſides, about twenty-ſix paces every way; is twelve paces long, and eight wide, within the walls; having five regular windows to the ſouth, and four to the north; in the ſtaircaſe or entrance is a large window to the ſouth: The vault underneath is ſupported by a row of four octagonal pillars in the center, without capitals, from whence the groins are ſprung; the pilaſters in the walls and angles are capitalled; the ribs are of hewn ſtone, meeting in points, and the interſtices of the vault wedged with thin ſtones; the whole a fine piece of architecture. This vault is lighted by ſix ſmall windows to the ſouth, and is not above eight feet in height to the crowns of the arches.

It is ſaid that St Godric, and alſo Henry de Puteaco, or Pudſey, lie interred here; but the floor of the church is covered with ruins, and grown over with brambles and weeds, ſo as to prevent, without much labour, a ſearch for their tombs *.

The revenues of this houſe, 26th king Henry VIII. were valued at 122l. 15s. 3d. according to Dugdale, and 146l. 19s. 2d. Speed. At the diſſolution it conſiſted of a prior and eight monks . The manor and cell of Finchale were part of the poſſeſſions reſtored to the church on the foundation of a dean and chapter, by king Henry's deed of endowment.

[Page 324] Finchale being part of the prebendal corps lands, the beauty of the retirement induced Mr Spence * to make a good room in the farm-houſe near the abbey, with a bow-window overhanging the murmuring ſtreams of the Were, and looking upon the ſweet ſequeſtered walks of Cocken, but turning its back upon the venerable ruins.

The pleaſant village of SHINCLIFF lies within a mile of Durham, ſheltered by hills on every ſide, except towards the ſouth-weſt, where it opens to the river Were, with rich meadow lands. Biſhop Carilepho granted it with other lands to the convent of Durham . There was an ancient bridge over the river at this place, which, in biſhop Fordham's time, was gone to decay; collections have been made for repairing it, but the money being embezzeled or miſapplied, a commiſſion of account iſſued, dated 14th of January, 1385: It ſeems the meaſure was ineffectual, for his ſucceſſor, biſhop Skirlaw, erected a ſtone bridge of three arches, which ſtood till the year 1752, when the violent flood on the 7th of February undermined and threw down one of the piers, which carried with it two of the arches; the bridge was reſtored the following ſummer at the public expense §. It is ſaid Shincliff was the birth place of biſhop Sever, abbot of St Mary's, York. We find the family of Aſlakby had poſſeſſion here in biſhop Langley's time. It has been the ſeat of the family of the Hoppers of late years, whoſe preſent repreſentative is Robert Hopper Williamſon, eſq

Near this village William Rudd, eſq built his villa, ſeated in a delightful retirement, commanding a ſolemn view of the ſequeſtered vale, with its hanging woods, which form a beautiful amphitheatre; a ſcene excellently adapted to ſtudy and contemplation.

On the other ſide of the river ſtands Houghall, part of the prebendal lands of the church. The manor houſe was built by prior Hotoun, who, notwithſtanding the embarraſſments he ſuffered under the perſecuting ſpirit of biſhop Bek, completed this and other conſiderable pious works. No certain etymology of the name of this place is obtained; from its ſituation, in a low and watry plain, we may adopt the word hough, which in this country has acceptation for a plain by the ſide of the river; which is ſufficiently deſcriptive of the ſcite of this place. There was in the cathedral church, as before noted, an altar called Howall's altar, erected [Page 325] perhaps by ſome benefactor who beſtowed this place on the church; or indeed it might be called Hotoun's hall, from the prior who built it in the thirteenth century; the corruption to Houghhall ſeems a familiar one. The houſe has been moated round and otherwiſe fortified: Tradition ſays Sir Arthur Hazelrigge poſſeſſed it, and that Oliver lodged there for ſome time; it is certain it was refitted, and perhaps put into a ſtate of defence by ſome of that party; the arms of Cromwell now remain on one of the mantle-pieces in the houſe.

At the diſtance of a mile to the ſouth-weſt, but on the oppoſite ſide of the river, ſtands

1.7.2. BUTTERBY,

anciently written Beautrove, from its beautiful ſituation. The river Were runs almoſt round the chief part of the eſtate, the neck of land which divides the ſtreams being only about two hundred yards wide. Here, it has been imagined, ſtood the ancient hoſpital of St Leonard; the founder and inſtitution not now known. The lands are remarkably fertile; the river near the houſe falls ſwiftly over a rough channel, under high rocky ſhores and hanging woods: On the more diſtant ſide of the eſtate the river flows deep and ſlow, forming a canal a mile in length, where the adjacent lands make a conſiderable plain. There is not a ſweeter rural ſcene in the whole county, unadorned and in ſimple nature, for art has not yet extended her hand hither, further than in the ordinary courſe of agriculture. As this place is remarkable for its beauty, ſo it is for natural curioſities; ſurrounded with the river, from the fiſſure of a rock, which lies about forty feet from the ſhore, flows a conſiderable ſpring of ſalt water, mixed with a mineral quality. The ſituation of this ſpring ſubjects it to a mixture of freſh water, ſo that it is difficult to know how much ſalt it contains in its pureſt ſtate; on ſeveral trials it has yielded double the quantity produced from ſea water. The ſhore for a conſiderable diſtance ſhews many ouzings, or ſmall iſſues of ſalt water; from which circumſtance, and by a dike or break of the rocks in the channel of the river, a little above the ſpring, it is preſumed a rock or bed of ſalt might be won of ſome value: It has never been ſearched for; the family who lately poſſeſſed the eſtate, from a love of retirement and eaſe, neglected a trial. The ſpring is much reſorted to in ſummer for its medical qualities; but as the well is not incloſed by any building, it is frequently overflowed by the river. This water is reputed to be an effectual remedy for a diſeaſe known among people employed in ſmelting and refining houſes belonging to the lead works. Half a pint is ſufficiently purgative for the ſtrongeſt perſon. Within a few yards of the ſalt ſpring, on the oppoſite ſhore, is a fluent ſpring ſtrongly impregnated with ſulphur, without any vitriolic or other compound*.

[Page 326] The proſpect from an adjacent head-land, called Croxdale Scar, is deſervedly admired by every viſitant: It commands an extenſive view of the valley towards the weſt, with the channel of the river for ſeveral miles through a country highly cultivated. Over a fine plain, at the diſtance of a mile, are ſeen Sunderland bridge of four arches, with Croxdale, the beautiful ſeat-houſe of William Salvin, eſq on the left, and Burnigill on the right; the ſcene animated by paſſengers on the great ſouthern turnpike road: Beyond the bridge the vale narrows and winds towards the ſouth, diverſified by woodlands, cottages, and incloſures: To the right you look down upon the vale of Butterby, belted round with the cryſtal waters of the Were, and the eye traces its varied ſhores, its rocks and ſylvan ſcenes: Beyond which lies an extended valley, terminated by the village of Shincliff, and incloſed on every ſide with lofty foreſts.

The manor-houſe of Butterby ſtands in a pleaſant garden, which, with the whole offices are incloſed by a deep moat, walled round, and though now dry, is capable of being filled with water to the depth of 15 feet: The entrance is by a ſtrong gateway and bridge. The ſecluded ſitua [...]ion of the houſe ſhuts it from diſtant proſpects; but ſuch as it commands are romantic and rural. In cleanſing the moat ſome years ago, in a large ſtone trough were found a coat of mail, with a cap of chain work quilted in canvas, a halbert, breaſtplate and buckler: In an adjacent field, where it is ſuppoſed an ancient chapel ſtood, many ſtone coffins and holy water jars were dug up.

[Page 327] This is a manor and conſtablery of itſelf, free of all manner of tithes, paying a preſcript rent of 1l. 13s. 4d. to the curate of Croxdale, at Midſummer.

Butterby was part of the ancient poſſeſſions of the Lumleys, of Lumley caſtle: Sir Marmaduke Lomeley held it, and from him it deſcended to Robert his ſon, who died ſeiſed thereof in the 36th year of biſhop Hatfield, 1381, as appears by an inquiſition taken at Durham, before Will. del Bowes, eſcheator: Ralph de Lumley was his brother and heir, and was poſſeſſed thereof at the time of his attainder, 1ſt king Henry IV. 1329; after which, in great bounty, the crown in the following year granted to Eleanor his lady, daughter of John lord Nevil of Raby, and ſiſter of Ralph earl of Weſtmoreland, 20l. a year out of the duties of Hull, together with the manors of Beautrove and Stranton: Thomas, her eldeſt ſon, died poſſeſſed of the caſtle of Lumley, and manors of Stanley, Stanton, Rickleſden, and Beautrove, in the 5th Henry IV. leaving his eldeſt ſon Sir John, who was reſtored in blood in the thirteenth year of that reign. As we do not find Beautrove in any future inquiſitions taken on the deaths of the Lumley family, we may conclude it paſſed as a marriage portion with Margaret, one of the daughters of Ralph Lumley, who married Sir John Clervaux of Croft, or otherwiſe ſold into that family; for Elizabeth, the heireſs of Clervaux, married Chriſtopher Chaytor, and carried with her large poſſeſſions: And we find, in the 8th year of queen Elizabeth, this Chriſt. Chaytor was poſſeſſed of Beautrove, and ſuffered a recovery * thereof in Cur. D'nae reginae apud Dunelm. Had this eſtate come into the crown by the attainder of George Lumley, in the 29th king Henry VIII. we know of no grant of ſo early a date as to admit ſuch limitations taking place in the Chaytors' family, as required a recovery being ſuffered, as before noted, to dock and defeat the ſame; the whole length of time being only, a period of twenty years. Nicholas Chaytor, of Croft, in the county of York, eſq by his will, dated February 8, 1665, made ſeveral proviſions out of this manor for his younger children, and ſubject thereto the eſtate deſcended to his eldeſt ſon Sir William Chaytor. In the 6th year of king William III. 1695, an act [Page 328] of parliament was obtained, intituled, an act to veſt certain lands of Sir William Chaytor, bart *. in Yorkſhire and Durham, to be ſold for payment of debts charged thereon, and to ſecure portions for younger children; by virtue of which the manor of Butterby was ſold in 1713, to Thomas, John, and Humphrey Doubleday, ſons of Robert Doubleday, then late of Jarrow, in this county, a Quaker family, under which purchaſe it ſoon after became the ſole property of Humphrey, ſave one-third of the ſalt-ſprings reſerved to the uſe of John Doubleday and his heirs. Humphrey's eldeſt ſon, Martin Doubleday, dying a bachelor, he deviſed the manor with his other eſtates, to his mother, who, by her will, deviſed the ſame upon truſt to be ſold; and it hath lately been purchaſed by Mr Ward of Sedgefield.

About a mile ſouth of Butterby is

1.7.3. CROXDALE,

the ſeat of the family of Salvin; an excellent houſe, placed on a lofty ſituation, and commanding a moſt beautiful proſpect of the vale through which the river Were winds its courſe, ſtretching ſeveral miles towards the ſouth-weſt; Sunderland bridge is in front, and the enlivened proſpect of the great ſouthern road with the paſſengers, at the agreeable diſtance of half a mile. It is bordered by extenſive woods and plantations, and embelliſhed with pleaſure grounds and gardens in a good taſte.

The firſt mention made of Croxdale in the records before us, is in biſhop Langley's inſpeximus, dated 1431 , of a grant of biſhop Anthony Bek, dated 1299, whereby the prelate granted to Walter de Robiry, certain lands of Queryndon moor, extending to the fields of Croxdale; and alſo an inſpeximus of Richard of Routhbery's grant of the ſame lands to John de Denum ; another inſpeximus of a [Page 329] grant from John de Denum to Richard de Routhbery for life, of the manor of Croxdale, with the before mentioned lands, by the ſervice of a roſe at the feaſt of St John the Baptiſt. In the 37th year of biſhop Hatfield, the manor was in the poſſeſſion of Robert de Whalton, who obtained licence to alien the ſame, with limitations to his iſſue*. In the 14th year of biſhop Skirlaw, A. D. 1402, it appears by an inquiſition, that the manor of Croxdale was in the hands of truſtees, to the uſe of the heirs of Robert Tirwhit, held of the lord biſhop in capite, by ſuit at three head courts.

In 1474, we find Croxdale was become the poſſeſſion of the Salvin family, and that Gerard Salvin died ſeiſed of the manor, and Gerard was his ſon and heir, then [Page 330] of the age of twenty-one years and upwards, from which time the family have held an uninterrupted poſſeſſion.

There is a chapel here under St Oſwald's, which being only three miles from Durham, was generally ſerved by a monk from the convent: It is a mean building, conſiſting of a nave or body and chancel, very dark, and in poor repair: No arms or monuments, or any thing memorable. It is in the deanry of Eaſington, and a Peculiar belonging to the dean and chapter of Durham, not certified or in charge, conſequently pays no firſt-fruits or tenths, but only 2s. 6d. as procurations to the biſhop. The real value (1767) was 52l. 10s *.


[Page 331] A ſmall rivulet runs at the foot of the pleaſure grounds, called Croxdale beck; this water paſſes through a very romantic channel, and ſupplies a paper-mill: It makes its way in a deep and narrow dell, juſt ſufficient to admit a winding road to the mill. The rocks on each hand are ſhaken and columnar, affording ſeveral grand and awful ſcenes; the precipices overhang the vale; and large foreſt trees, bending from the cliffs, extend their ſolemn ſhade on every ſide. The natural grottos watered with caſcades, the moſſy banks, the falling ſtreams of the brook, the gloom of the thick foliage, the groteſque rocks, the ſpreading arms of the oaks, the graſſy plots that border the rivulets, all conſpire to pleaſe the mind that has a taſte for ſolitude, romantic ſcenes, and rural meditation. Was a little art employed to ſmooth the paths, to remove ſome few deformities, and with a ſkilful hand to dreſs the wild beauties of the vale, we know not where a more extraordinary ſcene could be found. The dell is ſo deep, that on very few days in the year the ſun's rays touch the mill-houſe, and a perſon might live there for an age and never enjoy that ſpectacle. In days of deep ignorance and ſuperſtition, this dell was thought to be the reſidence of evil ſpirits; an idea which gained credit, perhaps, from its being a place reſorted to by robbers and vagabonds. To baniſh the infernal inhabitants, a croſs was erected here, which gave name to the adjacent lands, this being in ſeveral old writings wrote Croixdale; ſo the deſert of Croſs-fell, in Cumberland, is in old authors and charts called Fiends Fell; and ſince the erection of a croſs thereon, to vanquiſh the legions of Satan, it has obtained the preſent name of Croſs-Fell.

Returning towards Durham by the turnpike road,


lies to the left, the ſeat of Geo. Smith, eſq * The houſe ſtands in a low ſituation, on the banks of the river Bourn or Brune, from whence the houſe took its name. Mr Smith has made great improvements to his ſeat and adjacent lands: A farmhouſe, [Page 332] on the oppoſite ſide of the turnpike road, is called Old Burnhall. In the 25th year of biſhop Hatfield, we find this manor was the eſtate of Robert de Brackenbury, held of the lord of Brancepeth by the fourth part of a knight's fee, value 10l.* In the 5th king Richard II. 1381, it was called in the record Burnemagna, and was then held by Alicia the daughter and heireſs of Gilbert de Brackenbury, of John de Nevill, lord of Raby. It came into the family of the Claxtons by marriage with Maud, daughter and heireſs of Will. de Brackenbury, and was then held of the earl of Weſtmorland. It was afterwards the property of the Peacocks .

Near Burnhall houſe is a houſe vulgarly called Farewell Hall, ſituated on the ſide of the turnpike road; this was the family houſe of the Farnhams, who poſſeſſed a conſiderable landed property. The manor of Relley, which lies at the point of land between the rivulets of Brune and Derneſs, with lands in Aldernage, by the licence of biſhop Bury, were purchaſed by the convent of Durham of Richard de Caſtro Bernardi .

ALDERNAGE HOUSE, otherwiſe called Aldin-Grainge, in a pleaſant retired ſituation on the banks of the Brune, was the place of reſidence of John Bedford, eſq M. D. in the laſt years of his life; with a conſiderable eſtate adjoining, held under the dean and chapter of Durham, by leaſe for twenty-one years .


[Page 333]

BROOME is frequently mentioned in our ancient records. By an inquiſition taken in the third year of biſhop Bury, it appears, lands in Broome were the poſſeſſion of Conſtantia del Brome, who held them in capite by fealty and ten ſhillings rent, and Thomas del Brome was her ſon and heir. In the year 1362, Richard de Wyteparys died ſeiſed of lands in Netherbrome, held of the biſhop of Durham at 6s. 8d. rent, which paid a rent-charge of 20s. yearly to the prior of Durham; and alſo lands in Overbrome, held of the prior of Durham at 2s. rent. By biſhop Hatfield's [Page 334] ſurvey * it is ſtated, that one Robert Belford held lands which formerly belonged to the family of Brome, and that there were ſundry other proprietors, among whom the prior of Durham is noted to be in poſſeſſion of Wyteparys lands. In the 31ſt year of biſhop Hatfield, by an inquiſition taken on the death of Thomas de Hexham, whoſe heirs are named in the ſurvey before noted, we find he died ſeiſed of the manor of Broome, held of the prior of Finchale by fealty and four ſhillings rent. In a licence of biſhop Fordham's, for the priory of Durham to obtain lands in mortmain, dated 1388, certain lands in Le Brome are mentioned , formerly the eſtate of John Cawoode, named in the ſurvey before referred [Page 335] to, T'e. de Pr. ut de Cella ſua Fynkhall. In the beginning of the fifteenth century, the 27th year of biſhop Langley, it became part of the great poſſeſſions of the Foſſour family, who afterwards wrote their name Forcer*.


Part of BEAUREPAIRE, or BEARPARK, lies in the pariſh of St Oſwald, particularly the remains of the prior's houſe. Originally part of the poſſeſſions of the biſhop, it was obtained in exchange by prior Bertram, for Moorhouſe; who, having a deſire for a rural retreat for himſelf and ſucceſſors, in this place erected a camera or lodge, with a chapel. Prior Hugh, of Darlington, who ſucceeded him at the diſtance of about fourſcore years, in biſhop Stichill's time, encloſed the park; it is alſo ſaid by the monkiſh writers, he built a camera here, which we may conceive implies he added to or improved prior Bertram's erections. Whilſt biſhop Bek perſecuted the convent, he broke down the fences of the park, and drove out the game. In the reign of king Edward II. the Scotch, among other depredations committed in the environs of the city, pillaged and defaced this beautiful retreat. Prior Foſſour had great pleaſure in this [Page 336] place; to him we may attribute part of the embelliſhments, for the architecture of the chapel points out the improvements of a refined age; and as he acceded to his office in 1342, it may be preſumed he reſtored Beaurepaire after the deſtroying hand of the Scots, in 1346, when David Bruce, as Camden ſays, ferro & flamma foeviſſet. As authors are ſilent touching Beaurepaire from this period, it is probable nothing material happened to it till the diſſolution. The manor, with the houſe and park, were part of the poſſeſſions of the monaſtery, reſtored by the king's endowment, after the inſtitution of the dean and chapter.

In the time of dean Granville, who was inſtituted in 1684, an inquiſition was taken of the deanry poſſeſſions, in which we find Beaurepaire thus deſcribed: "Proeter domos ſive aedificia apud Dun. fuit & eſt ſpectan. ad decan. decanat. Dun. et 40, 50, aut 60 annos ultimo elapſ. et ultra, necnon p' te'pus, cujus contrarii memoria hominis non exiſtit, fuit ſtan. & exiſten. apud Bearparke, infra com. & dioc. Dun. quaedam domus manſional. vocat. the manor houſe of Bearpark, quae quidem domus manſionalis diſtans eſt a decanatu Dunelm. p' unu. miliare Anglicanu. vel eo circiter; ac infra eand. dom. manſionalem ſunt, ſeu ſaltem antiquitus & ab initio fuere ſtan. & exiſten. Cameae ſeu partitiones & cellae particular. ſequen. viz. a hall, two paſſages near the hall, one large kitchen and an oven in it, a back room adjoining on the weſt end of the kitchen, a dining room, a great room leading to the chapel called the dormitory, ſome arches, and two rooms above the arches, a chapel and a room under it, three rooms or two at leaſt called the prior's chamber, and the weſtern room thereof called the prior's lodgings, a little room adjoining the prior's chamber, a ſtaircaſe, and vaults under all and every the lower or floor rooms of the ſaid manſion houſe, excepting the hall and kitchen, and the room aforeſaid adjoining the kitchen. And at Bearpark aforeſaid, there formerly have been belonging to the ſaid manor houſe, ſeveral courts and gardens that were walled about; and alſo ſundry out-houſes, which are now wholly dilapidated, and nothing to be ſeen or perceived but the ruins thereof. Et etiam ſedes, locus, ſive villa de Bearparke, eſt & ab antiquo fuit maneriu. ac domus manſional. terraeq. dominical. ejuſd. manerij & aedificiae & ſtructurae reliquae reliqua praementionat. ad cand. dom. manſional. ſpectan. necnon tenementa & parcu. ejuſd. manerij, aliaq. proficua & emolumenta infra precinctus & territoria dict. manerij annuatim emergen. no'ric ſunt pars & parcella corporis decanat. Dun. &c. Et terrae dominical. & tenementa ac parcum manerij de Bearparke aliaq. proficua infra terris dom. ejuſdem manerii ſunt & pro 20, &c. annos ultimo elapſos et ultra fuere annuatim de claro valen. ſumam 300l. 295l. 290l. 285l. aut 280l. legalis monetae Angliae, ac praed. J. Sudbury durante toto tempore p' q'd fuit decan. ex terris dominical. & tenementis ac parco aliiſq. emolumentis manorij de Bearparke, ſum'am 6000l. &c. de claro leg'lis monetae Angliae habebat p'cipicbat & in uſu. ſuu. convertebat *." The ſituation of this houſe is excellent, about two miles to the north-weſt of Durham, on a lofty eminence, above the rivulet of Brune, in a dry ſoil, and ſurrounded with cultivated lands, having a long extended level mead to the ſouth; ſine coppices are ſcattered over the ſteep deſcents on both ſides of the river; and there is a beautiful proſpect to the [Page 337] north, rendered highly pictureſque by the town and church of Witton-Gilbert and the adjacent hamlets. Much deſtruction has been made in the buildings ſince dean Granville's time; and nothing but naked and diſtracted walls remain of this once beautiful place. The chapel is thirteen paces long and eight wide; the eaſt window conſiſts of three lights, circular at the top and very plain; there are three windows on each ſide, each divided by a mullion into two lights, their framing on the outſide ſquare: The wall is ſtrengthened with a buttreſs of neat hewn ſtone work between each window, and a cornice runs round the building of the zig-zag figure: There is a door on the north ſide of the chapel from the court*. The walls of the chapel in the inſide are ornamented with a regular ſucceſſion of ſmall round columns or pilaſters, belted in the midſt, the capitals filled with a garland of open cut foliage, of a delicate work; from whence ſpring pointed arches, three pilaſters and two arches in each ſpace between the windows: The weſt end is equally finiſhed with pilaſters and arches; and there is a ſmall window in the center: At each ſide of the eaſt window is a pedeſtal, for a ſtatue, of conſiderable ſize. The apartment under the chapel is lighted by ſmall ſquare windows; but as the floor of the chapel is gone, it is not eaſy to determine how it was conſtructed. Adjoining to the chapel on the weſt is a long building, the two gabels of which are ſtanding, having a large window of ſix lights to the ſouth: This was moſt probably the refectory. On the north are the remains of a building, twenty paces in length, lighted to the eaſt by three windows, which we conjecture was the dormitory: The other remains are ſo ruined and confuſed, as to render them totally indiſtinct. There is a door caſe ſtanding, which has been the entrance into the garden or ſome chief court, with the arms of the See in the center. The principal parts of this edifice are delineated in the plate on the next page.

The Scotch army, before the battle of the Red Hills, in 1346, (called by many writers the battle of Nevill's Croſs, from the croſs erected on the ground after the
[Page 338]
Figure 2. BEAR PARK
victory) lay at Beaurepaire. In the Chronique of William de Pakington, it is thus ſpoken of: ‘About this tyme, by the meane of Philip Valoys, king of France, David, king of Scottes enterid yn to the north marches, ſpoiling and burning, and toke by force the pyle of Lydelle, and cauſid the noble knight Walter Selby captayne of it, to be ſlayne afore his owne face, not ſuffering him ſo much as to be confeſſed. And after he cam to the coſte of Dyrham, and lay there at a place caullid Beaurepaire, a manor of the prior of Dureſme, ſet in a parke; and thither reſorted many of the cuntery aboute, compounding with hym to ſpare their groundes and manurs. Then William Souch, archebiſhop of York, the counte of Anegos, Mounſeir John de Montbraye, Mounſeir Henry de Percy, Mounſeir Rafe de Neville, Mounſeir Rafe de Haſtinges, Mounſeir Thomas de Rokeby, then ſheriff of Yorkſhire, and other knightes and good men of the northe, marchid toward the Scottes, and firſt lay yn Akeland park, and in the morning encounterid with Syr William Duglas, killing of his band 200 menne; and he, with much payne, eſcapid to Burepaire, to king David, declaring the cuming of the Engliſh hoſt. Wher then king David iſſued, and faught upon a more nere to Dureſme toune, and there was taken priſoner, and with hym Syr Wylliam Douglas, the Counte of Menethe, and the Counte of Fyfe, and greate numbre of the communes of Scotland ſlayn. The king, becauſe he was wondid in the face, he was caried to Werk, and there he lyd, and thens brought to London.’ We have repeated this account becauſe it contains ſome circumſtances not named by modern authors. The year in which this battle was fought, was productive of the moſt glorious laurels that wreathed the ſword of Edward III. and the Scotch received ſuch humiliations as that nation never before experienced. [Page 339] The king of England, with an army greatly inferior to his foes, by the valour and intrepid conduct of his heroic ſon, obtained a glorious victory at Creſſy. He then formed a blockade before Calais, which, with other diſtreſſes, induced the king of France to ſend propoſals to the court of Scotland, for making an invaſion on the borders: The abſence of Edward, the vaſt ſupplies of men and money which his campaign required, the exhauſted ſtate of England, afforded a probable appearance that David's projected expedition might be attended with ſucceſs: The king of France's object was not honour to the Scotch crown, but to amuſe the king of England, or draw off ſome of his forces: A conſiderable ſum of money and reinforcement of troops were ſent into Scotland, and the king, with the aſſent of his parliament aſſembled at Perth, engaged in the expedition. Edward having entertained doubts, that during his abſence a ſtorm would be gathering on the brow of his known adverſary, diſpatched meſſengers to the court of Scotland, to amuſe by offers of a reſtitution of Berwick, on condition that the Scotch would ſtand neuter in the conflicts between England and France; but contrary to the opinion of many of his moſt ſkilful peers, David rejected the propoſed terms of amity, and prepared to invade England: He collected a powerful army, conſiſting, according to Rapin, of 30,000 men; other authors, particularly Froiſſart, Speed, Barnes, and Knighton greatly exaggerate the numbers; with theſe, in the beginning of October, 1346, David entered England by the weſtern march, ſhewing tokens of a bloody and ſavage mind in his outſet, by putting the garriſon of Liddell tower to the ſword, and marking his progreſs through Cumberland with wanton ſlaughter and deſolation. He advanced to the county of Durham, and approached the city. The queen of England ſummoned the prelates and military tenants to attend her at York, where meaſures were concerted for oppoſing the invaders, and a body of troops, amounting to about 16,000 men, were aſſembled with all ſpeed; whilſt David, with his army, lay at Beaurepaire, the aſſociate lords encamped in Auckland park. Douglas, with a choſen troop, reconnoitering the Engliſh, was engaged near Merrington; his detachment was put to the rout, and he eſcaped to the king with much peril. Rapin tells us, the queen of England led the Engliſh forces to battle; but that aſſertion is not ſupported by any cotemporary writer of credit: David looked upon his adverſaries as a raw and undiſciplined army, not able to ſtand againſt his hardy veterans, and ſhewed ſigns of great impatience before the troops engaged, preſuming that victory was certain, and that the riches of the city were due to his plundering ſoldiers: The Engliſh army was drawn up in four diviſions; lord Henry Percy commanded the firſt, ſupported by the earl of Angus, the biſhop of Durham, and ſeveral northern nobles; the ſecond body was led by the archbiſhop of York, accompanied by the biſhop of Carliſle, and the lords Nevill and Haſtings; the biſhop of Lincoln, the lord Mowbray, and Sir Thomas Rokeſby led the third diviſion; and at the head of the fourth was Edward Baliol, ſupported by the archbiſhop of Canterbury, the lord Roos, and the ſheriff of Northumberland: Each diviſion conſiſted of four thouſand men, and the archers and men at arms were diſtributed through the whole corps: The author of the Border Hiſtory, probably from his own conjecture, for he quotes no authority, alledges ‘That beſides the [Page 340] forces above named, a ſtrong and gallant party under the lords Deincourt and Ogle, guarded queen Philippa, who, in the morning before the battle, having rode along the ranks, and exhorted every man to do his duty, to maintain the honour of his king and country, and take revenge upon their barbarous invaders, recommended her people to the protection of God, and retired to a ſmall diſtance from the place of action.’ The Scotch army was drawn out in three diviſions; the firſt was led by the high ſteward of Scotland, and the earl of March; the earl of Murray and lord Douglas commanded the ſecond; and the third, conſiſting of choice troops, in which were incorporated the flower of the Scottiſh nobility and gentry, ſuſtained by the French auxiliaries, was commanded by the king in perſon. With much heroic ardour the Scotch king ordered the trumpets to ſound the charge: The high ſteward, who led the van, being ſore galled by the Engliſh archers, ruſhed on with ſuch impetuous fury, that he threw them into confuſion, and drove them back on lord Henry Percy's diviſion; and the Scotch puſhing on vigorouſly with their broad ſwords and battle axes, broke them ſo much, that if relief had not inſtantly been ſent them, they would have been put to the rout; but Baliol, ruſhing in with a body of horſe, threw the Scotch battalion into confuſion, and gave the Engliſh time to rally and regain their ground, whilſt the high ſteward was obliged to retreat and reform his diſtracted array: In this manoeuvre he is ſaid to have ſhewn great generalſhip, performing the evolutions in a maſterly manner, and with little loſs. Baliol, with equal ſkill, gave his troops breath, made no purſuit, and when leaſt ſuſpected, rapidly charged the king's diviſion in flank, whilſt they fought man to man in front: Unrelieved, and diſtreſſed with this complicated battle, the king fought deſperately, repeatedly bringing back his flying troops to the charge, encouraging them by his example, his exhortations and prayers: Aſhamed to deſert their prince in ſuch jeopardy, a brave phalanx threw themſelves around him, and fought till their numbers were reduced to little more than eighty: In this deſperate ſtate, and bleeding with many wounds, David ſcorned to aſk for quarter, hoping he ſhould ſtill be relieved, At length reſiſtance was vain, a tumultuous multitude, with ſhouts of victory, ruſhed upon him; and he at length was made priſoner to John Copeland, a Northumbrian eſquire. The diviſion under Douglas and Murray, ſtruck with a panic at the fate of the royal legion, and overpowered with numbers, were ſoon broken and routed: Murray died on the field, and Douglas was made priſoner, and few of the inferior officers eſcaped the ſword. ‘The Scotch king, though he had two ſpears hanging in his body, his leg deſperately wounded, and being diſarmed, his ſword having been beat out of his hand, diſdained captivity, and provoked the Engliſh by opprobious language to kill him: When John Copeland, who was governor of Roxborough caſtle, adviſed him to yield, he ſtruck him on the face with his gauntlet ſo fiercely, that he knocked out two of his teeth: Copeland conveyed him out of the field as his priſoner. Upon Copeland's refuſing to deliver him up (his royal captive) to the queen, who ſtayed at Newcaſtle during the battle, the king ſent for him to Calais, where he excuſed his refuſal ſo handſomely, that the king ſent him back a reward of 500l. a year in lands, where he himſelf ſhould chuſe it, near his own [Page 341] dwelling, and made him a knight banneret*.’ This battle was fought on the 17th of October, 1346, and laſted only three hours, beginning at nine in the morning, the victory being declared by ſound of trumpet at noon: The loſs of the enemy was eſtimated at 15,000, the chief of whom were the earls of Murray and Strathern, the lord conſtable David Hay, the lord marſhal Edward Keith, together with the lords chancellors and chamberlain of Scotland, the lords Philip Meldrum, John Stewart, and Alan Stewart his brother, ſir Alexander Bothwell, the king's ſtandard bearer, ſir Alexander Ramſay, and others of high rank. Among the priſoners were the earls of Fife, Sutherland, Monteith, Carrick, and Wigton, the lord Douglas, the biſhops of St Andrew and Aberdeen, James Douglas, ſir Malcolm Fleming, with many men of diſtinction. Hiſtorians have not mentioned what particular loſs was ſuſtained on the part of the Engliſh. Knighton tells us of four knights and five eſquires only, who fell in the field; and Dugdale ſays the lord Haſtings was mortally wounded: But in ſo bloody a battle it is impoſſible but many men of diſtinction would fall in the Engliſh army.

The ground where this battle was fought is hilly, and in many parts very ſteep, towards the river, ſo that it is not poſſible to conceive how ſuch an armament could be arranged and engage in any order. The account given of this battle, and of the ſubſequent tranſactions of the convent, by the writers of that houſe, as publiſhed by Davies, and contained in Sir John Lawſon's MSS. and Mr Hogg's Roll, is to the effect given in the notes. The hilloc called the Maiden's Bower, where St Cuthbert's banner was diſplayed, whilſt the monks put up their prayers to Heaven, within hearing of the noiſe and buſtle of the conflict, where ‘the battle [Page 342]

was (truely) with tumult and garments rolled in blood,’ is yet to be ſeen in the depth of the valley, by the hedges of Shaw wood*.

[Page 343] Near the turnpike road leading from Durham to Newcaſtle ſtands AYKLEY-HEADS HOUSE, the property of Mr Francis Johnſon, in a fine elevated ſituation, [Page 344] commanding pictureſque views of ſeveral branches of the city of Durham, ſeen through various openings of the hills: The gardens and pleaſure grounds are laid [Page 345] out in a good taſte, and the adjacent lands are highly cultivated: This villa being within a mile of Durham, is a moſt deſirable retreat: The manſion-houſe was built by Mr John Dixon, an eminent attorney at law, uncle to the preſent owner; and it is preſumed, is not a place of higher antiquity, as we do not find it mentioned in any records, ſave the proceedings in elegit touching the poſſeſſions of Thomas Billingham in the middle of the laſt century, mentioned with Crookhall*.

FRAMWELGATE, called in the old evidences the borough of Framwelgate, being incorporated with the city of Durham, affords no matter for particular attention in this place; what is already ſaid of the city or borough of Durham having immediate [Page 346] relation thereto. It conſiſts of one long ſtreet leading from the bridge towards Newcaſtle *.

CROSGATE, which begins near the bridge, branches out into three limbs; South-ſtreet to the leſt, and Allergate, or Allertongate, to the right. In the point where South-ſtreet ſeparates from Croſgate, on an elevated ſituation, ſtands the church or chapel of St Margaret, to which you aſcend by two deep flights of ſteps.

This church has ſuffered great alterations ſince its firſt erection; the architecture being various. The altar is aſcended to by three ſteps, from which the chancel is five paces in length, being eight paces in width; the ſouth ſide is laid open by a wide pointed arch; the whole extent of the chancel forming a ſpacious porch; the north ſide is opened half way by a ſmall arch. The body of the church hath a center and two ſide ailes, is in length ſeventeen paces, and of equal width. The ſouth aile is formed by three ſhort round pillars, ſupporting circular arches; the north aile by three long ſmall pillars, with circular arches. The church is lighted by five modern windows to the ſouth, and four to the north, more ancient. It hath a tower.

St Margaret's is in the deanry of Cheſter, and a Peculiar belonging to the dean and chapter of Durham, formerly a chapel of eaſe to St Oſwald's . In the year [Page 347] 1431, the inhabitants of this chapelry obtained a licence for the dedication of the church, and having ſepulture there *. There was an ancient chantry in this church, dedicated to the Bleſſed Virgin; but who was the founder is not known. The annual income was 7l. 14s. 8d. out of which is yearly paid to the king's receiver forty ſhilllings .

[Page 348] The manor of Harberhouſe lies within this chapelry, the ancient eſtate of the Forcers. In Hatfield's Survey it is ſaid, that William Kellowe held the manor of Harebarowes at two ſhillings rent *; and we find Agnes de Kellowe died ſeiſed thereof in fee tail to her and the heirs of her body begotten by William de Kellowe, in the eleventh year of biſhop Langley, A. D. 1417 , and that Johan, the wife of John Foſſour, was her heireſs. On the 20th of October, in the firſt year of biſhop Sever, John ſon and heir of Thomas ſon and heir, and John and Cecily his wife, had livery of Harberhouſe, with lands in Kellowe, Plawſworth, Nunſtanton, and Great Kellowe. It continued in the family of Forcer to the death of Baſil Forcer, the laſt male of that houſe, who died about ten years ago.

The chapelry of


lies within the pariſh of St Oſwald. The village is pleaſantly ſituated on the north banks of the rivulet Brune, commanding a beautiful proſpect to the ſouthward; the ruins of Beaurepaire being the chief objects in front, with the adjacent wooded banks of the rivulet.

This church is dedicated to St Michael, and was founded in the year 1423 ; William Battmanſon and John Shephardſon, ſoliciting the prior and his brethren under pope Clement III. It is in the deanry of Durham, being anciently a chapel of eaſe to St Oſwald's; is a Peculiar belonging the dean and chapter of Durham, [Page 349] and not being in charge, pays no firſt fruits or tenths*. The chapel being too ſmall to contain the pariſhioners, a gallery was built at the weſt end in 1742. The manor of Witton Gilbert was the eſtate of Iſabell, the wife of William Claxton, eſq who married to a former huſband William de Laton; on the iſſue of which firſt marriage Witton was ſettled in tail; of that marriage there was iſſue Elizabeth, who intermarried with Peter Tylliall, chiv. It deſcended to Robert their ſon and heir, and in failure of iſſue came to his ſiſters and coheireſſes, Iſabel, who married John Colvylle, and Margaret, the wife of Chriſtopher Moreſby, in whoſe families it continued in moieties for a conſiderable time. We find Fulford was the poſſeſſion of the family of Lyndley, in the time of biſhop Langley .

[Page 350] KIMBLESWORTH in the old books is called a rectory; the church has long been gone to decay, and the pariſh united to Witton Gilbert: Was a diſcharged living in the deanry of Cheſter, and a Peculiar belonging to the dean and chapter of Durham: It lies about two miles eaſt of Witton, and was given to the monaſtery of Durham about the year 1220. So far back as the year 1593 we find this church in decay*; and by entry made in the pariſh regiſter of Witton, it appears the pariſhioners came to the following agreement,—‘The Aſcenſion-day being the 9th day of May, viz. Ao D'ni 1593, Mem. That the day and year aboveſaid it is concluded and agreed upon between the pariſhioners of Witton Gilbert and the pariſh of Kymbleſworth, that for ever hereafter, it ſhall be lawful for the ſaid pariſhioners of Kymbleſworth, in reſpect of their want of a church at Kymbleſworth, to come to the ſaid church of Witton aforeſaid to divine ſervice and ſacraments, and whatſoever other rites, viz. burials, weddings, and churchings accordingly as law requireth. Provided always, that our byſhop of Durham and Mr Dean do not withſtand or let this their grant and agreement. And in conſideration [Page 351] of this aboveſaid agreement, the aforeſaid pariſhioners of Kymbleſworth ſhall ever hereafter pay or cauſe to be paid unto the ſaid church of Witton Gilbert, all and all manner of ſeſſments accordingly to their ancient rent, to pay to the ſaid church of Witton as they pay, viz. ſo much of the pound as they lay for themſelves. And where it was agreed, that in reſpect of the ſurplice and other things, that the ſaid pariſhioners of Kymbleſworth ſhould pay 11s. viijd. which 11s. viijd they did pay unto the hands of the church-wardens of Witton Gilbert, upon Trinity Sunday the year aboveſaid*.’

Ra. Eure died ſeiſed of the manor of Kymbleſworth in the fourth year of biſhop Booth, and livery was made to his coheireſſes, Ann, the wife of Ra. Conſtable, Iſabel, the wife of William Conſtable, and Henry Thwaites, his couſins, on the 24th of September, in the firſt year of biſhop Sherwood , 1485.

Sacriſton-heugh, as part of the poſſeſſions of the cathedral church, is before noted. Of Simperley we find nothing remarkable in the records.

The Pariſh of LANCHESTER


The Pariſh of LANCHESTER adjoins to Witton-Gilbert. It is very extenſive, having now three chapels of eaſe belonging to it, Eſh, Satley, and Medomſley. There are the remains of other chapels; one at Old Hall, one at Rowley Gillet, one at Collierly, and another at Eſp Green; but no evidence of their date or rights has come to our knowledge. This pariſh, to the north-weſt, adjoins upon Muggleſwick, near Horſlipburn, and the pariſh of Wolſingham; to the ſouthward, on Brancepeth and St Oſwald's, with Witton-Gilbert; eaſtward, on Cheſter; and, northward, on Tanfield chapelry, and Whickham pariſh.

In the extracts from the Boldon Buke, given in the notes, the reader will find the ſervile tenures of lands in this pariſh. The villains were bound to mow the lord's meadow, and win and lead his hay; when they mow'd, they were to have from the lord their meſs called a Corrody *; they were to drive the lord's hogs from the foreſt after the maſt and pannage ſeaſon, on which latter duty each received a loaf of bread. Some held their lands by more honourable ſervices, as attending the lord in his foreſt-hunt in Weredale, called in all the records Magna Caza, or the Great Chace, with one or more greyhounds, and going upon embaſſy; ſuch was the tenure of the lands of Hulfus, Ulkillus, and Meldredus, in this pariſh. The punder had lands aſſigned as a gratuity for his office, beſides a fee from the inhabitants called in the record Trava , rendering to the lord forty hens and [Page 353] three hundred eggs *. We obſerve alſo by this record, that part of the villain ſervice was providing j. cordam in Magna Caza .

‘Robert Lovel, 16 K. John 1214, held the lordſhips of Longcheſtre (the Roman Longovicum) and Thornton up the Weye (Were) whereof there was livery at that time made to Robert de Gaugi, who had marryd Beatrice, daughter of Iſolde, niece and heir to the ſame Robert .’

[Page 354] The church is a fine building of hewn ſtone work, covered with lead; its revenues were ſwallowed up at the ſuppreſſion of religious houſes, a ſcanty allowance and a laborious cure being left to the officiating miniſter. The ſouth front of the church is disfigured by a deep porch of fifteen feet: There is an aile on each ſide of the nave, formed by two rows of three beautiful round pillars excellently proportioned, ſupporting pointed arches, carved with the zig-zag figure; the nave is about forty-five feet in length, and twenty in width, lighted on each ſide by four upper windows, of two lights each, ſquare topt; the ailes exceed the length of the nave ſome few feet, and are not of equal widths, the ſouth aile being about nineteen feet wide, and the north only fifteen, lighted by three regular windows ſimilar in form to thoſe above, and a window at the eaſt end, having a pointed arch: In painted glaſs in this window is a coat of arms, impaling Tempeſt, and under an arch in the ſide wall of this aile is the recumbent effigy of an eccleſiaſtic with his hands elevated, claſping a chalice, well cut in black marble *. The chancel is ſeparated from the nave by a circular arch, all the mouldings of which are covered with a zig-zag figure; the groins riſe from cluſtered pilaſters: The chancel is about forty-one feet in length, and fifteen in width, [Page 355] having a large window of three lights to the eaſt, in which there has been much painted glaſs; the figures of three ſages bringing offerings to our Saviour remain, with an inſcription Ecce Magi verum deum Ador. There are three windows to the ſouth, two of which have two lights, and the other three, all under pointed arches: In the north wall is a large arch, where ſix ſtalls are fixed, the ſeats of the prebendaries, neatly built of oak, and decorated with carving*. Over the veſtry door, on the north ſide of the chancel, is a ſculpture of a perſon ſitting in a chair of ſtate accompanied by cherubs ſuſpended in the clouds. The tower is rather heavy, being a ſquare of twenty feet. The whole edifice is kept in neat order.

It was ſaid, that on placing regular canons in the cathedral church at Durham, Lancheſter was one of the eſtabliſhments inſtituted for the reception of the ſeculars; but we find no authority to ſupport that idea: Till the time of biſhop Bek, this church was merely rectorial: But he, among other works of munificence, in the year 1283, upon a vacancy by the death of the rector, appointed John Craven prieſt, the lawful defender of the ſame, the patronage belonging to the biſhop; and being ſenſible the revenues were ſufficient for the maintenance of ſeveral miniſters, of a conſiderable part whereof it had lately been defrauded, he ordained that it ſhould for the future be collegiate, with a dean and ſeven prebendaries, and eſtabliſhed the following ſtatutes for the government thereof; whereby it was directed, that the dean ſhould always be a prieſt, reſiding there, and having cure [Page 356] of ſouls, to find two proper chaplains, habited like the vicars of the canons, for his aſſiſtance; that he repair and keep up the chancel, but be not obliged to any new building: That he cauſe the chapels of Eſhe, Medmeſley and Helay, (Satley) to be ſerved by proper miniſters; for maintaining of all which he was to have all the obventions of altarage, as well in the church of Langeceſtre, as in the aforeſaid chapels, viz. of offices for the dead, wool, lambs, milk, calves, colts, hens, geeſe, pigs, flax, hemp, and of all ſmall and perſonal tithes, with the lands, meadows, ſervices of lordſhips, revenues, and courts of all tenants of the church, as alſo the penſions of Collierley and Sateley. The dean to have the meſſuages belonging to the aforeſaid chapels, with their courts and lands, excepting that the prebendaries of each of them ſhould have one part where they might lay up their corn. Each of the prebendaries who had the three firſt prebends, was to find a vicar chaplain at his own coſt, and each of the other four, a vicar in holy orders, to ſerve the church in the habit of canons, and obſerve the method of ſinging as practiſed in the church of York or Sarum. Each in his turn to be hebdomadarius, and the dean to take care of all things relative to divine ſervice, and to make rules and correct them. Mattins to be ſaid in the morning for the ſake of the [Page 357] pariſhioners. To the firſt prebend was aſſigned the farm-fees of all Eſſche, Corneſhows, Hedley, Hamſteles, the lower and the upper Bromſheles, and the land of Matthew the Foreſter. To the ſecond prebend thoſe of Medmeſley, Huſſetres, Kighou, Burſblades, Billingſide, Bradeley, and Croke. To the third thoſe of Grenecrofte, Holmſide, Colpyel, Steley, Buclesfelde, the ſmith's land and Scatigurley. To the fourth thoſe of Langeley, Riddinge, Stabbileye, Brome, Noteſteles, Brunhope, Langeceſtre, and Peche. To the fifth thoſe of Helay, Conkeſheved, and Kincheley. To the ſixth, Yeneſtane, and Benefeldſide. To the ſeventh, Morileys, Neubegginge, Hurtibuke, and Fordes. The church-yard, with the buildings, to be divided by the archbiſhop between the dean and canons for their dwelling. The firſt ſtall in the church, on the ſouth ſide, to be for the archbiſhop; the firſt on the left for the dean, and ſo the canons on both ſides in order. Theſe ſtatutes were confirmed by king Edward I. in the 20th year of his reign, 1293 *.

Lancheſter appears to have decreaſed greatly of late years, and now is a mere ſtragling village, placed in a warm and well-ſheltered valley, with a fine ſtream of water, called Smallhop Burn, running through it. The ſcite of the old deanry-houſe encloſed with a moat remains, but no edifice: Several fertile incloſures ſkirt the town, and the improvement of land advances rapidly.

At the diſtance of a quarter of a mile, on an eminence towards the weſt, are the remains of the great Roman ſtation, which Camden called Longovicus. Dr Gale, in the Philoſophical Tranſactions, No 357, calls it the Caſtra Stativa, where the ſoldiers were quartered in time of peace.

[Page 358]
Figure 2. GLANNIBANTA, near Lancheſter.

‘Mr Horſley ſuppoſes * the firſt name of this town has been Glancheſter, compoſed as uſual of the firſt ſyllable of the old Roman name, with the word Cheſter annexed to it: The G, for the ſake of an eaſier pronunciation, might be dropt. If Glanoventa ſignifies a bank, or hill near a river, ven or vent in the Britiſh tongue ſignifying a river, the ſituation of the ſtation at Lancheſter is not unſuitable to this etymology; for it ſtands on high ground, with a river on one ſide, and a rivulet on the other, and not far from either. I know two of our greateſt modern antiquaries, Roger Gale, eſq and Dr Hunter, of Durham, ſuppoſe Lancheſter to be the ancient Longovicus, the affinity of name having, as I preſume, inclined them to this opinion; but I have a pretty ſtrong reaſon to [Page 359] offer why this cannot be the Longovicus in the Notitia, garriſoned by the Numerus Longovicariorum, which is this: It is evident that ſome order is obſerved in the [Page 360] Notitia in ſetting down the ſeveral places, and Longovicus is ſet among the moſt ſoutherly that were under the Dux Britanniarum; it is put down as more to the [Page 361] ſouth than Lavatrae or Verterae, and next to Derventio, all which are mentioned in the Notitia as well as the Itinerary; and this ſuits much better with the ſituation [Page 362] of Lancaſter in Lancaſhire, than Lancheſter in the county of Durham; and as none of the military ways on which any of the itinera proceed ſeem to have [Page 363] paſſed by Lancheſter, ſo this may be a good reaſon why Longovicus is not mentioned in the Itinerary, though we have it in the Notitia. Upon the whole, [Page 364] therefore, I ſee no place bids ſo fair to be the Glanoventa in the Itinerary as Lancheſter, eſpecially if we conſider how the reſt of the iter goes on when this foundation is laid.’

[Page 365] ‘The ſtation and town have been ſituated on a lingula between the river Browney and the rivulet Smallup. This rivulet runs into the Browney a little [Page 366] below the ſtation, and Browney loſes itſelf and name in the river Were, at Sunderland bridge, two miles ſouth of Durham. The ſtation is two furlongs diſtant from Smallup, and not ſo much from Browney. It has a high ſituation, and yet the proſpect is bounded quite round about with hills or riſing grounds, [Page 367] that are not at a very great diſtance. The ſame ſort of ſituation is obſervable at Elſdon, in Northumberland, and ſeveral other places. This ſituation has this advantage, that an enemy could not come over theſe riſing grounds, but they muſt immediately appear to the garriſon.’

Mr Horſley has delineated this ſtation of an exact ſquare figure, whereas it is oblong, one hundred and ſeventy-four paces from north to ſouth, and from eaſt to weſt one hundred and ſixty within the wall. It had ſurvived many ages leſs mutilated than any ſtructure of the kind, in the northern counties, but of late many of the ſtones have been removed to incloſe the adjacent lands, and make the roads; and the proprietor is regularly deſtroying this piece of antiquity. In ſome parts the wall yet remains almoſt perfect; the outſide is perpendicular, twelve feet in height, built of aſhler work, in regular courſes, each ſtone being about nine inches deep and twelve long: By ſome large ſtones which lie near the foot of the wall, it is evident there was a parapet, with a walk near three feet wide at the top. At the weſt entrance a ſtone, as repreſented in the cut, was lately dug up, from which
the drawing was made in 1783, and ſhews that ſuch fortifications had more ornament than is commonly apprehended: The inſide of the vallum is built of aſhler work, but from the ground work upwards, at the diſtance of about twenty inches, it diminiſhes gradually in thickneſs, in ſteps running parallel through the whole ſtructure, by which thoſe within might aſcend the wall, and inſtantly line the parapet with troops on the approach of an enemy. The wall where broken through is eight feet thick at the preſent ſurface, diminiſhing to ſomewhat more than four at the top; the interior part between the facings is formed of thin ſtones, placed inclining, feather-wiſe, tier above tier, run full of mortar mixed with rough gravel. What is remarkable, there appear no throughs, as the maſons call thoſe ſtones which bind the buildings by going through from face to face, or into the heart of the wall. There was an entrance in the center of each ſide of the ſquare, and to the weſt a wide ditch; the ground has been cultivated many years on the other ſides, as well as within the vallum. We did not diſcern any inſcription on the walls ſave L. xxxv. [Page 368] Mr Greenwell, of the Ford, has preſerved in his garden wall ſeveral rude effigies lately found here; the moſt remarkable are repreſented in the cuts.
The cup uſed at divine offices in the church has a cover, which was found in this ſtation; the date on it (1571) is preſumed to be the time of finding. It is a Roman patera, and is alſo repreſented in the cut.
The laſt time we viſited this ſtation, in Auguſt 1783, we diſcovered at a gate on the weſt ſide of the road, the pillar repreſented, which it is preſumed ſtood on the
Watling-ſtreet: It is now fixed as a gate poſt, and is inſcribed, as we apprehend, to Marcus Antonius Gordianus; the F in the laſt line has been compound, to make the word Felici.

An extenſive diviſion of common lands within this pariſh took place by virtue of an act of parliament, in the twelfth year of his preſent majeſty, on which, it was computed, twenty thouſand acres were to be incloſed. The commiſſioners were impowered to diſpoſe of lands, to raiſe money for making all the roads, and paying expences; for which purpoſe they ſold one thouſand five hundred and fifty-one acres for 8174l. or thereabouts, and three hundred acres were ſet out and veſted in the juſtices of the peace of the county, for raiſing money to compenſate the owners of allotments, ſuch damages as they ſhould ſuſtain by the lord biſhop of Durham, or his leſſees, winning mines therein: But being afterwards conſidered, that it would be more expedient to ſell an allotment of three hundred acres, ſubject to a rent charge of 30l. a year, an act of parliament was obtained to carry ſuch ſale into effect, and Thomas White, of Retford, in the county of Nottingham, eſq became [Page 369] the purchaſer. He ſet a moſt laudable example on this diviſion, and planted two hundred and eleven acres with foreſt trees, and ſixteen acres with fruit trees, which, under the ſhelter of riſing plantations, promiſe to anſwer the adventurer's expectations. Of the three hundred acres purchaſed, Mr White has planted one hundred and fifty acres more with foreſt trees. This vaſt tract of country, which was barren, deſart, and dreary, where the perplexed traveller wandered in the ambiguous tracks with anxiety, is now incloſed, much of it cultivated, and interſected with direct roads, made in the turnpike manner, fit for the reception of any carriage; innumerable buildings are ſcattered over the proſpect; merchandiſe has found an expeditious paſſage to villages heretofore almoſt inacceſſible, but in the very midſt of ſummer; and the inhabitants, greatly multiplied, are chearful and proſperous. In one farmhold, totally ſeparated from all ancient incloſures, in the ſummer of 1783, we obſerved thirty-four ſtacks of corn in one yard, the produce of new cultivations. Many parts lie very high, the proſpect conſequently extenſive: At a point where the roads leading to Durham, Hexham, Cheſter, and Lancheſter meet, the view is noble, and commands a vaſt extent of country, even to the mouths of the rivers Tyne, Were, and Tees, beſides a diſtant proſpect to the weſt and north.

The chapelry of ESH is mentioned before as appertaining to the firſt prebend of Lancheſter. The church was a very mean ſtructure, being in length from eaſt to weſt about nineteen yards, and five yards and a half wide: In the year 1769 biſhop Crewe's truſtees gave one hundred pounds towards rebuilding it*. In a porch called St Helen's porch, lies a fine recumbent effigy in ſtone, ſuppoſed to be one of the ancient and eminent family of De Eſh, who held the local name for ſeveral generations, and were in high offices in this palatinate, as will appear by reference to the tables of temporal officers. Dominus Rogerus de Eſh died poſſeſſed of lands here, together with other conſiderable eſtates in this county, in the tenth year of biſhop Hatfield; and in the thirty-ſecond of biſhop Hatfield, William de Eſh died ſeiſed of the manor of Eſh, held in capite, by homage, fealty, and ſuit of court, together with a large tract of waſte and lands in Eſh-field; he was alſo poſſeſſed of other conſiderable eſtates, as the manor of Eaſt Herrington, &c. In the thirty-ſixth of the ſame biſhop, Thomas the ſon and heir of William died ſeiſed of the ſame manors, and the male line became extinct, he leaving a daughter and heireſs, Johan, who married Robert de Bland, who in her right poſſeſſed the manor [Page 370] of Eſh, with Ulſhaw and Heleigh, members thereof. The family of Eſh poſſeſſed a city houſe in the Bailey, Durham, built againſt the caſtle wall. We do not find that Bland had any iſſue, but Johan, his widow, married to her ſecond huſband Thomas Colvill, eſq who, in the ſeventeenth year of biſhop Skirlaw, died ſeiſed in her right of this manor. Colvill's widow married a Forſter, and by an inquiſition taken on the death of Richard Forſter her ſon and heir, in the ſecond year of biſhop Nevil, it is ſtated, that Johan, by a deed of ſettlement, dated at Staindrop, the laſt day of June, in the year 1428, conveyed to truſtees the manor and vills of Skyrnyngham, Bermton, Eſh, Ulſhawe, Eſtheryngton, 1 meſſ. c. acres of land in Roule, 6 meſſ. cclx. acres of land, and ſeventeen ſhillings rent in Middle Herryngton and Weſt Herryngton, 2 meſſ. cc. acres in Cornſhowe, 2 meſſ. and c. acres of land, &c. called the Hugh, in Eſh, a cloſe there called the Neuparke, 1 meſſ. and 60 acres called Underſyd, in Eſh, and 1 meſſ. called Ratonrawe. No licence was obtained. That the manors and vills of Eſh and Ulſhawe, the Hugh and Underſyde, were held of the biſhop by military ſervice of the value of twelve marks. That Matilda, the wife of John Walkerfield, ſiſter and heir of the before-named Richard Forſter, had releaſed her right in the premiſſes to the truſtee, whereby he was in power to make his deed of indenture, dated the 1ſt of November, the eighteenth of Henry VI. whereby he granted to Walter Boynton, arm. 3 meſſ. cxl. acres of land and meadow, in Eſh, Middle Herryngton, and Weſt Herryngton for life, and after his death to William, the ſon of William Hodilſton, and the heirs of his body, remainder to John Walkerfield, the ſon of the before-named Matilda, the ſiſter of Richard Forſter, and the heirs of his body, remainder to Alice, John's ſiſter, remainder to the afore-named Matilda, and the heirs of her body, remainder to the right heirs of Roger de Eſh. And by another indenture, dated the 4th day of the ſame month of November, he granted to the ſame John Walkerfield, ſon of Matilda, ſon and heir of Richard Forſter, who was the ſon and heir of John, the ſon of Thomas, lord of Eſh, the manors and vills of Eſh and Ulſhawe, a meſſ. and c. acres in Roule the Hugh New Park and Underſyde in Eſh, 2 meſſ. and cc. acres in Corneſhowe, 1 meſſ. and c. acres in Heugh, and to the heirs of his body, remainder to Alice his ſiſter, and the heirs of her body, remainder to Matilda, Richard's ſiſter, and the heirs of her body, remainder to William Hodilſton, Matilda's brother, and the heirs of his body, remainder to the right heirs of Roger de Eſh. The manor of Eſh and lands there were held of the biſhop by military ſervice, and the lands in Corneſhowe were held of Johan counteſs of Weſtmereland.— How the remainders took place it is difficult to aſcertain. The manor of Eſh is now the property of Sir Edward Smyth, baronet*.

CORNSEY and HEDLEY appertain to the pariſh of Brancepeth, and are ſo ſtated in the book of rates, though in this deanry.

We find nothing more of Hamſteels, Broomſheels, and Burnhope, than what is noted in biſhop Hatfield's Survey.

[Page 371] The next place mentioned as parcel of this pariſh is

1.8.1. MEDOMSLEY*,

a pleaſant village, on an elevated and healthful ſituation, and a dry ſoil, ſkirted with good meadow grounds; the more diſtant country conſiſting of new cultivated lands, which promiſe a due reward to the induſtry of the inhabitants, who are ſkilful in agriculture, whilſt the enlivened proſpect is yearly improving upon the traveller. You command from hence a fine view into the rich vale of Derwent-water, poſſeſſing all the beauties of cultivation, mingled with a variety of woodlands, together with a more diſtant proſpect of the lands north of Tyne.

The church of Medomſley is ſuperior to many in this part of the county; it ſtands lofty, and is viewed at a conſiderable diſtance; the building is of ſtone, covered with lead, but has no tower: The nave is about ſixty-five feet in length, [Page 372] and twenty-two feet in width; lighted to the ſouth by three windows, two of double lights, the middle one ſingle: The chancel opens by a fine pointed arch riſing from corbles or brackets; it is thirty-five feet in length, and twenty in breadth, lighted to the eaſt by three long windows; the piers ornamented with ſmall round columns or pilaſters, belted in the midſt, having foliated capitals: To the ſouth there are three windows, two under pointed arches, and one of two lights under a circular arch: By the ſculptures and heads ſcattered in the walls, it ſeems this ſtructure has anciently been more ornamented. This church is dedicated to St Mary Magdalen; it ſtill depends upon Lancheſter, though ſerved by a diſtinct curate.

The firſt perſon of conſequence we find mentioned as owner of lands at Medomſley, is William de Felton, chiv. who held the vill with Hamſterley, of the biſhop of Durham in capite, the vill of Medomſley by homage and fealty, and twenty-four ſhillings rent, payable at the biſhop's exchequer, valued at twenty ſhillings, and Hamſterley at four pounds rent, no value ſet forth*. In the twenty-ſecond year of biſhop Hatfield, by an inquiſition taken on the death of William de Felton, ſon of the former William, it appears he held the manor of Medomſley in fee tail, except the lands called Tailbois's lands and Haddames's lands, containing two meſſuages and thirty acres, paying the ſame rent: He not having iſſue, the eſtates deſcended to his brother John: This John appears in biſhop Hatfield's Survey, and there Hamſterley is called one hundred and ſixty acres: Several ſubſequent inquiſitions ſhew that John was half brother to William by a ſecond venter, and ſucceeded to the eſtates by virtue of an intail, created by the general anceſtor, under a fine levied of the premiſſes. John, the ſon of John de Felton, dying without iſſue, the manor deſcended to his ſiſter Elizabeth; ſhe married Edmund Haſtings, eſq and by him had John her ſon and heir; Henry Boynton was her ſecond huſband. John Haſtings died in the fourth of biſhop Nevill, leaving a ſon, Edmund, of tender years; and of that family's poſſeſſion we find no further notice in the records. In the time of biſhop Skirlaw John lord Nevill held lands at Medomſley, of John de Fenton, of two ſhillings rent, and in the twelfth year of that biſhop, William de Weſſington, eſq died ſeiſed of lands in Medomſley, held of the heirs of John de Felton: The families of Bowes and Redheugh had alſo acquired ſome poſſeſſions here; one of the heireſſes of Redheugh married Henry Boteler, and that family thenceforth held lands at Medomſley§. We have not [Page 373] found when the family of Haſtings aliened the manor, but it appears the Nevills acquired it, and it was under forfeiture on the attainder of the earl of Weſtmoreland, and compriſed in the grant to the citizens of London upon the great truſt for ſale*.

HOUSETREE is the next place mentioned in this extenſive pariſh. In biſhop Hatfield's time the manor was the eſtate of the Birtleys, of fifteen ſhillings rent, and value ten ſhillings. This family had large poſſeſſions in the county. Iſabell, the wife of John, died in the third year of biſhop Skirlaw, and on the inquiſition then taken the manor and lands thereto appertaining are ſet forth at ſixty ſhillings and ten-pence rent, value twenty-ſix ſhillings and eight-pence. About the year 1429, Thomas Birtley ſold the manor to William Chaunceller, who ſettled the ſame on Thomas his ſon, by Alice Wandesforth, and the heirs of his body, remainder to Richard another ſon, and the heirs of his body, remainder to Margaret the wife of William Claxton, Richard's ſiſter, and the heirs of her body, remainder to the right heirs of William Claxton in fee ſimple. By virtue of the before ſtated limitations this manor became the eſtate of the Oſberns of Sheles, by Alice the wife of John Oſbern, who was the daughter of Alice Myddleton, and the grand daughter of Beatrix, Thomas Chaunceller's ſiſter. The manor is deſcribed in the above inquiſition to conſiſt of a new built hall cum Stramine tect. roofed with ſtraw, an ancient ruined houſe, a ſtone built chamber, and one hundred acres of land.

KYO-LEIGH was the eſtate of the Birtleys, and by them held of the maſter of St Edmund's hoſpital, in Gateſhead, by the ſervice of a roſe on St John the Baptiſt's day. The family of Chauncellers held conſiderable lands in this manor.

BURSBLADES appears in the Boldon Book; Gilbert Chamberlain then held the vill by virtue of an exchange, and a meſſuage with fourſcore acres of land there, [Page 374] paſſed by the ſame limitations as thoſe created of Houſe tree. The manor was in the hands of the biſhop. In the fifth year of biſhop Hatfield we find this vill was the eſtate of Thomas de Gildeford, held of the biſhop by homage, fealty, and ſuit of court, and was valued at twenty ſhillings *; he alſo held a wood there, called Le-ſmethe-ſtrecher, at one mark rent, and a paſture called Dependen, at ten-pence rent; he held the vill of Merley of Gilbert de Merley, by fealty and ſuit of court. In failure of iſſue theſe eſtates deſcended to Johan the daughter of Thomas de Gildeford's ſiſter, who married Robert Grame; and by an inquiſition taken in the eighth year of biſhop Skirlaw, it appears that Johan aliened the premiſſes without licence to her ſon William Grame, whoſe name appears in biſhop Hatfield's Survey; he died in the fifteenth year of biſhop Skirlaw: And we find this family remained poſſeſſors for ſeveral years. There was a family who took the local name of Burſblades, and held conſiderable poſſeſſions there of the biſhop, paying ten ſhillings rent, and alſo held of the lord of Burſblades lands, paying the third part of a pound of Cumin . The family of Birtley alſo had lands here§, and in biſhop Langley's time, we find John de Gildeford held lands of the Grames.

BILLINGSIDE, which is next named, is little mentioned in the ancient records, other than what appears in biſhop Hatfield's Survey: We find a family called Gourlay held lands here, not noticed in that record.

BRADLEY, near Medomſley, was a manor of the De Feltons; the family of Redhoughs held of them in the third year of biſhop Skirlaw by ſuit of court at Medomſley, and it was then valued at twenty ſhillings. It was afterwards the eſtate of Roger Thornton, whoſe daughter and heireſs, Elizabeth, married Sir George Lumley, and transferred to him her family's large poſſeſſions**. It gave name to a reſident family, and William de Bradley held lands there of the lord of the [Page 375] manor in biſhop Bury's time, by the payment of a roſe and a pound of pepper for all ſervices *.

CRUKTON, as it is called in the Boldon Book, or Crokehugh in the records of biſhop Langley, now called Crook-hall, was the eſtate of the Hiltons, and by William de Hilton aliened to Peter Tilliol; it is uncertain how long it continued in that family. For more than a century paſt it has been the eſtate of the Bakers, of Sir George Baker, knight, recorder of Newcaſtle, and his ſon George Baker, eſq ; whoſe charitable donations, with the wiſe diſpoſition thereof, by his brothers and truſtees, the city of Durham will ever gratefully remember.

GREENCROFT next named is the ſeat of George Clavering, eſq a ſpacious old manſion, placed on an elevated ſituation, with a ſouthern aſpect, commanding a view of Lancheſter, with a proſpect of the winding vale. The houſe is ſheltered with fine plantations, and the adjacent grounds are beautiful. Greencroft is mentioned in the Bolden Book with its ſervices, the villains there having the twelfth part of the mill-pool of Lancheſter to repair, and to carry the biſhop's wine with four oxen: In biſhop Hatfield's Survey they are ſaid to find two greyhounds for the biſhop's great chace. In that prelate's time Robert de Kellawe de Lumley, and John Rugheved held the vill of Greencroft, under the title of Dringes §. The Roughheads held a moiety of Greencroft in the time of biſhop Bury, by fealty, two ſhillings rent, and ſuit at all the biſhop's courts at Durham, and performing with his other parcener the ſervice of leading the third part of a dole of wine yearly, repairing a twelfth part of the mill and mill-pool of Lancheſter, and grinding at that mill under a thirteenth portion for the mulcture, and paying to the biſhop's [Page 376] head foreſter for an aſſart two ſhillings and ten-pence, and eight hens *. They held their moiety for many generations; but how long the Kellawes were poſſeſſed we have no evidence before us, their moiety becoming the eſtate of the Evers, of which Ralph Ever, eſq died ſeiſed in the ſeventeenth year of biſhop Langley. Thomas Claxton was poſſeſſed of a moiety in the fifth year of biſhop Booth , and the ſame deſcended to Ralph his ſon, who died in the fifteenth year of biſhop Booth, leaving John his ſon and heir. This family's large poſſeſſions came to the crown by attainder of Robert Claxton. In 1468, one Thomas Forſter was poſſeſſed of the hall of Greencroft, as heir of W. Forſter, by Alice his wife , and conveyed to one Thomas Hall, Overhouſe and a moiety of the park of Greencroft . Greencroft has been the place of reſidence of a branch of the family of Claverings, above a century paſt §.

The firſt notice we find taken of WHITLEY manor in the records, is in the time of biſhop Bury, when it gave name to the reſident family, and John died ſeiſed thereof in the ſixth year of that prelate, he having held the ſame by fealty, and thirty-four ſhillings and eight-pence rent. He alſo held lands in Holmſide, of John de Bertley by fealty, and one penny rent. In the fifth of biſhop Hatfield we [Page 377] find one John de Parco poſſeſſed of a third part of the manor [...] [...]lings yearly to Marmaduke de Lomley. By the ſurvey of the la [...] me [...] [...] late, it appears that Thomas Umfravill then poſſeſſed the manor, and died [...] thereof in the ſixth year of biſhop Fordham, together with Holmſide, and they continued in that family till the male line failed as after mentioned. Whitley ſoon afterwards became the eſtate of the Nevils, and on the death of Ralph earl of Weſtmoreland, deſcended to Ralph his grandſon; and in 1430 we find a pardon for the alienation of this manor, to Tunſtall and others, but the truſt doth not appear . It afterwards became the property of the Tempeſts.

HOLMESET, now known by the name of Holmſide Hall, the eſtate of the Whittinghams, is mentioned next. It is named in the Boldon Book as rendering one mark to the biſhop, and performing the ſervice of carrying his wine with four oxen, and finding one man for forty days in the biſhop's foreſt, at the fawning ſeaſon, and forty days at the rutting ſeaſon. In biſhop Fordham's time this was the poſſeſſion of Thomas Umfraville, who held the vill of Holmeſet by homage and fealty, with the ſervices above, and was then valued at forty ſhillings . In the ſeventeenth year of biſhop Langley, the male line failed in the death of Gilbert de * [Page 378] Umfraville, and his poſſeſſions deſcended to five coheireſſes, his ſiſters, who had intermarried with Elmedon, Rither, Lambton, Conſtable, and Hagerſton. Holmeſide became the eſtate of the Tempeſts, and Robert Tempeſt died ſeiſed thereof in the ſeventh of biſhop Fox, together with the manor of Whitley and Green Shipley*; and it was the place of reſidence of Thomas Tempeſt in 1530, who obtained licence to celebrate a marriage between him and Anna Lynthall, of Brancepeth, dated the 21ſt of November .

[Page 379] The ancient poſſeſſors of the manor of COLE-PIKE-HILL, vulgarly called Colpighill, were the family of Parkes: In the latter end of the fifteenth century, in the time of biſhop Booth, iſſue male failing, it came into the family of Walkers, by marriage of Iſabell the daughter of Edward Parke*: In the inquiſition it is deſcribed ‘The manor of Colpikehill, with the appurtenances held of the lord biſhop in capite by military ſervice, and rendering to the ſaid biſhop, at his exchequer in Durham, yearly at the uſual term, fourteen ſhillings and five-pence: And there are in that manor ſix tenements and one hundred acres of land, which Richard del Parke, Edward's father, lately had of the lord Nevil, a meſſuage and three acres of land, formerly Ade Scot's, and a meſſuage and thirty acres of land, which were formerly John Scot's and Alice his wife's: The premiſſes were worth yearly, above all repriſals and out-goings, forty ſhillings.’— It paſſed from the family of Walkers on the death of William Walker, without iſſue, in the ſixth year of biſhop Dudley, he leaving his wife Alicia ſurviving, and ſeveral ſiſters. The manor afterwards came to the family of the Newtons, and by marriage to the preſent Andrew Robinſon Bowes, eſq where he has a neat little manſion, on a fine elevated and healthful ſituation, in a good ſporting country. He has lately erected ſtables and other conveniences adapted to a hunting ſeat, to which uſe he now appropriates it.

SATLEY is next named; a ſmall place creeping in a narrow vale, with a mean chapel placed on an eminence to the north: It was formerly a chapel of eaſe to Lancheſter, but was ſevered in the year 1768 in conſequence of endowment, under an augmentation by queen Ann's bounty. It was anciently a diſtinct chapelry, and had a releaſe of all tithes, obventions, and claims, granted by Philip de Sancta Helena, rector of Lancheſter, and confirmed by biſhop Richard de Mariſco: It is not in charge.

The firſt proprietor we find of the vill of Satley was Robert de Grenewelle, in the ſixth year of biſhop Beaumont, who held of the biſhop in capite, paying forty ſhillings rent, and thirteen ſhillings and four-pence for the mill . No farther mention is made of this family there, the lineal deſcendant now poſſeſſing Greenwell, otherwiſe called the Ford, half a mile to the ſouth of Lancheſter town; a pleaſant retirement. Hugh de Teſedale had lands in Satley-heigh, of ſix-pence rent, and in Shorneton, held in drengage, in the fifth year of biſhop Hatfield.— John del Chambrè, in the ſame year, had lands there, held of the biſhop by fealty and four ſhillings rent; he left four ſiſters, of whom Juliana was one, and Eda the [Page 380] daughter of another ſiſter his heirs: Juliana married Peter de Heſwell*, and they held the manor of Satley by homage, fealty, ſuit at three head courts, and four ſhillings rent. By biſhop Hatfield's Survey it appears the Heſwells got the lands of Eda, another of the heireſſes of John del Chambrè, and that the vill of Satley was then the poſſeſſion of William de Merley . The Heſwells held lands here for many generations, and the Merleys in the twelfth year of biſhop Langley, failing in male iſſue, on the death of William Merley the eſtates deſcended to divers females, his ſiſter's children, and under that ſub-diviſion were diſperſed in other families . The family of Ever poſſeſſed ſome ſmall portions of land here .

BUTSFIELD is ſeldom mentioned in our records. It was the ancient eſtate of the Heſwells, and in the firſt year of biſhop Bury, in an inquiſition taken on the death of William de Heſwell, we find he held lands there of the biſhop in capite by homage and foreign ſervice, and thirty-three ſhillings rent. In biſhop Hatfield's Survey, Heſwell's lands appear in the hands of the lord under a writ of ceſſavit; the operation of which ancient proceſs was to ſeize the eſtate of him neglecting or ceaſing to perform his ſervices to the lord of the fee; and as we hear no more of thoſe lands in the records, it is probable they never were reſtored§.

Nothing relative to SCATERLY appears in the records.

LANGLEY is named next. The extenſive ruins of the ancient hall yet remain in a fine elevated ſituation, of a ſouthern aſpect, near the banks of the river Brune, embowered in a thick foreſt. The firſt note we have of this place is in the Boldon Book, where it is mentioned to have been granted to Arco le Diſpenſer, by biſhop Pudſey, in reward of ſervices performed, as well to Henry biſhop of Winton as himſelf, the biſhop of Durham having purchaſed a moiety of the premiſſes for the purpoſe of that gift. Langley having afterwards eſcheated to the See, biſhop Rob. de [Page 381] Inſula granted the ſame to Henry de Inſula about the year 1280*. How this manor eſcheated we have no evidence. About the year 1306, the manor having again reverted to the See, was granted by biſhop Bek to lord Henry Percy, and the gift received ratification from king Edward II. in the fourth year of his reign, 1310. How long it continued the eſtate of the Percys we are alſo ignorant. In biſhop Hatfield's Survey it is ſet forth, that ‘Richard le Scrope held the vill of Langley, formerley the eſtate of Henry de Inſula;’ and by the inquiſition taken at his death in the ſixteenth year of biſhop Skirlaw, it appears he held the ſame by the fourth part of a knight's fee, paying yearly ſeven ſhillings at the biſhop's exchequer, and performing ſuit at three chief courts: He was ſucceeded by Richard ſon of Roger, then an infant of ten years old. By an inquiſition taken in the fifteenth year of biſhop Langley, 1421, on the death of Richard lord Scrope of Bolton, it is ſtated, that he had diveſted himſelf of the manor and vill of Langley ſome time before his death, and that Ralph Eure, chiv. was ſeiſed thereof to him and his heirs; and by an inquiſition taken on his death, in the ſeventeenth year of the ſame biſhop, he appears to have died poſſeſſed thereof by the name of Maneria & villa de Langley & le waterfall cum p'tin. que h'uit ex feoffo. Rici de Scrop, chiv. We do not find Langley mentioned in any ſucceeding inquiſition taken on the death of any of the Eures. In the ſecond year of biſhop Booth, on the death of Henry lord Scrope , it is ſtated in the inquiſition then taken, that [Page 382] Richard le Scrope and others had been enfeoffed in this manor, with divers other eſtates, by virtue of the licence of biſhop Nevill, but the truſt is not ſpecified: The feoffor Henry left John his ſon and heir, who was grandfather of Henry after mentioned, and probably the confidence repoſed conſiſted of divers limitations in tail, by virtue of which it deſcended to Henry lord Scrope the feoffor's grandſon, who by the inſcription after mentioned, is preſumed to have built the hall, of which the preſent ruins are remains. An engraving of this inſcription was publiſhed in the Antiquarian Repertory in 1775, from a drawing made by Mr Rob. Hutchinſon, in 1771, and we preſume communicated by Thomas Gyll, eſq with the following account*. ‘At Langley hall, in the pariſh of Lancheſter, is a mantle-piece of ſtone, over a large fire place, with an inſcription thereon in capital letters: The inſcription relates to Henry lord Scrope, of Bolton, in Yorkſhire, who married Margaret the daughter of Thomas lord Dacre, of Gilſland, in Cumberland. The arms on the ſecond quarter are thoſe of Tibetot, or Tiptoft, an heireſs of which family married an anceſtor of the ſaid Henry lord Scrope, whoſe coat of arms are engraved with hers, and the ſame are depicted in the upper windows on the ſouth part of the pariſh church of Richmond, in Yorkſhire. The eſcutcheon, by the diviſion on the wife's ſide, on the right hand, looks as if intended for him and his two wives, for he was twice married; but the arms on the ſide of the wives are ſo worn away that they are not diſtinguiſhable. The uppermoſt ſeems as if ſomething like bars or barry were in them; bars were in the arms of Greyſtock: The other ſhould be Scrope of Upſal, his ſecond wife, whoſe name was Alice, daughter of Thomas lord Scrope, of Upſal, by Margaret his wife, daughter of Thomas lord Dacres, grandfather of Thomas lord Dacres above mentioned.’ We muſt obſerve further on this inſcription, that the lines are not to be read direct, but are broken in the center, and ſtands thus, ſo far as the letters are diſtinct:

by this it appears he was the eleventh lord of Bolton, and ſhe the daughter of lord Dacre, of Greyſtoke. Mr Allan further illuſtrates this matter by the genealogical table on the next page.

From the family of Scrope, Langley came into the family of Paulet, by marriage with one of the natural daughters of Emanuel Scrope, earl of Sunderland, and not many years ago was ſold by Mr Paulet, ſon of lord William Paulet, who was the ſecond ſon of the firſt duke of Bolton, to Henry Lambton, eſq of Lambton, late member of parliament for the city of Durham, and is now the property of John Lambton, eſq the heir general of that ancient family.

The manor of Rydding was part of the large poſſeſſions of Gocelinus Surtays: At the time of his death it was held of the biſhop of Durham, at two marks rent, [Page 383] then valued at twenty ſhillings. By an inquiſition taken on the death of Alexander Surtays, in the thirty-ſixth year of the ſame biſhop, it was returned, that he had enfeoffed William de Skipwyth and others in this manor with other eſtates, ‘to the intent that his heir ſhould not take until he attained his full age, thereout to pay his debts; and when his heir attained that age, then that the truſtees ſhould enfeoff him in the premiſſes; which conveyance was made in fraud and colluſion to prevent the lord having ward and marriage of the heir.’ In all future inquiſitions taken on the death of the Surtays, no mention is made of Rydding, ſo that probably it had become an eſcheat, of which there had been no remittance.

The ancient records furniſh no more of Stobbilee than that in the ſeventh year of biſhop Skirlaw it was the poſſeſſion of the family of Thweng, held of the biſhop in capite, rendering fourteen ſhillings at the exchequer, and was of the clear value of thirteen ſhillings and four-pence.

Of BROOM and SLALEY there is nothing remarkable on record, or of NOSTEELS and PECHE.

HELEY is mentioned in the Boldon Book as the property of Alan de Chilton; it had given a local name to a reſident family*, for in the firſt year of biſhop Hatfield, we find one Peter de Heley died poſſeſſed of the manor, which he held of the [Page 384] biſhop in capite, rendering ſix ſhillings and eight-pence for all ſervices, of the clear value of one hundred ſhillings; Richard the ſon of Hugh de Chilton was found his heir: In biſhop Hatfield's Survey it appears, that the priory of Durham had acquired this manor in mortmain, and it is noted as having been the eſtate of John de Chilton, from whom it is probable it was purchaſed.

The firſt notice we find of CONSET, or as it is called in the old records Conkeſheved, is in the Boldon Book, where it is ſaid Arnold Baker had it in exchange for Trilleſden. By an inquiſition taken on the death of Thomas Grey, chiv *. it appears, he, with his wife Margaret, held a moiety of this manor by homage, fealty, and a rent of eleven ſhillings, then of the clear value of forty ſhillings: And by the ſurvey made by that prelate it is ſtated, that William de Stokes held the other moiety, formerly the eſtate of Richard Harpyn and Hugh Skewland. In an inquiſition taken on the death of Robert ſon of Ralph de Nevil, in the thirteenth year of the ſame biſhop, it is ſet forth, that jointly with Margaret his wife, in her right, under a feoffment made by Thomas Grey deceaſed, her former huſband, to her and the heirs of his the ſaid Thomas's body, he held a moiety of the manor of Conkeſheved, by the ſervices before mentioned, and the park of Conkeſheved held alſo of the biſhop under ten ſhillings rent. In the tenth of biſhop Langley it was returned on an inquiſition, taken after the attainder of Thomas Grey, that at the time of his forfeiture he was poſſeſſed of Conſet Park, and a moiety of the vill of Conſet . We have ſeveral ſucceeding inquiſitions, on a claim ſet up by the heir of Thomas Grey, of an intail created of his eſtate, by virtue of which limitations the forfeiture was contended; but as no act of reſtitution appears in the records of that time, it is to be preſumed the pretence proved futile; and we do not ſee Conſet ſpecified in any future inquiſition touching that family, till after the 18th year of biſhop Nevill, when on the petition of Ralph Grey the biſhop's nephew, ſon of Alicia his ſiſter, they were regranted, with Urpath, Rowley, and other forfeited eſtates . A moiety afterwards became the property of the Middletons of Silkſworth . Another moiety of Conſet was the eſtate of William Pegham, by the feoffment of William Melot, with various limitations to his iſſue, and remainders to other branches of his family, by virtue of which it veſted in Margaret the wife of William Ward §, in whoſe family it continued till by the marriage of Iſabella, the heireſs, with John Birtley, it paſſed to that family, of whoſe heireſſes one married a Kellawe, and the other Egleyne.

[Page 385] KNYCHELEY, by biſhop Hatfield's Survey, appears to have given a local name to its poſſeſſor, and that it afterwards was the eſtate of Robert de Kylowe: It ſoon after became part of the property of the Surtays family; and in the fourteenth of biſhop Skirlaw it belonged to Thomas de Claxton, held of the biſhop by military ſervice, paying fifteen ſhillings yearly at the exchequer, and was then of the clear yearly value of ſeventy-eight ſhillings and four-pence*. In biſhop Langley's time it was the eſtate of the Eures, and for ſome deſcents remained with them.

IVESTON is named in the Boldon Book, with its ſervices. In biſhop Hatfield's Survey the manor or vill is ſet forth as part of the poſſeſſions of Kepyer hoſpital. Robert Hall, in the ſixteenth year of biſhop Booth, died ſeiſed of forty-ſix acres of land there, held of the biſhop in capite, leaving Robert Hall of Stanley his heir.

Of BENFIELDSIDE we have nothing more in the records than what appears in Hatfield's Survey; and of NEWBIGGIN, HARTIBUKE and FORDS there occurs nothing memorable.

PONTOP, in the ſixteenth year of biſhop Hatfield, was the eſtate of John de Gourley and Johanna his wife, limited to the heirs of their bodies; alſo a moiety of the manor of Shepmanſteel and land in Byllingſide, held of the biſhop by homage and fealty, and certain rents §. It continued in that family a long time, and by an inquiſition taken on the death of William de Gourley, in the eighth year of biſhop Skirlaw, it appears the manor was held by the ſervice of offering yearly Unum Byſancum at St Cuthbert's ferretory on his feſtival, and another to the biſhop by way of oblation. It afterwards became the eſtate of the Claxtons, and in the 25th year of biſhop Langley, on the death of William Claxton, is deſcribed [Page 386] to conſiſt of a manſion-houſe and garden, an hundred acres of land, and an hundred acres of paſture, held under fifteen ſhillings rent and ſuit at three capital courts. It then came into the family of Bulmers, and Bertram Bulmer ſold it to Anth. Meabourn in the twentieth of queen Elizabeth *. It is now part of the poſſeſſions of the Swinburns.

ROWLEYS are diſtinguiſhed in biſhop Hatfield's Survey by the names of Eaſt and Weſt Rowley; and Thomas Grey is therein ſaid to hold the manor of Weſt Rowley, with the demeſne lands, and the heirs of Hugh de Redhugh the vill of Eaſt Rowley, formerly the eſtate of William Roule. In the twenty-ſixth year of that prelate it appears by an inquiſition taken on the death of John de Howden, that he died ſeiſed of the manor of Rowley, which we preſume implies Eaſt Rowley, held of the biſhop in capite, by homage, fealty, ſuit at three chief courts, and ſix ſhillings and eight-pence rent. He left no iſſue, and his eſtates deſcended to his ſiſter's daughters, one of whom, Agnes, married Thomas Beke to her ſecond huſband, having iſſue by her firſt huſband Hugh del Redhugh a ſon, Hugh, who was heir to this manor, and poſſeſſed the ſame after her death, in the eighth year of biſhop Skirlaw: The male line of the family of Redhugh, as obſerved before, failing, their poſſeſſions were ſevered among coheireſſes. The poſſeſſions of Grey, after being in Robert de Nevill for a ſhort time, came to Thomas Grey, who was attainted, and were reſtored to Ralph Grey, with Conſet as before mentioned. The family of Bland held of the prior of Durham a ſmall parcel of land here.

COLLIERLY was the eſtate of the Gildfords in biſhop Bury's time, and remained part of their poſſeſſions till the name was extinguiſhed in female iſſue . They alſo poſſeſſed Green-lawe near Collierly, which the Redhughs afterwards acquired. Robert Rhodes died in the ſeventeenth year of biſhop Booth; and by an inquiſition then taken, it is ſtated, that he had conveyed this manor, with the lands called Greenlawe, held under Ralph earl of Weſtmoreland, by his deed dated the 1ſt of April, fourteenth Edward IV. to John Hebburn and William Lawſon, but no truſt is ſpecified; and that he died without iſſue, leaving Alicia, the wife of Richard Bainbrigg, daughter of John Rhodes his brother his heir. This manor was divided by two parceners, and in the ſeventeenth year of biſhop Dudley, Johan, the wife of Robert Robſon, died ſeiſed of one moiety thereof, with a moiety of Greenlawe and Smether Strother, leaving Thomas Hodgſon, her ſon by a former huſband, her heir. The records before us do not point out how the other moiety deſcended.

Figure 1. CHESTER


[Page 387]

We now enter the pariſh of CHESTER-LE-STREET, which adjoins to Lancheſter towards the weſt *.

The reader will revert to the account given of this place in the annals of the biſhops , where he will find more at large the particulars here briefly recapitulated. Biſhop Eardulph, who was the eighteenth prelate of the church of Lindisfarn, flying with the remains of St Cuthbert before the barbarians who made their ſacrilegious deſcent on that iſland, not ſettling at Crake, where he ſat down for a time, reſted at Cheſter, and there began to build a church about the year 883; and the religious body retained this reſidence till the year 995, when they reſted at Durham. Tanner ſays, the See removed hither "had probably a chapter of monks, or rather ſecular canons attending it."—Cheſter entertained the ſame religious ſociety that exiſted at Lindisfarn, and they were again tranſlated to Durham, ſo it is pretty certain there was no eſtabliſhment of monks here, but of ſeculars. Egelric, the fourth biſhop of Cheſter, was induced to take down the humble building of wood which his predeceſſor erected for his epiſcopal church, [Page 388] and raiſed one more magnificent: Finding great treaſures, he conveyed the ſame out of his biſhopric to enrich the monaſtery of Peterborough, from whence he came: We have already offered conjectures on this treaſure-trove, and therefore ſhall not dwell on it here. On the introduction of canons regular into the cathedral church of Durham, Cheſter, it is ſaid, was one of the churches appointed to receive the ſeculars, who, without having committed offence, were removed from the ſeat of dignity, and no doubt were provided for in the moſt ample manner.

The church of Cheſter, diveſted of its ſtate and authority, became merely a parochial rectory*, till the year 1286, when that munificent prelate, Anthony Bek, in holy reverence to the memory of St Cuthbert, and in honour of the place of his reſt for upwards of a century, founded here a collegiate church, conſiſting of a dean, ſeven prebendaries, five chaplains, three deacons, and other miniſters. The account given of this tranſaction in Stevens's Monaſticon, is to the following effect.

[Page 389] A ſuit having long depended between Sire Walter de Clifford, cl. on the one part, and Maſter Alaine, of Eſyngwalde, on the other, the former claiming the rectorſhip or parſonage of Cheſter, and the latter alledging that he had for certain lawful cauſes been deprived by Robert (de Inſula) biſhop of Durham and himſelf by the ſame biſhop ſubſtituted in his place, both parties being unwilling to be any further entangled with ſuits and contentions, yielded up all their rights in the ſaid church into the hands of Anthony (Bek) biſhop of Durham, and ſubmitted it to his ordinance, together with the chapels, lands, fruits, and revenues unto the ſame belonging. The biſhop finding the church ſufficiently endowed, and yet ill ſerved, ordained it ſhould for the future be collegiate, and that there ſhould be in it a dean and ſeven prebendaries, the dean to maintain two chaplain's aſſiſtants, and other neceſſary clerks, and to repair the chancel, and find miniſters for the chapels of Tanfield and Lameſley; for the defraying of which expence he aſſigned him the altarage of the ſaid church and chapels, with other revenue, and the fiſhery on the river Were, together with the rent and court of the tenants of the church in the town of Cheſter and of Walrige, and the whole dominical land of Hervertone. In like manner he regulated the ſeveral prebends, and the manner of the canons ſitting in their ſtalls, and all other particulars as in other collegiate churches, and ordered the tenth part of the portion of every non-reſident to be given to the reſidents; and in caſe there were no reſidents, then to the uſe of the church or poor. This ordination was made by the biſhop, at Auckland, in the third year of his conſecration, was confirmed by king Edward I. at Berwick, on the 12th of June, 1292, and by Pope Boniface VIII. at Rome, in the Ides of March, 1296, in the third year of his pontificacy*.

[Page 390] Under this eſtabliſhment the church of Cheſter continued till the diſſolution of collegiate churches and chantries, in the firſt year of Edward VI. when, by virtue of the ſtatute, the deanry, prebends, rectory, and the ſeveral rights of that church became veſted in the crown. The prebends of the ſeven portioniſts, with the vicarage or deanry of this church, were taxed in the Lincoln valuation, 20th king Edward I. 1291, at 146l. 13s. 4d. but 20th king Henry VIII. 1534, the deanry and ſeven prebends were valued at no more than 77l. 12s. 8d. in the whole, viz. the deanry 41l.—Prebend of Lameſley 5l. 16s. 8d.—Pelton 5l. 16s. 8d.—Cheſter 6l.—Second prebend of Lameſley 10l.—Tanfield 3l. 6s. 8d.—Birtley 3l. 6s. 8d.— And Urpath 2l. 6s. This deanry, with its members, continued in the crown until the 16th year of James I. when, by letters patent under the great ſeal, dated at Weſtminſter, the 26th of July, he gave and granted to Sir James Ouchterlony, knight, and Richard Gurnard, or Green, citizen and cloth-worker, of London, their heirs and aſſigns, the deanry, prebends, rectory, and vicarage of the collegiate and pariſh church of Cheſter; which inſtrument was inrolled in the high court of chancery: In 1618, by indenture, alſo inrolled in chancery, they conveyed the premiſſes to William Darling, in ſee: In 1620, William Darling died, leaving Edward his ſon and heir: In 1622, Edward Darling, by indenture, alſo inrolled, conveyed the ſame in fee to Thomas Liddell, of Ravenſholme, in this county, eſq In 1626, Liddell conveyed to Jeffery Walker; and in 1629, he conveyed the ſame to Richard Hedworth, eſq * in whoſe family it deſcended in the following ſucceſſion, to Ralph in 1680, to Ralph his ſon, in 1683, to John his ſon, in 1704, who preſented William Lamb clerk to the curacy, and John, by his will, dated the 15th of December, 1746, deviſed the premiſſes to his two ſons-in-law, [Page 391] Sir Ralph Milbanke, and Sir Richard Hilton, baronets, and their heirs: Sir Richard Hilton died on the 1ſt of July, 1755.

The church of Cheſter being reduced to a curacy, is not certified, and Sir Ralph Milbanke and the repreſentatives of Sir Richard Hilton are patrons *. It is a handſome edifice of ſtone, covered with lead; the tower from the foundation is ſquare, but when it riſes above the roof, takes an octagonal form, and in this part is apparently much more modern; it is finiſhed with a moſt elegant ſtone ſpire, one of the fineſt in the north of England, being in the whole one hundred and fifty-ſix feet in height: The accurate plate will ſave much deſcription. The whole length of this building on the outſide is fifty-four paces. The church within is of a regular form, having two ſide ailes, ſeparated from the nave by five pointed arches ſupported on pillars, two of which towards the eaſt in each row are light and round, but the third, an odd conceit in the architect, is formed of two cylinders put together, the broad ſides facing the nave and ailes: The nave is in length from the foot of the tower thirty paces, and in width, including the ailes, from the north door to the ſouth, fifteen paces: The pulpit is placed againſt the center pillar in the ſouth row; the ſounding board heavy with rude carving. The whole church is decently ſtalled, and kept clean; the pavement is new; there is a handſome white marble font, and a gallery at the weſt end: The ſouth aile is lighted with three regular windows of three lights each, under pointed arches; in the eaſtern one are two coats of arms. The chancel has been altered in modern times, and is only ſix paces wide by eleven long; the arch which ſeparates it is ſupported on light brackets, and the ſtalls are without much ornament. There are four windows to the ſouth, and a large modern-ſaſh to the eaſt.

The north aile, which now is ſolely appropriated to and filled with a line of tombs of the Lumley family, has anciently been further extended, three arches and two columns appearing in the outſide wall, as if ſome ſmall cloiſter formerly lay contiguous to the church: The windows diſcover the alteration, which perhaps was made when the tombs were placed, for there are three ſquare windows within the old arches, and a window under a pointed arch beyond them. Before [Page 392] Before we ſpeak of the monuments, it muſt be noted, that biſhop Matthew granted licence in 1594, authorizing John baron of Lumley, to tranſlate hither the remains and monuments of his anceſtors, particularly of John Lumley, and Ralph Lumley, from the yard of the cathedral church at Durham, where they were placed near the north door*.

This ſolemn arrangement of effigies, this aile of death, cannot be viſited without ſome emotion by thoſe who know the family, deſcended of an illuſtrious race of anceſtry, or have traced their hiſtory and poſſeſſions. The genealogical table which attends the deſcription of Lumley caſtle will ſave a tedious rehearſal of monumental inſcriptions.

The firſt effigy at the foot or weſt end of the aile, is by an inſcription on the wall, noted to appertain to Liulphus, that unhappy miniſter of Walcher biſhop of Durham, who provoked the maſſacre at Gateſhead church: The figure is cut in ſtone, but much mutilated, having loſt the feet; the right hand is extended, graſping the ſword, as in the action of drawing the weapon; the legs are ſtraight. It will be neceſſary to note why ſuch different attitudes had acceptance in monumental effigies. Perſons who died in battle on the victorious ſide, were repreſented with the helmet on the head, the ſhield on the leſt, and the ſword on the dexter ſide, naked, and with the point upwards. Thoſe who died in battle on the vanquiſhed ſide, were repreſented on their tombs without their coat over their armour, with their feet reſting on a dead lion, having their hands joined on their breaſt, the viſor lifted up, and the ſword in the ſheath. Thoſe who died priſoners were repreſented without helmet, ſword or ſpur. One who had ſerved a great part of his life in the army, and afterwards became a religious perſon, was repreſented upwards in the habit of the order he profeſſed, and below in complete armour. A gentleman or knight, who had been killed or vanquiſhed in ſingle combat, was repreſented in compleat armour, his battle ax out of his arms, lying by him, and his left arm acroſs his right. If he had been victorious, he was repreſented armed on all points, with his right arm acroſs over the left, and his battle ax in his arms. The ſon of a general, or governor of a caſtle or fortified city, if he died when the place was beſieged, was pourtrayed in complete armour, with his head reſting on an helmet inſtead of a pillow.

The ſecond effigy, Utredus filius Liulphi, cut in ſtone, his head, ſhoulders, and arms covered with a coat of mail of chain work, the legs of the ſame, the right hand graſping the ſword hilt in the action of drawing the weapon.

The third, William de Lumley, accoutred the ſame as the laſt; a parrot held by the tail in the right hand, the legs croſſed, the right foot uppermoſt, the feet reſted on a lion couchant—an elegant figure; the folds of the veſt ſkirts eaſy and finely diſpoſed. This William was the ſon of Uchtred, and grandſon of Liulphus before-mentioned.

The fourth, William Lumley mil. in a ſuit of armour, his legs croſſed, the left leg uppermoſt, the feet broken off, his right hand drawing the inſtrument, [Page 393] his head reſted on an helmet; his hair cut at the fore-top, and in ſtiff curl.

The fifth, William de Lumley mil. ſon of William, in a ſuit of armour, his head reſted on his helmet, the right hand drawing the ſword; the hair like the fourth; the legs ſtraight, and the feet gone.

The ſixth, Roger, in a ſuit of armour, much mutilated, the legs, hand and ſhield gone, hair curled as the former. This perſonage married Sybil, daughter and coheireſs of Hugh de Morwic, who had two other daughters, Theophania and Beatrix; and they, in the fourth year of king Edward I. made partition of the knights fees of their inheritance.

The ſeventh, in a ſuit of armour, a ſhield, no ſword, his right hand on his breaſt, his hair curled, his head ſupported on cuſhions, the legs ſtraight, and feet reſting on a ſhield of his coat-armour: This tomb belongs to Robert de Lumley, eldeſt ſon of Roger, and father of Marmaduke, whoſe tomb is next noted.

The eighth, Sir Marmaduke de Lumley, with a curled beard, a cap in upright folds and terminating in a point, his head reſting on his gauntlets laid acroſs each other, the fingers inwards; his hands elevated on his breaſt, three parrots ſcattered on his garments below the girdle; his legs appear to have been placed ſtraight, but are much mutilated: This perſonage's mother was the eldeſt daughter of Marmaduke de Thweng, a great baron, lord of Kilton and Thweng, with many other manors in Yorkſhire, Lancaſhire, and Weſtmoreland; ſhe and her ſiſter Catharine were coheireſſes of William, Robert, and Thomas de Thweng their brothers: Sir Marmaduke's eldeſt ſon, Robert, was under age at his father's death, and he died during his minority, leaving Ralph his next brother and heir: They derived from their mother the manors of Moreſſome-Magna, Moreſſome Parva, Ocketon, Lythum, Merſke, Brotton, Hylderwell, Skynnergreen, Lyvertoun, North Cave, Roteſe-on-the-Wolds, Lound, Langtoſe, Swaythorpe, Thorp juxta Kilton, Foxholes, Thweng, with the advowſon of the church, Kilton caſtle, Stotevil-fee, and Bulmer-fee, all in the county of York*.

The ninth effigy, Ralph, firſt lord of Lumley. This is a remarkable figure, cut in coarſe freeſtone, and was one of thoſe removed from the yard of the cathedral church at Durham, by virtue of the licence before noted: It is dreſſed in a ſtraight-ſleeved jacket or coat of mail, his viſor is rib'd down the front, and has two tranſverſe ſlits for the ſight; the breaſt is covered with the ſhield bearing three parrots, the ſword under the ſhield unſheathed, the point upwards reſted againſt the face of the viſor; the legs are ſtraight, ſupported on a dog lying at reſt. This perſonage was a knight in the ninth year of king Richard II. and in the retinue of Henry de Percy, earl of Northumberland, in the expedition into Scotland, where he behaved ſo gallantly, that the king in the year ſucceeding appointed him governor of Berwick: In the twelfth year of that reign he was taken priſoner by the Scotch: After his releaſe he held Berwick as the earl's deputy for ſome time: Was ſummoned to parliament among the barons from the eighth year of king Richard II. till the firſt of king Henry IV, incluſive, when he was attainted, and had his lands [Page 394] ſeized for being a confederate with the earl of Kent and others againſt that acceſſion, and oppoſing the diſpoſal of Richard. The aſſociators appeared in arms, and took poſſeſſion of the town of Cirenceſter, whilſt their troops lay encamped without; but on an inſurrection of the inhabitants, the lords were overpowered, and carried priſoners to the king at Oxford, where they ſuffered immediate execution. It ſeems lord Lumley was not among the priſoners, for by the record of his forfeiture and attainder, it is ſet forth he died in the field of battle: If we give credit to the device on the monument, when he fell he was of the victorious party. His wife Elianor was daughter of John lord Nevill of Raby, and ſiſter of Ralph earl of Weſtmoreland: In her widowhood, ſhe had in the ſecond year of king Henry IV. an aſſignment of twenty pounds a year during life out of the cuſtoms at Hull, which was confirmed by king Henry V. in the firſt year of his reign, with the further grant of lands and tenements in Beautrove and Stranton, in the biſhopric of Durham, and Holme in Holderneſs. The eldeſt ſon, Thomas, died in the fifth year of king Henry IV. ſeiſed of the caſtle of Lumley Parva, and the manors of Stanley, Stranton, Rickleſden, and Beautrove, in the biſhopric, together with divers other large eſtates in Yorkſhire and Northumberland; dying without iſſue, he left Sir John Lumley, knight, his brother and heir, then twenty years of age. John earl of Somerſet had obtained a grant of ſeveral manors and eſtates, which came to the crown under the attainder of Ralph lord Lumley, to the value of three hundred and ſixty pounds a year; a great poſſeſſion in that age *.

The tenth effigy, Sir John Lumley: A figure reſembling the laſt deſcribed, and moſt probably the ſecond monument removed from the cathedral church-yard.— To this perſonage king Henry was much attached; in the ſixth year of that reign he had livery of all the caſtles, manors, and lands of which his father was ſeiſed at the time of his attainder; and for his ſervices in Scotland he received the honour of knighthood: He alſo fought bravely in the French war, for which gallant conduct and fidelity to his ſovereign, he had full reſtitution of blood by parliament in the thirteenth year of that reign, as well what was attainted by the conviction of his father, as Thomas his brother; ſo it is expreſſed in the parliament rolls. In the wars of king Henry V. he alſo ſignalized himſelf: Under the conduct of Thomas duke of Clarence, the king's brother, he was in the battle of Baugy, in the province of Anjoy, on Eaſter-eve, 1421, to which the Engliſh army was betrayed by one Andrew Forguſa, a Lombard, who was employed by the duke as a ſpy, and falſely repreſented the numbers and ſituation of the enemy: Many of the Engliſh lords were averſe to the enterprize, and diſſuaded the duke from approaching his foes on ſo ſlight and ſuſpicious a report; but the General implicitly placing confidence in his emiſſary, reſolved to ſeek the foe and engage; his troops diſdained the idea of deſerting danger, and, when too late, found they were attacking four times their numbers; feats of diſtinguiſhed bravery were diſplayed, and all the efforts of intrepid courage exhibited, but in vain; for in the dreadful carnage of a defeat, there ſell the duke, lord Lumley, the earls of Tankerville and Angus, and the lord Roſs, together with many of inferior rank: [Page 395] He left a ſon and heir, Thomas, whoſe tomb is not in this arrangement at Cheſter.

The eleventh effigy, George lord Lumley: This figure, like the reſt, is recumbent, dreſſed in robes, a heavy ruff or roll about his neck, his hands elevated, curled hair and beard: The dreſs ſimilar to the robes of a peer as now worn. This perſonage was knighted by king Edward IV. He was ſheriff of Northumberland in the ſecond and third years of that reign; an office then not only of great truſt and authority, but of vaſt emolument, for no account was made to the king's exchequer till the third year of king Edward VI. but the iſſues and profits of the bailiwic were appropriated to the ſheriffs proper benefit, with all debts, fines, and amerciaments, emoluments accruing from alienations, intruſions, wards, marriages, reliefs, &c. the intention of which appropriation was to reward their diligence in protecting the borders againſt the Scots, and for that purpoſe to keep ſufficient guards in pay. But that duty being leſſened by the appointment of wardens of the marches, in the third year of king Edward VI. it was enacted, that the ſheriffs of Northumberland ſhould thenceforth like others account to the exchequer. In the ſixth year of king Edward IV. he, with Sir Robert Folbery, were elected knights of the ſhire for the county of Northumberland, in the parliament ſummoned to meet at Weſtminſter, and in the return of the writ are ſtiled milites gladiis cincti. He was appointed ſheriff of Northumberland in the eighth year of that reign, and continued in office four ſucceſſive years. In the twentieth year he was in the duke of Glouceſter's army, at the taking of Berwick, having a great command in that expedition, and in the rolls of the troops is called lord Lumley: He was one that entered Edinburgh at the head of the forces, and with lord Fitz Hugh, the lord Scrope of Maſſam, and others, was made a knight banneret in Hooton-field, as a teſtimony of approved gallantry. On the acceſſion of king Henry VII. he attended the king in his northern progreſs. In the thirteenth year of king Henry VII. he ſerved in lord Surrey's army, when they raiſed the ſiege of Norham caſtle, where the king of Scots lay in perſon; and from thence penetrating into Scotland, made a diverſion, and deſtroyed ſome conſiderable fortreſſes in ſight of the Scotch army. On the eſpouſals of the princeſs Margaret of England with James king of Scotland, 1502, he, with his ſon and their retinue, accompanied by eighty horſemen in their train, apparelled in the family liveries, met the queen at Darlington and attended her to Berwick. He married one of the daughters of Roger Thornton, eſq a merchant at Newcaſtle, by whom he got a large fortune, and among other poſſeſſions the manors of Witton in Northumberland, Ludworth and the Iſle, in this county. There happened much litigation touching this lady's fortune, through one Giles Thornton, a natural ſon of her father; and the contention becoming perſonal, lord Lumley ſlew him at Windſor caſtle ditch. Biſhop Sherwood, in the ſixth year of his pontificacy, granted a pardon to George lord Lumley, of all felonies, and reſtoration of forfeitures*. His eldeſt ſon and heir apparent died in his life time, to whom the following monument was erected.

The twelfth effigy, Sir Thomas Lumley: This figure is in a ſuit of armour, his hair curled, and head reſting on a helmet, the hands elevated, and legs extended: Quarters the royal arms with a bar, having married Elizabeth Plantagenet, a natural [Page 396] daughter of king Edward IV. by lady Elizabeth Lucy. He appeared on behalf of the clergy and commonalty of the dioceſe of Durham, in the eleventh year of king Henry VII. when the three eſtates of the kingdom were ſummoned to aſſemble at Weſtminſter on the 27th of October, 1495. He left four ſons, Richard, John, George, and Roger*; the eldeſt became heir to George lord Lumley, the grandfather: He alſo left three daughters, Ann married Ralph lord Ogle, of Bothal; Sibil, who married William baron Hilton of Hilton, in this county; and Elianor, who married — Creſwell, of Creſwell, in Northumberland.

A mural monument of blue marble, inſcribed to Richard lord Lumley, the firſt earl of Scarborough.

In a circle above, an inſcription to George Lumley, ſon of John, attainted the twenty-ninth of king Henry VIII.

The thirteenth effigy, Richard lord Lumley, in robes, with elevated hands, a ruff or roll about the neck. This perſonage was the eldeſt ſon of Thomas Lumley, as before mentioned, and had ſummons to parliament among the barons, in the firſt year of king Henry VIII. He left by Anne his lady, daughter of Sir John Conyers, of Hornby caſtle, his eldeſt ſon John, who ſucceeded to the family honours and eſtates.

The fourteenth and laſt effigy, John lord Lumley. The figure dreſſed in robes. This perſonage, in the fifth year of king Henry VIII. on the Scotch invaſion, joined the earl of Surrey with a large force, and was one of the principal commanders of the van guard of the Engliſh army at the battle of Flodden Field: It is mentioned by ſeveral hiſtorians, that this van guard ſhewed great bravery in the engagement, and were victorious over that body of the enemy commanded by the earls of Crawford and Montroſs, who both fell in the field. In the following year he was ſummoned to parliament, and in the year 1520, he was preſent at the interview the king had with the emperor Charles V. at Canterbury, and that with the king of France near Ardres: He ſerved under the earl of Shrewſbury in the Scotch expeditions; and in the twenty-firſt of the reign, had ſummons to that parliament which exiſted five years by prorogations, and ſtruck the firſt blow in the diſſolution of religious houſes: He was in the combination that encouraged the king to the divorce of queen Catharine; and at laſt fell from his loyalty, and joined the northern confederates in the pilgrimage of grace, but accepted the terms of the duke of Norfolk's proclamation. His ſon George fell into other broils, and was one of the partizans of the lord Darcy, was apprehended and committed to the Tower, and ſoon after ſuffered death. John the ſon of George Lumley, at the death of his grandfather, was an infant under age; and in the firſt year of king Edward VI. on his petition was reſtored in blood, as ſon and heir of George, and couſin and heir of John, then late lord Lumley, but ſundry parts of the eſtate were ſevered from the family, the act of reſtoration not repealing the attainder of his father.

Another monument of one of the anceſtors of this family is noted to us by Mr Groſe, which he ſays he found in an old book of pedigrees in the Britiſh Muſeum; as it is not one in the arrangement before mentioned in remembrance thereof we have given a cut of it. We conceive that this is the monument of Thomas the ſon and [Page 397] heir of Sir John Lumley, whoſe effigy is the tenth in the arrangement, and had been removed from its ſtation in Cheſter church, for ſome cauſe not noted there.

‘This auncient monument or ſtatuarie, broken and waſted nere the ruynes of the chappell in the firſt ward within the caſtel called Barnard's caſtel, was at the honourable means and motion of John baron Lumley, ſent by Sir William Bowes, knight, into this church at Cheſter, to be placed with his anceſtors, April 1594."—The patterne of this I have ſeen at Barnard caſtle. S. Garter, 1591.’

We lamented on obſerving in the church-yard the baſon of an old font, thrown out and ſubject to be defaced and ſpoiled, inſtead of being laid up from prophanation, and preſerved in reſpect to the donor; it is charged with four arms. Thoſe of Lumley in the firſt ſhield, in the ſecond Lumley quartering Thornton's; in the third Thornton's ſingle; in the fourth Lumley quartering Nevill's; whereby it is denoted that this baſon was given to the church by George lord Lumley, probably in the time of king Edward IV.

There were two chantries in Cheſter church, but the founders are not known; the one dedicated to St Mary, of the yearly value of 5l. 8s. 10d. to which belonged a tenement in Seaton Carowe*. Thomas Holyman, incumbent at the time of the diſſolution had a penſion granted him of 4l. which he received in 1553. The other chantry was dedicated to St. George, of the yearly value of 5l. 3s. of which Jeffrey Glenton was prieſt at the diſſolution, and had a penſion of 4l. which was alſo paid him in 1553.

The effigy of a prelate, which Leland ſpeaks of in the body of this church, denoting where St Cuthbert lay, was removed, we preſume, when the floor was new paved, as no account was to be obtained of the monument when we viewed the church.

The deanry houſe, the ſeat of the ancient family of Hedworths, is in a pleaſant ſituation, commanding a fine view of Lumley caſtle and the adjacent grounds, and is ſurrounded with excellent meadow grounds .

[Page 398] Gunceastre, or Goncaceastre, was the ancient Saxon name of this place, and as Leland ſays, was derived from the rivulet Cone, which there empties itſelf into Were. In the Itinerary, vol. i. p. 83, it is ſaid, ‘There is no bridge memorable on Were beneath Dureſme but Cheſter bridge. Were cummith within a quarter of a mile of the town ſelf of Cheſter. From Dureſme, over Framagate bridge to Cheſter in the Streate, partly by a little corne ground, but moſt by montainiouſe paſture and ſome mores and firres. Or I came in Cheſter I ſaw ſcant half a mile of it, Lomeley caſtel upon a hill, having praty wood about it, and about Cheſter ſelf is likewiſe ſum woode. The toune of Cheſter is chiefly one ſtreate, of very meane building in height. Ther is beſide a ſmaul ſtreate or 2 about the chirch collegiate, that hath a dean and prebendaries, but it is a very meane building; and in the body of the chirch is a tumbe, with the image of a byſhop, yn token that St Cuthbert ons was buried or remained in his feretre there. At the very ende of the toune I paſſid over Cone brooke, and there is a fair ſtone bridge of 3 arches over it. Thens to Gateſhed vii miles by montainiouſe ground, with paſture, heth, more, and firres; and a litle a this ſide Gatehead is a great cole pit.’

The preſent town of Cheſter is about a mile in length, conſiſting chiefly of one long ſtreet, has many good buildings in it, and is commodiouſly ſituated for ſupplying the numerous miners employed in the neighbouring collieries and other works *.

This is one of the biſhop's copyhold manors, and of extenſive juriſdiction: It gives name to the ward, and has a coroner: There was a foreſter here anciently . Whilſt the ſervile tenures exiſted, it experienced no great ſeverity of ſervice, as appears by the preceding notes from the Boldon Book and Hatfield's Survey; and there was a money payment inſtituted in lieu of ſome duties in that early period.
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  • The Family of LUMLEY is undoubtedly of great Antiquity; and various are the Traditions, touching the original Stem thereof; which, like moſt others of ſuch long ſtanding, is ſo ingulphed in Obſcurity, that no other Light than Conjecture is now to be had thereof: the moſt probable (beſides the authority of ſo great men as Camden and Sir William Dugdale) is, that this Family is denominated from LUMLEY on the Banks of the River Wear, near Cheſter-le-Street, in the county Durham, where being ſeated, they were thence ſurnamed, as the manner of thoſe ages was, to ſtile men from the places where they lived or were born, and by the beſt Records, &c. are ſaid to be deſcended from
  • Liulph, a nobleman of great note in the time of Edw. the Confeſſor, and in great credit and eſteem with Walcher, Biſhop of Durham, which was the cauſe of his death, as is recorded by Holinſhed Chron. vol. II. p. 12 and 13, and who quotes Simeon Dunelmenſis.
  • Algitha, d. to Aldred, Earl of Northumb. by his wife Adgina, youngeſt dau. of King Etheldred II. and by her had iſſue
  • Uchtred, who firſt took the name of Lumley.
  • .......
  • Sir Will. de Lumley a baron in Durh.
  • Judith, dau. ..... Heſilden, of Heſilden.—Seages Bar. MSS.
  • Sir William de Lumley, only ſon.
  • Sir Will. de Lumley,
  • . ..... d. and coh. of Sir Walter de Audre, of Morton Audre, in co. Durham, Knt.
  • Sir Rog. de Lumley, who in the time Hen. III. mar.
  • Sibill, one of the daus. and cohs. of Hugh de Morwic, an ancient baron in Northumb. died in 1298.
  • Sir Robt. de Lumley, 26th Edw. I. on death of his mother, ſucceeded to ſeveral manors in Northumb. at which time it was certified that he was her ſon and heir, and of the age of 26 years.
  • Lucia, eldeſt of the 3 daus. and cohs. of Sir Marmaduke de Thewng of Kilton Caſtle, in co. York, a great baron in thoſe parts.
  • Sir Marmaduke Lumley, was prior of St. John of Jeruſalem in Ireland, commonly called Killmainham, and who took his mother's arms, which were argent, a fefs gules between 3 parrots vert, each gorged with a plain collar of the 2d, and have ever ſince continued the paternal arms of this family.
  • Margaret, d. and h. of ...... Holland.
  • Sir Robt. de Lumley died under age, 12th Dec. 48th Edw. III. as is evident by an inquiſition, taken 49th Edw. III. at Giſburgh, when it was proved that Ralph de Lumley, was his brother and heir, and of the age of 13 years.
  • Sir Ralph de Lumley, a Knt. in 9th Rich. II. in 16th ſame reign obtained a licence (Pat. 16 Rich. II. p. 2. m. 22.) to make a caſtle of his manor houſe of Lumley.—Had ſummons to parlia. amongſt the barons, from 8th Rich. II. to Hen. IV. incluſive, when he was attainted, and had his lands ſeized.—Died in battle, as is evident from a record (Rymer, vol. VIII. p. 529.) whereby all his lands and tenements, goods and chattels, were adjudged in parliament to be forfeited.—Bur. at Duthrm.
  • Eleanor, d. John Lord Nevill, of Raby, and ſiſt. of Ralph, 1ſt Earl of Weſtmorland.
  • Thomas de Lumley, died during his minority, 31ſt May, 5th Hen. IV. leaving his brother Sir John Lumley, Knt. his heir.—Eſc. 5th Hen. IV. n. 30.
  • Sir John de Lumley did homage, 6th Hen. IV. & had livery of all lands, &c. his father, Sir Ra. was ſeized of at time of his attainder, & was knighted, and by act of parl. 13th Hen. IV. reſtored in blood.—Killed at battle of Bangy, in province Anjou, on Eaſter Eve, 10th Hen. V. 1421.— Bur. at Durham.
  • Felicia, dau. Sir Mat. Redman, govr. of Berw.
  • Sir Tho. de Lumley, 10th Hen. VI. making proof of his age (clauſ. 10th Hen. VI. n. 16.) had livery of his lands, and was afterwards knighted, 33d Hen. VI. conſtituted governor Scarborough Caſtle for life.—In 1ſt Edw. IV. on his petition, the attainder of Ralph Lord Lumley, his grandfather, was reverſed, and from that time to 12th Hen. VII. had ſummons to parliament arcordingly.—Ob. 1485.
  • Margaret, d. Sir Jas. Harrington, brother to Sir William H. Lord Harrington, and Knight of the Garter, in the reign of Hen. V.
  • Sir Geo. Lumley, Knt. 2d Edw. IV. when ſher. Northb. In 6th Edw. IV. was Knt. ſhire for that county, and in 8th Edw. IV. was again ſheriff.—In 20th Edw. IV. he bore the title of Lord Lumley, and on 22d Aug. that year was made a knight banneret.—Died 23d Hen. VII.— Seagar. Baron. MSS.
  • Eliz. d. and coh. of Rog. Thornton, Eſq a wealthy mercht. in Newc. upon Tyne, by whom he had lordſhips of Witton, in co. Northumb. Walworth, and the Iſle, in co. Durham.
  • Thomas Lumley, Eſq died in the life-time of his father, 1487.
  • Eliza. Platagenet (nat. dau. King Edw. IV. by Lady Eliz. Lucy) by whom he had iſſue.
  • Rich. Lumley ſucceeded his grandfather, and had ſummons to parliament among the barons, 1ſt Hen. VIII.—Ob. 26th May, 2d Hen. VIII. 1511.
  • Anne, d. of Sir John Conyers, of Hornby Caſtle, in co. York, Knt. Garter (ſiſt. to William Ld. Conyers) by whom he left iſſ.
  • John, Lord Lumley, was 18 years of age at death of his father. In 5th Hen. VIII. was at the battle of Flodden Field.—In 6th Hen. VIII. had ſummons to parliament, as Lord Lumley. Ob. 36th Hen. VIII.—Bur. at Giſborough, in the abbey.
  • Joan d. of Hen. Lord Scroope, of Bolton, by Elizabeth his wife, d. Hen. Percy, 3d Earl of Northumberland.
  • George Lumley, Eſq was concerned in an inſurrection with the Lord Darcy and others, committed to the Tower, and in June 29th, Hen. VIII. found guilty of high treaſon, and ſuffered death in the life-time of his father.
  • Jane, 2d dau. and coh. Sir Rich. Knightly, of Fawſley, in co. Northampton, Knt.
  • John Lumely, on the death of his grandfather, was in inf. in 1ſt Edw. VI. reſtored in blood and a new barony of Lumley, created and limitted, by expreſs words, to the ſaid John in tail male (the ancient barony being merged in the crown by the attainder of his father Geo.) on 29th Sept. 1553, was made knight of the bath.—This nobleman cauſed monuments to be erected in Cheſter-le-Street church, to the memory of his anceſtors, in order as they ſucceeded one another, from Liulph down to his own time (Camb. Brit. by Gibſon, vol. II. p. 950.) Obiit 11th April, 1609, bur. at Cheam, in co Surry.—His children dying in his life-time, this new barony expired with him.
  • 1ſt wife, Jane, eldeſt of the two daughters and coheirs of Henry Fitz Allan, Earl of Arundel.
  • Charles,
  • Thomas,
  • Mary. all died in the life-time of their father.
  • 2d wife, Eliz. d. of John, Lord Darcy, of Chick, who ſurv. her huſband without having iſſue.
  • Jane mar. Jeffery Markham, Eſq died without iſſue.
  • Barbara mar Humph. Lloyd, of Denbeigh, Eſq of whom ſee an account below.
  • Anthony Lumley, Eſq 2d ſon, Rich. Lord Lumley, as is evident by an inquiſi. of the court wards, 30th May, 7th Jas. I. as alſo by the will of the laſt Lord Lumley.
  • .... d. Rich. Gray, of the county of Northumb. Eſq
  • Roger Lumley, Eſq who married
  • Anne, d. . ...... Kurtwich, Eſq had iſſue ſeveral ſons and daughters, whereof were—
  • Rich. Lumley, eld. ſon and h. was the chief heir male of the family, after the deceaſe of John, Lord Lumley, in 1609, & inherited the greateſt part of the eſtate of his anceſtors, by deed of ſettlement, and the laſt will of the ſaid John, Lord Lumley, was knighted 19th July, 1619. On 12th July, 1628, was created Viſc. Lumley, of Waterford in Ireland.—Bur. at Cheam.
  • Frances, d. Hen. Shelly of Warminghoiſt in Suſſex, Eſq
  • John Lumley, Eſq only ſon, died in the life-time of his father.—Bur. at St. Martin's, London.
  • Mary, d. and one of the coheirs of Sir Hen. Compton, (youngeſt ſon of Hen. Ld. Compton, anceſtor to the Earl of Northampton.)
  • Richard ſucceeded his grandfather in his Iriſh honours, and on 3d May, 1681, 33d Charles II. was created Baron Lumley of Lumley Caſtle, in co. Durh. and to the heirs male of his body, for want of ſuch iſſue to his brother Henry, and the heirs male of his body. And on 10th April, 1689, created Viſc. Lumley, of Lumley Caſtle, and on 15th April, 1690, Earl of Scarborough — Obiit. 17th Dec. 1721, and was bur. in Cheſter-le-Street church.
  • Frances, only d. and h. of Sir Hen. Jones of Aſton, in co. Oxford, by his wife Frances, ſiſt. to Tho. Earl Fauconberg. She died in March 1737.
  • Henry, Viſc. Lumley died of ſm. pox, 24th July 1710, and is bur. at St. Martin's in the Fields, in London.— Memb. for Arundel.
  • Richard, Viſc. Lumley ſucceeded his father as Earl of Scarborough in 1721.—On the 9th June, 1724, elected a Knt. of Gart —Ob unm. 4th Feb. 1739. bur. in St. Geo. chapel, Audley-ſtreet, London.
  • Thomas Lumley, elected a Knt. Bath, 27th May, 1725, and by virtue of an act of parliament, bore ſurn. of Saunderſon, purſuant to the will of James Saunderſon, E. of Caſtleton, who died without iſſ. 24th May, 1723.—In Feb. 1739, ſucceeded his bro. as Earl of Scarborough.—Ob. 15th March, 1752.
  • Frances, 2d d. of Geo. Hamilton, Earl of Orkney, by whom ſhe left iſſue.
  • Richard Viſc. Lumley, in March 1752, ſucceeded his father as 4th Earl of Scarborough.—On 12th Dec. 1752, he married.—In Oct. 1765, appointed deputy Earl Marſhall of England.—Died .....
  • Barbara Saville, ſiſter to Sir Geo. Saville, Bart. member for co. York.—Died 27th Dec. 1772.
  • George Auguſtus Viſc. Lumley, born 22d Sept. 1754, the preſent Earl of Scarborough.
  • Frances-Barbara-Ludlow, born on 25th Feb. 1756, died young.
  • Richard born 3d April, 1757.
  • Thomas-Charles.
  • John.
  • Frederick.
  • Mary-Arabella.
  • Geo. Lumley, Eſq died unmar. Dec. 1732.
  • Frances, in June 1753, mar. Pet. Ludlow, Eſq or Ardſallagh, in co. Meath, in Ireland, ſince created Lord Ludlow.
  • Anne.
  • Harriot died unm. 6th Nov. 1747.
  • William, 3d ſon, was killed in a ſea engagement, in the Mediterranean, 9th April, 1709.
  • Charles was member in parliament for Chicheſter.—Ob. 11th Aug. 1727.
  • John was a col. in the guards, and mem. for Arundel. Ob. Oct. 1739.
  • James, memb. for Chicheſter, and groom of bedchamber to the late Pr. of Wales. Ob. unm. 14th March, 1766, & bur. at Cheſter-le-Street.
  • Mary mar. Geo. Montague, 1ſt E. of Halifax.—Ob. 10th Sept. 1726.
  • Barbara mar. Chas. Leigh, of Leighton, in c. Bedford, Eſq br. to Th. Lord Leigh of Stoneley, in co. Warw.—Ob. 4th Jan. 1755.
  • Anne mar. Frederick Frankland, Eſq late memb. for Thirſk.—Ob. without iſſue▪ Feb. 1739.
  • Henrietta died unmarried, 6th Nov. 1747.
  • Hen. Lumley, Eſq was a general in the army, and gover. of Jerſey, mar. twice & died 18th Oct. 1722. Bur. at Sabridgworth, co. Herts.
  • 1ſt Elizabeth, d. of .... Thimbley, of co. Lincoln, Eſq by whom ſhe had no iſſue.
  • 2d Anne, d. Sir Wm. Wiſeman of Great Canfield-hall, in Eſſex, Bart. by his wife Arabella, ſiſt. and h. to Geo. Hewit, Viſc. Hewit, of Goran, in prov. Semſter in Ireland.—Ob. 4th March 1736, leaving iſſue an only daughter.
  • Frances, who died 13th Oct. 1719, in the 6th year of her age.
  • Elizab. m. Rich. Cotton, of Watergate, in co. Suſſex. Eſq
  • Frances,
  • Anne, both died unmar.
  • Julia mar. 1ſt, to ...... Germain, Eſq by whom ſhe had a daughter, Frances, (mar. 1ſt to Francis Moore, Eſq ſon and heir of Sir Hen. Moore; and 2dly, to John Shuckburgh, of Barton, in co. Warwick, Eſq) and by her 2d huſband, Sir Chriſt. Conyers, Knt. had alſo an only daugh. named Julia, mar. 1ſt to Sir Will. Blackett, of Newc. upon Tyne, Bart; 2dly, to Sir Will. Thompſon, one of the barons of the Exchequer.
  • Other ſons, who died young or unmarried.
  • Elizabeth mar. Sir Wm. Langley, of Higham Gobions, in co. Bedford, Bart.—Iſabel mar. Rich. Conyers, of Horden, in co. Durham, Knt.
  • John, Geo.
  • Roger, who left 3 daus. his cohs. viz. Agnes mar. John Lambton, Eſq— Iſabella, to Rich. Conyers, of Horden.—Marg. to Tho. Trollop, of Thornley, Eſq
  • Anne mar. Ralph Ld. Ogle, of Bothall.
  • Sibil, to Wm. Baron Hilton, of Hilton, in co. Durham.
  • Elizabeth, to ..... Creſwell, of Northumb. Eſq.
  • Roger Lumley,
  • ...... d. Sir Rich. Radcliffe, Knt. Garter, by whom he had a ſon.
  • Roger Lumley.
  • Ralph Lumley.
  • Joan m. Bertram Harbottle, of co. Northumb. Eſq
  • Margt. m. Bertram Lumley of Ravenſholm, in co. Durh.
  • Eliz. m. Will. Tilliot, Eſq
  • William de Lumley.
  • Marmaduke, he was chan. Camb. 7th Hen. VI. and on 15th April, following 1430, had temporalties of Biſhop of Carliſle delivered him, and next day conſecrated biſhop,—On 18th Dec. 25th Hen. VI. conſtituted treaſurer of England, was 20 years biſhop there, and after tranſlated to Lincoln, 1450, which he ſcarce enjoyed a year till he died.
  • Elizabeth. mar. Adam Tirwhitt of Kettleby, in co. Lincoln.
  • Margaret mar. Sir John Clarvaux, of Croft, in co. York, Knt.
  • Catharine mar. Sir John Chideock, by whom ſhe had two daughs. cohs.
  • Matilda m. Sir Hen. Thirkell.
  • Eleanor died unmarried.
  • Thomas.
  • William.
  • Iſabel married Sir Wm. Fulthorpe, Knt.
  • William de Lumley.
  • Thomas de Lumley.
  • Sir Rog. de Lumley, Knt. anceſtor to the Lumleys of Harleſton and Clipſton, in co. Northampton.
  • Marmaduke, who was father of John Fitz Marmaduke, Lord of Horden, in co. Durham, 29th Edw. I.
  • Matthew de Lumley.
  • Oſbert, whoſe d. and heir, Ormonda, was mar. to Robt. de Peſhall.
  • Adam, had by gift from Will. the Conq. Uldell and Gilcrouſe.— Dug. Monaſt. vol. I. p. 400.
  • Odo, had alſo by a gift from ſaid King Talentre and Caſtlerigge, with the foreſt between Galtre and Graecr.—Ibid.
Figure 3. LUMLEY CASTLE 〈◊〉
[Page 399] The chief improvement of this country is attributed to cardinal Langley, who diſforeſted the lands, and licenced their being incloſed and brought into tillage.

As this manor appertained to the biſhop, we muſt naturally conclude there were few free tenants therein: In the fifth year of biſhop Hatfield, Will. de Birtley died ſeiſed of a meſſuage and thirty acres of land here, held by homage, fealty, and fifteen ſhillings rent; and Ra. Clerk, in the ſeventh year of the ſame prelate, died ſeiſed of twenty-ſix acres of land, held by fealty and ten ſhillings rent, and ſixty acres of wood, by fealty and rendering two arrows; and they are the only free tenants we have met with noted in the ancient records.

Camden apprehended Cheſter was the Condercum of the Romans: Dr Stukeley, in his Iter-boreale, 1725, ſays, ‘The Hermen ſtreet is very plain, being a ſtraight line hither when we deſcend from Gateſhead fell: I think Bede mentions this ſtation, as called Conceſter, which retains part of the Roman name. Great coal works too hereabouts. The firſt wing of the Aſtures made this their garriſon, as the Notitia tells us, being ad lineam valli; for though it be not upon the wall, it is reaſonable to think his expreſſion is not to be ſtrictly taken; it was convenient that ſome of the forces that guarded the wall ſhould be quartered at ſome ſuitable diſtance, that they might have room of country for their maintenance.’ No inſcriptions or other Roman remains have been diſcovered here; and the name of Cheſter-on-the-Street derived from its ſituation on the Roman way, has hitherto been all that led the antiquaries to conceive it was of Roman origin. It is probable, as Dr Stukeley obſerves, ſome troops were ſtationed at a diſtance from the wall; perhaps they lined the great roads at intervals with ſmall detachments; and this is ſtill more probable, if we admit they knew any thing of pit coal for fuel. But we defer ſpeaking on that till we advance to the banks of Tyne.

For the ſake of connection,


is the next place of obſervation. This caſtle, one of the ſeats of lord Scarborough, ſtands on a fine elevated ſituation, ornamented with beautiful plantations; the lands riſe gradually from the channel of the river Were on the ſouth and weſt ſides; and on the north is the rivulet called Lumley beck: The eaſt front of the caſtle ſtands immediately on the brink of a very deep valley, full of wood, through which the brook winds towards the Were. The form of this edifice is ſquare, having a projecting tower at each angle, and a court or area in the center: The corners of each tower are guarded with [...]u [...]treſſes, crowned with a ſmall turret or obſervatory; what is ſingular in the turrets is, that they are octangular, ſo that they overhang the face of each ſquare of the baſe, and are machicolated or open for the purpoſe of annoying aſſailants by caſting down ſtones, &c. which gives the edifice a ſingular appearance: The caſtle is built of a yellow free-ſtone, which makes it look bright and beautiful at a diſtance. The chief entrance is at the weſt front, by a double ſlight of ſteps, and a platform, which fills the whole ſpace between the tower; the ſouth front is modern, and brought forward almoſt parallel with the tower, ſixty-five paces in length; the north front is obſcured [Page 400] by offices; and the eaſt front retains its ancient form: There is a gateway in the center of the eaſt front, which projects and is guarded by ſquare turrets at the angles, with obſervatories as before deſcribed; above the gate is a gallery formed in the arch, with apertures to annoy an enemy: Above this gate are ſix ſhields of arms boldly cut in ſtone, with their ſeveral creſts, cotemporary with the building, and which critically give us the date of it.

The arrangement of the arms is as follows: In the center, and elevated above the reſt, are the arms of France and England quarterly, being, as we preſume, the arms of king Richard II. as in that reign Sir Ralph Lumley obtained licence from biſhop Skirlaw, dated 1389, to caſtellate his houſe of Lumley; and the architecture of this front is a grand model of the taſte of that age: The act of Richard II. mentioned by Mr Pennant, had been intruſional or merely confirmatory*. In the center are the arms of Lumley, as adopted from the Thwengs, whoſe heireſs married into this family; on the dexter ſide the arms of Percy, the creſt a lion paſſant; on the ſiniſter ſide, Nevill, with the bull's head for the creſt; the loweſt arms on the dexter ſide are thoſe of Cowley, creſt a ram's head; on the ſiniſter ſide the arms of Hilton baron Hilton, and Moſes's head for the creſt. There are three ſtories of apartments in this front, with mullioned windows guarded with iron: Between the walls and the brink of the precipice, is juſt ſpace enough for a terrace, which in early times was guarded with a curtain wall: The dell is very deep, the banks are ſteep, and now filled with large foreſt trees: The uniformity of the eaſt front, the arrangement of the arms, and the whole appearance of the maſonry, teſtify that this was part of the original ſtructure, and a chief entrance; for ſhould we form our conjecture from the appearance of the center area, we ſhould conclude every front of the caſtle was ſimilar to this.

Many accounts and prints have been publiſhed of this beautiful place, which ſtrikes the eye of the traveller on the great northern road; the moſt excellent of the prints was by Hearne and Byrne: We will in the firſt place ſelect from the various publications ſuch matter as appears moſt worthy attention, and then proceed with our view. All that Camden ſays of it is, ‘that it is encloſed with a park.’ In Ruſſell and Owen's England Diſplayed, it is deſcribed to contain [Page 401] ‘a great number of ſpacious apartments, ſome antique and others modern: The paintings are valuable, many of them repreſenting the anceſtors of that noble family, for ſome centuries paſt, in the habits of the time. The park, beſides the pleaſantneſs of the ſituation, has another and ſtill more valuable circumſtance to recommend it, that of being full of veins of coal; this, together with a navigable river, by which the coals are carried down to Sunderland, render Lumley park an inexhauſtable mine of treaſure to the family.’ In one of the monthly magazines we are informed by a paper ſigned Edward Barras, ‘that the park is walled round with hewn ſtone, had formerly deer, but after it was reduced and the pales removed, they ſickened and died." And he adds, "there are ſeveral dates upon different parts of the caſtle; one was pointed out to me, on the inner ſide of one of the eaſtern turrets, where the letters I. L. 1550 appear, though almoſt defaced.’ Much repair has been given to the inner walls of the area; and on one of the eaſtern towers are two long ſtrings of eſcutcheons cut in ſtone, and placed in the building, nine in each row, with the arms of Lumley in the center at the bottom, and in two ſmall ſhields at the top, a fleurde-lis on the dexter ſide, and a roſe on the ſiniſter: In thoſe ſtrings the Lumley arms are impaled, with the ſeveral families wherewith they intermarried.

There is a tradition at Cheſter, that about a century ago, the remains of an old chapel ſtood about three hundred yards to the north-weſt of the caſtle, with ſeveral vaults and ſubterraneous paſſages: A hill called Chapel hill, is well known, but no one about the caſtle could give any information touching the buildings.

From the platform at the entrance into the hall you command a beautiful proſpect. At the foot of the avenue which leads up to the caſtle, is a fine baſon of water, with a ſalmon lock, and fiſhermen's cottage; over which, on the oppoſite riſing grounds, you view the town of Cheſter, the deanry houſe, and church, at a pleaſing diſtance: The more extended landſcape comprehends the great northern road, animated with paſſengers, the houſe of Flalts, (formerly belonging to the Allans *) the village of Pelton, and other ſtriking objects; and the back ſcene conſiſts of broken and irregular grounds, every where ſcattered over with cottages. A cultivated ſcene fills the view to the left: In a variety of ſituations you ſee the winding ſtreams of the Were: On the one hand the town of Great Lumley, on the other Walridge, and the hermitage, with many hamlets in the vale; whilſt the diſtant landſcape is terminated by Plawſworth, and the plantations above Newtonhall.

[Page 402] The hall is a proportionable room, twenty paces in lenth. Here is an arrangement of portraits at full length of the chief perſonages of the noble family of Lumley, together with a tablet, and in an oval, bordered with arms, the following inſcription *.

LIVLPHVS Nobilis Generoſuſ que Miniſter Ex Angloſaxonu' Genere Vir clariſſimus qui late per Angliam Poſſeſſiones multas Haereditario jure poſſidebat cum te'pore Regis Guilielmi primi Co'quiſitoris Angliae Norma'ni ubi que ſaeviret, et Quia Cuthbertu' Dunolmenſem Antiſtitem inter Divos Relatum, multum dilexerat, cum ſuis ad Dunolmum ſe co'tulit, Et ibidem Walchero Epiſcopo adeo devenit charus et acceptabilis, Ut abſ que illius conſilio nihil conſulte fieri videretur: Multorum dehinc Odium ſibi conflavit, donec a Gilberto quodam aliiſ que ſceleratis dicti Epiſcopi Miniſtris crudeliter tandem occideretur in cujus necis Vindictam Northumbr. Walcherum Preſulem innocentem apud Gateshed trucidarunt anno MLXXX. Ex Aldgitha co'juge Northumbroru' Comitis Aldredi filia Liulphus filium ſuſcepit Uctredum, Patrem Gulielmi de Lumley ejus nominis primi, a cujus loci Dominio ſui poſteri cognomina ſunt ſortiti, Gulielmum iſtum Uctredi filium Dunolmenſis Epiſcopus Hugo eiſdem erui immunitatibus volvit, Quibus caeteri ſui Barones in Epiſcopatu gaudebunt, et ſecundi Henrici Regis cartam inde obtinuit: Tanti beneficii non immemor Gulielmus, villam ſuam de Dictona in Alvertonſchira eodem Epiſcopo et Succeſſoribus ſuis liberaliter contulit. A primo Gulielmo Oritur ſecundus, a ſecundo tertius qui ex filia Gualteri Daudre Equitis Rogerum filium procreavit, maritum Sibellae cohaeredis inclyti Baronis Hugonis de Morwyco Inde natus Robertus, qui ex Lucia Sorore et Haerede Thomae Baronis de Thwenge, Marmaducum filium genuit, Paternorum armorum deſertorem primum, ſibi ſuiſ que retentis maternae ſtemmatis inſignibus. Procreatis ex Margreta Holand conjuge ſua, Radulphum Equitem ſtrennum, Quem Rex Richardus ſecundus anno regiminis octavo ad Baronis Regni dignitatem evexerat: Ducta que Aleonora primi Comitis Weſtmariae ſorore Johannem tulit Qui ex Felicia Uxore, Thomam ſuſcepit, cui Margarete conjunx filia Jacobi Harington Equitis, Georgium Enixa eſt, Maritum Elizabethae haeredis Rogeri Thornton Armiger, inde Pater efficitur illius Thomae. Qui ex magni Regis Edovardi quarti filia naturali, Richardum ſuſceperat. Is annam ducens ſororem Gulielmi Baronis Coigners, Johannem reliquit haeredem, ſponſum Joannae filiae Henrici Le Scroope de Bolton Baronis eximii, avum Johannis ultimi Baronis de Lumley hoc Conditorio in certam ſpem ſuturae reſurrectionis repoſiti: Quem illi Georgius filius, ex Jana Cohaerede Richardi Knightley Equitis, unicum reliquerat Nepote mac haeredem: Bino conjugio ſaelix ultimus hic Johannes ſuit, Janae ſcilicet Arundeliae Comitis Henrici filiae aetate maximae et cohaerede: Necnon et Elizabethae filiae Johannis Baronis Darey, Foeminae non Solum Proſapia et antiquo ſtemmate Nobiles Sed quod magis laudandum, virtutibus Pudicitia, verecundia, et amore conjugali Nobiliſſimae. Ex illarum prima nati ſilii duo, Carolus et Thomas, filia que unica Maria, haud din ſuperſtites Sed in ipſa infantia meſtiſſimis ſatis ſublati.

[Page 403] The pictures are placed in the following order. 1. Liulphus. 2. Uchtred. 3. Gulielmus, who married Heſleden. 4. Sir William de Lumley. 5. William de Lumley, who married Daudre. 6. Sir Robert de Lumley, who married Lucy Thwenge. 7. Sir Marmaduke Lumley, who married Margaret Holland. 8. Sir Ralph de Lumley, the firſt baron in his parliament robes. 9. Sir John de Lumley, who married Felicia Redman. 10. King Richard II. ſitting in a chair of ſtate, lord Lumley in his robes kneeling, above the figure R. R. II. An' D'no 1385, Ao Reg. 8. 11. Sir Thomas Lumley, who married Margaret, daughter of Sir James Harrington: He received knighthood as a reward for his military proweſs, and was employed by government in ſeveral momentous negociations: In the twenty-eighth, twenty-ninth, and thirty-firſt years of king Henry VI. was guarrantee for the king of England in the Scotch treaties: In the thirty-third year of that reign was made governor of Scarborough caſtle for life; a moſt diſtinguiſhed truſt: Was entruſted in many other appointments of government. It appears he was equally a favourite with king Edward IV. for in the firſt year of that reign he obtained a reverſal of his grandfather's attainder; had ſummons to parliament for the remainder of his life, and was employed in various confidential matters by his ſovereign, particularly in the negociations with king James of Scotland, touching his marriage. 12. George lord Lumley, who married Elizabeth Thornton. 13. Sir Thomas Lumley, who married Elizabeth, natural daughter of king Edward IV. 14. John de Lumley, who married Joan, daughter of Henry lord Scrope. 15. Richard de Lumley, who married Ann, daughter of Sir John Conyers. 16. George Lumley, who married Jane, daughter of Sir Richard Knightley. 17. Elizabeth, daughter of John lord Darcy of Chiche, and ſecond wife of Sir John Lumley, who was reſtored in blood the firſt of king Edward VI. and had the ancient barony revived.

The great dining-room is in the ſouth-weſt tower, elegantly ſtuccoed, with a vaulted roof; on one ſide it commands a view of the adjacent meadows, the ſloping banks of the river Were, highly cultivated; with a fine canal, formed by a curvature of the ſtream: at the end windows, a proſpect down the avenue, with Cheſter and the chief objects deſcribed from the platform.

The little dining-room has ſeveral fine portraits. John lord Lumley, 1563, a three quarter piece; a pleaſing picture: There are other two portraits of this perſonage in the muſic-room, one dated 1588, the other 1591. This John was the ſon and heir of George Lumley, who ſuffered death as before mentioned, and grandſon and heir of John lord Lumley. In the ſixth year of king Edward VI. he was reſtored in blood, and that he and the heirs male of his body ſhould hold and bear the name, dignity, ſtate, and pre-eminence of a baron of this realm, &c. On the 29th of September, 1553, he was made one of the knights of the bath, and attended with his lady at the coronation of queen Mary, he among the barons, and ſhe one of the ſix ladies who ſat in the chariot of ſtate, dreſſed in crimſon velvet, &c. He was one of the two lords who introduced the firſt Ruſſian ambaſſador to audience: Was in employ in the firſt years of queen Elizabeth, but being ſuſpected of intrigue in the affairs of the queen of Scots, was taken into cuſtody with his father-in-law, the carl of Arundel, in the twelfth year of that reign, and was a great favourite with [Page 404] the earl, as appears by his will. He afterwards came into great confidence with the queen, and was one of the lords commiſſioned to ſit in trial of the unhappy victim of Elizabeth's jealouſies, and with a firmneſs ſome hiſtorians have ſpoken of with expreſſions of ſurprize, delivered his opinion that the ſentence was juſtly pronounced againſt the queen of Scots. In the forty-fourth year of the queen he was one of the peers who ſat on the trial of Robert D'Evereux, earl of Eſſex. On the acceſſion of king James he experienced many teſtimonies of royal confidence: Camden made moſt honourable mention of him: ‘He was a perſon of entire virtue, integrity, and innocence; and in his old age a complete pattern of true nobility. He had ſo great a veneration for the memory of his anceſtors, that he cauſed monuments to be erected for them in the collegiate church of Cheſter in the Street, in order as they ſucceeded one another, from Liulphus down to his own time, which he had either picked out of the demoliſhed monaſteries or made new.’ By his will he deviſed his eſtates, particularly the caſtle and manor of Lumley, to Richard Lumley, eldeſt ſon and heir apparent of Roger Lumley, eſq ſon of Anthony, brother to John lord Lumley his grandfather. He married Jane, the eldeſt of the two daughters of Henry Fitz-Allan, earl of Arundel, and by her had three children, who died in infancy; and to his ſecond wife married Elizabeth, daughter of John lord Darcy of Chiche, who ſurvived him, and by whom he had no iſſue: He died on the 11th of April, 1609, and was buried in the church at Cheam. The ancient barony of Lumley expired at his death.

The portrait of Garcia Sarmienta Cuna is next; a full length, in armour, a ruff, red ſtockings, white ſhoes, a white croſs on his breaſt, a ſpear in his hand. Out of a window a view of the ſea. He was captain of the guard to Philip II*.

Ferdinand duke of Mar, 1557, in rich armour.

A full length of the duke of Monmouth, with a ſweet countenance and long hair.

Jane Fitz-Alan, the firſt wife of John lord Lumley, in black robes, a ſmall ruff, with gloves in her hand: This is a beautiful portrait; her dreſs is gracefully ornamented with ſtrings of jewels. She was a lady of uncommon learning, having tranſlated from the Greek into Latin ſome of the orations of Iſocrates, and the Iphigenia of Euripides into Engliſh. She compliments her father highly in a dedication to him, prefixed to one of the orations, which begins Cicero, Pater honoratiſſime, illuſtris, &c. She died before her father, as appears by his will .

In the muſic-room: Thomas Ratcliff, carl of Suſſex: A full length, in white armour, and gold brocade breeches, young and handſome, a ſtaff in his right hand, his left re [...]ing on a ſword: His helmet with an enormous plume placed on a table: This motto amando & ſidendo traopo, ſon ruinato. This nobleman was a figuring character in the reigns of Mary and Elizabeth, frequently employed in embaſſies, in both reigns deputy of Ireland, and in the firſt an active perſecutor of the Proteſtants: He conformed outwardly to the religion of his new miſtreſs, was appointed by her preſident of the north, and commanded againſt and ſuppreſſed the rebellion of the earls of Northumberland and Weſtmoreland, notwithſtanding [Page 405] he ſecretly approved the opinions they armed in favour of. He was the ſpirited rival of Leiceſter; but the death of Suſſex left the event of their diſpute undetermined*.

A fine portrait in a purple robe, inſcribed Duke of Suffolk, 1593. Who this picture repreſents is uncertain,—the laſt duke, Henry Grey, was beheaded 1553.

Viglius, preſident of the council in the low countries, 1560. A three quarter piece, in a black gown furred in front, a black cap, ſitting in a chair: A fine old face.

A fine portrait of one of the Lumleys; but what perſonage is not known.

A three quarter length of a man in a ſcarlet robe, over the left ſhoulder a white mantle, a ſcarlet cap tied in the middle, and open behind, a narrow white ruff, and a collar of the fleece; the ſcarlet robe is furred with white, on which are ſeveral times repeated the words Ah! amprins au ra jay! Oh, had I undertaken it!"

Over the chimney, the duke of Buckingham.

A half length of Robert earl of Saliſbury, miniſter in the laſt years of queen Elizabeth, and firſt of king James I. dreſſed in black, a bell on the table, and a letter directed to him by all his titles, round the neck a green ribband, with the George: Above his head Sero ſed ſerio.

Sir William Peter, or Petre, a native of Devonſhire, fellow of All-Souls College, and afterwards ſecretary of ſtate to four ſovereigns, Henry VIII. Edward VI. Mary, and Elizabeth. His prudence in maintaining his poſt in reigns of ſuch different tempers is evident; but in that of Mary he attended only to politics, of Elizabeth to religion .

Queen Mary and queen Elizabeth; of a ſevere countenance.

Dudley earl of Leiceſter, in a three quarter piece, dated 1587, with the collar of the garter, and ſtaff in his right hand.

Andrew Doria, a three quarter length, the great Genoeſe admiral and patriot. He is dreſſed in black, in a cap, a long beard, a collar with the fleece pendant, a truncheon in his hand, and a dagger in his girdle: View of ſhips through a window.

John lord Lumley, 1588, aet. 54. A full length, in rich armour. Another in his robes, with a glove and handkerchief in one hand, a little black ſcull-cap and white beard, dated 1591. The latter portrait, Mr Pennant ſays, he believes was the performance of Richard Stevens, an able ſtatuary, painter, and medaliſt, mentioned by Mr Walpole : He further adds, ‘This illuſtrious nobleman reſtored the monuments that are in the neighbouring church, was a patron of learning and great collector of books, aſſiſted by his brother in law Humphrey Lhuyd, the famous antiquary. The books were afterwards purchaſed by king James I. and proved the foundation of the royal library. Mr Granger ſays, they are a very valuable part of the Britiſh Muſeum.’

[Page 406] The drawing-room, elegantly furniſhed with crimſon damaſk. A picture of king Charles II. on horſeback.

In a dreſſing-room, over the fire place, Zebedeus Jacobus Major, Salome, Chriſto coevus.

A group of four, a fine picture, ſuppoſed by Holbein.

In the lodging-rooms, &c. &c. John lord Ruſſel; a fine portrait.

A portrait of a lady, in a ſingular dreſs of black and gold, with a red and gold petticoat, dated 1560. Mr Pennant's account of this picture is, ‘This is called Elizabeth, third wife of Edward earl of Lincoln, the fair Geraldine, celebrated ſo highly by the earl of Surry; but ſo ill favoured in this picture, that I muſt give it to his firſt wife Elizabeth Blount: Geraldine was the young wife of his old age. Her portrait at Woburn repreſents her an object worthy the pen of the amorous Surry.’

Sir John Petre; a very fine portrait.

Ambroſe earl of Warwick, ſon of the great Dudley duke of Northumberland: His dreſs a bonnet, furred cloak, ſmall ruff, and pendant George. This peer followed the fortunes of his father, but was received to mercy, and reſtored in blood; was created earl of Warwick by queen Elizabeth, and proved a gallant and faithful ſubject: He died in 1589, and lies under an elegant braſs tomb in the chapel at Warwick.

The earl of Surry; whom Mr Pennant ſtiles, ‘the gallant, accompliſhed, poetical earl of Surry; in black, with a ſword and dagger, the date 1545. The ornament, ſays Mr Walpole, of a boiſtrous, yet not unpoliſhed court; a victim to a jealous tyrant and to family diſcord. The articles alledged againſt him, and his conviction, are the ſhame of the times.’

King Edward VI. a full length.

Ralph Lumley, 1567; a ſmall full length portrait.

Sir Thomas More, a half length, dreſſed in that plainneſs of apparel which he uſed, when the dignity of office was laid aſide; in a furred robe, with a coarſe capuchin cap. He was the moſt virtuous and the greateſt character of his time; and by a circumſtance that might humiliate human nature, fell a victim for a religious adherence to his own opinion, after being a violent perſecutor of others for firmneſs to the dictates of their own conſcience: To ſuch inconſiſtencies are the beſt of mankind liable *.

William Cecil, lord high treaſurer of England, a half length, in black, collar of the garter.

A good half length of Mr Thomas Wyndham, drowned on the coaſt of Guinea, aged 42, M. D. L. a robuſt figure in green, with a red ſaſh, and a gun in his hand.

The earl of Eſſex in a full length, dreſſed in black, covered with white embroidery. Mr Pennant, ſpeaking of this picture, ſays, ‘the brave, impetuous, preſuming Robert earl of Eſſex: A romantic nobleman, of parts without diſcretion, [Page 407] who fell a ſacrifice to his own paſſions, and a vain dependance for ſafety on thoſe of an aged queen, doting with unreaſonable love, and a criminal credulity in the inſinuation of his foes.’

In a low room, Sir Nich. Carew, maſter of the horſe to king Henry VIII. There is great ſpirit in his countenance; a white feather in his hat, his head bound round with a gold ſtuff handkerchief. He was beheaded in 1539, as lord Herbert ſays *, for being of council with the marquis of Exeter, a favourer of the dreaded cardinal Pole, then in exile. During the time of his confinement in the Tower he imbibed the ſentiments of the reformers, and died avowing their faith .

The laſt earl of Arundel, a three quarter piece: His valour diſtinguiſhed him in the reign of king Henry VIII. when he ran with his ſquadron cloſe under the walls of Bulogne, and ſoon reduced it. In the following reign he oppoſed the miſuſed powers of the unhappy protector, Somerſet, and yet declined connection with the great Northumberland. He ſupported the juſt rights of queen Mary; was impriſoned by the former, but on the Revolution was employed to arreſt the abject fallen duke: He was cloſely attached to his royal miſtreſs by principles of religion: In his declining years he aimed at being huſband to queen Elizabeth. Had her majeſty deigned to put herſelf under the power of man, ſhe never would have given the preference to age. On his diſappointment he went abroad, and on his return firſt introduced into England the uſe of coaches .

The firſt earl of Bedford, engraved among the illuſtrious heads.

Killigrew, gentleman of the bedchamber to king Charles II. in a red faſh, with his dog: A man of wit and humour, and on that account a great favourite with the king.

A three quarter length, unknown, dated 1596, aged 43, dreſſed in a ſtriped jacket blue and white, black cloak and breeches, white ruff, gloves on, collar of the garter, and a high crowned hat.

Paracelſus, thus deſcribed by Mr Pennant, ‘A half length of the famous eccentric phyſician and chymiſt of the fifteenth century, Philip Theophraſtus Paracelſus Bombaſt de Hohenheim; on the picture is added alſo the title Aureolus. The cures he wrought were ſo very ſurpriſing in that age, that he was ſuppoſed to have recourſe to ſupernatural aid; and probably, to give greater authority to his practice, he might inſinuate that he joined the arts medical and magical. He is repreſented as a very handſome man, bald, in a cloſe black gown, with both hands on a great ſword, on whoſe hilt is inſcribed the word Azot. This was the name of his familiar ſpirit, that he kept impriſoned in the pummel, to conſult on emergent occaſions. Butler humourouſly deſcribes this circumſtance:’

"Bombaſtus kept a devil's bird
"Shut in the pummel of his ſword,
"That taught him all the cunning pranks
"Of paſt or future mountebanks ."

[Page 408] A head of Sir Anthony Brown, a favourite of king Henry VIII. with a buſhy beard, bonnet, and order of the garter. He was maſter of the horſe to that prince, and appointed one of the executors of his will; and of the council to his young ſucceſſor *.

A half length inſcribed Fernandes de Toledo duke of Alva, in rich armour, with his baton, ſhort black hair and beard: A great officer, and fortunate till his reign of cruelty. He boaſted, that he had cauſed, during his command in the Low Countries, eighteen thouſand people to periſh by the executioner. He viſited England in the train of his congenial maſter Philip II. Mr Pennant ſpeaking of this picture ſays, he imagines this portrait was painted when the duke was young, for he had ſeen one ſent into England by the late Mr Benjamin Keen, then in the poſſeſſion of the biſhop of Ely, which repreſented him with a vaſt flowing white beard .

Doctor Stukeley, in his Iter Boreale, in 1725, before mentioned, ſays, ‘At Lumley caſtle is a curious old picture of Chaucer, ſaid to be an original.’ We could not find any ſuch portrait, neither is it mentioned by Mr Pennant.

There is a wooden equeſtrian ſtatue of Liulphus in the houſe, with his battle-ax in his hand. Mr Pennant tells the following ſtory: ‘When king James I. in one of his progreſſes was entertained in this caſtle, William James, biſhop of Durham, a relation of the houſe, in order to give his majeſty an idea of the importance of the family, wearied him with a long detail of their anceſtry, to a period even beyond belief, O mon, ſays the king, gang na farther, let me digeſt the knawledge I ha gained; for, by my ſaul, I did na ken Adam's name was Lumley .’

The foot walk to Lumley caſtle from Cheſter, leads through fine meadows, and by the fiſh lock: They take about ſix hundred ſalmon here in a ſeaſon.

We muſt not depart from this beautiful place, without remarking, that on failure of iſſue in John lord Lumley, Dr Lloyd was competitor with Richard earl of Scarborough, for the barony, which was determined in 1723, in favour of the earl.

GREAT LUMLEY has nothing remarkable but the ruins of an old hall. There was a partition of the Lumley eſtates in the time of king Henry III. to three coheireſſes, which might occaſion the following circumſtances: In the firſt year of biſhop Booth, Margaret, the wife of Chriſtopher Moreſby, died ſeiſed of a moiety of the waſted manors of Eaſt Hall and Weſt Hall, in Great Lumley, conſiſting of 100 acr. of tillage land, 30 acr. of wood, and 30 acr. of moor, with a moiety of a fiſhery in the river Were, held of the biſhop in capite, by half a knight's fee, leaving Ch. Moreſby her ſon and heir, an infant; and we hear no more of that family there from that period, ſo that it is probable his moiety reverted to the Lumleys. [Page 409] Thomas Lumley's daughter Elizabeth, married William Tyllyoll; and in the fourth year of biſhop Dudley, by an inquiſition taken on the death of the ſame William Tyllyoll de Lumley Magna, arm. it appears he died ſeiſed of a moiety of Great Lumley, leaving Phillis, the wife of William Muſgrave, and Margaret Tyllyoll, his daughters by his wife Elizabeth, coheireſſes.

As in our itinerary we paſs through the chapelries of Tanfield and Lameſley diſtinctly, and apart from the mother church, we will firſt notice thoſe places mentioned in the book of rates, as lying within the ſeparate diſtrict of Cheſter *: The firſt of which,

1.9.2. HARRATON,

is ſituate about a mile below Cheſter, a ſeat of John Lambton, eſq on the banks of the river Were, whoſe border abounds in romantic ſcenery . This was anciently the ſeat and eſtate of the D'Arcys, who conveyed to the Hedworths, and they remained poſſeſſors till the year 1688, when John Hedworth, eſq the laſt heir male of that family died, and left two daughters Dorothy and Elizabeth his coheireſſes: Dorothy, the elder, married Ralph Lambton, eſq a younger ſon of the Lambton family of Lambton hall, and Elizabeth married Sir William Williamſon, of Monkwearmouth, baronet. In 1714, William Lambton, eſq purchaſed lady Williamſon's moiety. In the ſame year a family ſettlement was made by Ralph Lambton and his wife, with divers limitations and remainders, by virtue of which the eſtate has hitherto paſſed in the family.

1.9.3. URPETH,

by the Boldon Book, appears to have had dringage tenure, wherein, among other duties, we find that of feeding dog and horſe, and finding fifteen cords, and two greyhounds for the great chace, carrying a tun of wine, the millſtones for Durham mill, attending the court, going on embaſſies, and making repairs at Cheſter mill . [Page 410] The firſt perſon noted in the records as poſſeſſing this manor, is Thomas de Urpeth, who held the ſame of the lord biſhop in capite, except five lands of huſbandry, and an aſſart there called the Rydding, which Alexander de Kibbleſworth, who married his daughter Idoma, then had; Thomas doing homage and fealty, and rendering ſixty ſhillings yearly at the biſhop's exchequer, plowing and harrowing eight acres of the lord's land at Cheſter, having proviſions found by the biſhop during ſuch work, preparing three balks of land for ſeed corn in Autumn, with twenty-four men each, and one with twelve, the biſhop providing them, for every three men, a loaf of bread, of the aſſize of eight to the buſhel, a flaggon of beer, and a portion of cheeſe of half a ſtone weight; beſides the dringage ſervice as ſtipulated in the Boldon Book*. In biſhop Hatfield's Survey it appears, that Thomas Grey of Heton, then held the manor, and he died ſeiſed thereof in the twenty-fifth year of that prelate: It was part of the forfeiture on the attainder of Thomas Grey, and in the eighteenth year of the epiſcopacy of biſhop Nevill, he granted the ſame to Ralph Grey his nephew. In the ſeventeenth year of biſhop Booth, John Park died ſeiſed of this manor, together with the Rydding. By this inquiſition it appears, that the manor was held per forinſecum ſerv. paying alſo twenty ſhillings rent by the hands of the coroner of Cheſter ward, carrying a tun of wine, and doing ſuit at the county. We find John Hedworth, eſq in the time of biſhop Sever, obtained licence to alien his lands in Urpeth .

The firſt owners we find of PELTON were John de Hadham, and Hugh Burdon, which latter, in the time of biſhop Beaumont, held a moiety of the vill of Pelton, of the before mentioned Hugh, by homage and the ſixth part of a knight's fee: It afterwards was the eſtate of the Redhoughs, and was aliened to Robert Whelpington, and became at length the eſtate of Ralph earl of Weſtmoreland, of which he died ſeiſed in the twentieth year of biſhop Langley, and was part of the eſtates forfeited on the attainder. William Chancellor had ſome lands here, as appears by a pardon for purchaſing without licence, dated 15 July, 1529.

[Page 411] The manor of BIRTLEY, in the ſeventeenth year of biſhop Hatfield, was held of the biſhop by Will. de Birtley, who alſo held the manor of Tribley at twenty ſhillings rent, and attending the great chace with two greyhounds*. The Birtleys held a moiety of the manor of Birtley for ſeveral generations. It became the eſtate of the Nevills, who held the vill for ſome time jointly with Gilbert Elgyne, who married Elizabeth, one of the heireſſes of William de Birtley, and was part of the forfeitures on the attainder: Tribley manor became the eſtate of the Lambtons, in the time of biſhop Langley .

EDMUNDSLEY gave name to a reſident family, and in the ſixteenth year of biſhop Hatfield, William de Edmanſley died ſeiſed of the vill, which he held in capite [Page 412] by homage, fealty, and ten ſhillings rent at the biſhop's exchequer: By the ſame biſhop's ſurvey, it appears that John Killinghall held the manor. In the thirty-fifth year of the ſame prelate, we find Rob. de Umframvill, eſq died ſeiſed of this manor, rendering d [...]ar. orar. * for the ſame; alſo forty acres of land there, called the Marle-park, of nineteen ſhillings and three pence rent. In the firſt year of biſhop Skirlaw, on an inquiſition taken on the death of John de Nevill, it was returned that he died ſeiſed of this manor, and Ralph earl of Weſtmoreland aliened the ſame to John Hoton, ſome time before the ſixth year of biſhop Langley, the manor being then eſtimated at one hundred ſhillings yearly value.

WALRIDGE was the poſſeſſion of the Lumleys in diſtant antiquity. We find a pardon granted for aliening this place without licence, together with divers other eſtates, by Sir John Lumley, lord Lumley, and Catharine his wife, by fine to George Smith and Thomas Kimraſton, dated the 1ſt of Auguſt, 1607 .


Various proprietors held lands in Plawſworth from diſtant time: In the eleventh year of biſhop Bury, Richard de Kelawe was one, and he alſo had twenty-pence rent out of the land of Alan de Plawſworth: The poſſeſſions of this family came to the Forcers of Harberhouſe, by marriage of Johan, the heireſs general of the Kelawes, of which John had livery in the firſt year of biſhop Sever . In the fifth year of biſhop Hatfield, William the ſon of Alan before named, and John his brother, a baſtard, died ſeiſed of lands here without heirs, valued at one mark above repriſals . In the eighth year of the ſame prelate, John de Wylughby, chiv. died ſeiſed of lands here held by fealty, and two ſhillings and four-pence rent. In the ſurvey it is ſet forth, that Thomas de Boynton, in right of his wife and others, held the vill of Plawſworth, rendering twenty ſhillings rent, which, by the Boldon Book it appears, Simon Vitulus paid for the ſame. One John de Elvet held lands here in the ſecond year of biſhop Fordham §, rendering five ſhillings and four-pence rent, [Page 413] and four hens at the office of the maſter of the foreſts at the feaſt of St Martin. The families of Hotons and Claxtons had property here. By an inquiſition taken on the death of Margaret, the wife of the above-named Thomas Boynton, in the third year of biſhop Langley, it appears that ſhe had an eſtate in Plawſworth by the feoffment of John, ſon of Robert Conyers of Ornyſby, knight, for her life, with certain limitations in favour of Robert Conyers and Alice his wife, who were then dead, w